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Special Issue "Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Storage and Application".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Zhao Xu

Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power system; smart grid; wind energy; solar energy
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Junhua Zhao

School of Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power system analysis and computation; smart grid; electricity market; machine learning and artificial intelligence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solar energy is regarded as one of the key solutions to combat climate change and meet ever-increasing energy needs. To further develop and integrate solar energies into major energy infrastructures, e.g., electric power grids, new and advanced methods and technologies that can better facilitate harvesting, storage and utilization of solar energies are therefore highly needed. This Special Issue aims to report the latest advances and future trends of key techniques and frameworks enabling optimal harvesting, storage and utilization of solar energy systems considering technical constraints and many uncertainties involved. The scope of interests includes but is not limited to the following topics:

  • Novel technologies and methods that can contribute to the enhanced efficiency and controllability of solar energy systems under standard and/or varying working conditions;
  • Novel control strategies for solar photovoltaic systems to achieve maximal energy harvest, and/or smoothed power output with/without integration with battery storage and/or other technologies;
  • Novel operation and control methodologies for solar photovoltaic and other renewable systems to achieve economic dispatch of microgrids/distribution grids considering coordination between generations, demands and battery storages;
  • Intelligent and data driven paradigms for optimal energy harvest of solar and wind farms considering various uncertainties and constraints etc;
  • Optimal planning and control of distribution grids leveraging controllability and flexibility of solar and other renewables and electric vehicles.

Please note that papers discussing emerging technologies and methods enabling optimal harvesting, storage and utilization of solar energy systems considering uncertainties and technical constraints are particularly welcome. All contributions must be explicitly focused on new methods and techniques applied to solar and other renewables systems in the context of smart grid development.

Prof. Dr. Zhao Xu
Prof. Dr. Junhua Zhao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • solar energy
  • energy harvest
  • energy storage
  • photovoltaic technology
  • smart grid

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Phase Change Materials for Low-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Applications
Energies 2019, 12(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010075
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low thermal conductivity is the main drawback of phase change materials (PCMs) that is yet to be fully addressed. This paper studies several efficient, cost-effective, and easy-to-use experimental techniques to enhance thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material used for low-temperature thermal [...] Read more.
Low thermal conductivity is the main drawback of phase change materials (PCMs) that is yet to be fully addressed. This paper studies several efficient, cost-effective, and easy-to-use experimental techniques to enhance thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material used for low-temperature thermal energy storage applications. In such applications, the challenges associated with low thermal conductivity of such organic PCMs are even more pronounced. In this investigation, polyethylene glycol (PEG-1000) is used as PCM. To improve the thermal conductivity of the selected PCM, three techniques including addition of carbon powder, and application of aluminum and graphite fins, are utilized. For measurement of thermal conductivity, two experimental methods—including flat and cylindrical configurations—are devised and increments in thermal conductivity are calculated. Melting and solidification processes are analyzed to evaluate melting and solidification zones, and temperature ranges for melting and solidification processes respectively. Furthermore, latent heat of melting is computed under constant values of heat load. Ultimately, specific heat of the PCM in solid state is measured by calorimetry method considering water and methanol as calorimeter fluids. Based on the results, the fin stack can enhance the effective thermal conductivity by more than 40 times with aluminum fins and 33 times with carbon fins. For pure PCM sample, Initiation of melting takes place around 37 °C and continues to above 40 °C depending on input heat load; and solidification temperature range was found to be 33.6–34.9 °C. The investigation will provide a twofold pathway, one to enhance thermal conductivity of PCMs, and secondly ‘relatively easy to set-up’ methods to measure properties of pure and enhanced PCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Harvesting Solar Energy and Anti-Icing Road Surfaces Using a Hydronic Heating Pavement and Borehole Thermal Energy Storage
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123443
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
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Abstract
Hydronic Heating Pavement (HHP) is an environmentally friendly method for anti-icing the roads. The HHP system harvests solar energy during summer, stores it in a Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and releases the stored energy for anti-icing the road surface during winter. The [...] Read more.
Hydronic Heating Pavement (HHP) is an environmentally friendly method for anti-icing the roads. The HHP system harvests solar energy during summer, stores it in a Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and releases the stored energy for anti-icing the road surface during winter. The aims of this study are to investigate: (i) the feasibility of HHP system with low fluid temperature for harvesting solar energy and anti-icing the road surface; and (ii) the long-term operation of the STES. In this study, a Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES) is considered to be the STES. The HHP system and the BTES are decoupled from each other and their performances are investigated separately. A hybrid 3D numerical simulation model is developed to analyze the operation of the HHP system. Moreover, a 3D numerical simulation model is made to calculate the temperature evolution at the borehole walls of the BTES. The climate data are obtained from Östersund, a city in the middle of Sweden with long and cold winter periods. Considering the HHP system with the inlet fluid temperature of 4 °C, the road area of 50 m × 3.5 m as well as the BTES with 20 boreholes and 200 m depth, the result showed that the harvested solar energy during summer is 352.1   kWh / ( m 2 · year ) , the required energy for anti-icing the road surface is 81.2   kWh / ( m 2 · year ) and the average temperature variation at the borehole walls after 50 years is +0.5 °C. Installing the HHP system in the road leads to a 1725 h shorter remaining number of hours of slippery condition on the road surface during winter and a 5.1 °C lower temperature on the road surface during summer, compared to a road without the HHP system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Management System for the Photovoltaic Battery Integrated Module
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3371; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123371
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 25 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the complementary nature of photovoltaic (PV) generation and energy storage, the combination of a solar panel and a battery pack in one single device is proposed. To realize this concept, the PV Battery-Integrated Module (PBIM), it is fundamental to analyze [...] Read more.
Given the complementary nature of photovoltaic (PV) generation and energy storage, the combination of a solar panel and a battery pack in one single device is proposed. To realize this concept, the PV Battery-Integrated Module (PBIM), it is fundamental to analyze the system architecture and energy management. This paper focuses on selecting a suitable architecture among the different options, while also indicating the control strategy that the converters must follow to ensure appropriate performance. Also, several modes of operation for the complete system are introduced to implement energy management. For the selected DC architecture, two case studies, viz. off-grid and peak-shaving for a grid-tied system, were employed to characterize the response of the model demonstrating its utility to perform maximum power-point tracking, excess solar power curtailment, and battery charging and discharging. The proposed control and system architecture prove to be feasible for a PV battery-integrated device such as PBIM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation and Comparison of Mathematical Models of PV Cells with Growing Levels of Complexity
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112902
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The amount of energy generated from a photovoltaic installation depends mainly on two factors—the temperature and solar irradiance. Numerous maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques have been developed for photovoltaic systems. The challenge is what method to employ in order to obtain optimum [...] Read more.
The amount of energy generated from a photovoltaic installation depends mainly on two factors—the temperature and solar irradiance. Numerous maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques have been developed for photovoltaic systems. The challenge is what method to employ in order to obtain optimum operating points (voltage and current) automatically at the maximum photovoltaic output power in most conditions. This paper is focused on the structural analysis of mathematical models of PV cells with growing levels of complexity. The main objective is to simulate and compare the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) curves of equivalent circuits of the ideal PV cell model and, with one and with two diodes, that is, equivalent circuits with five and seven parameters. The contribution of each parameter is analyzed in the particular context of a given model and then generalized through comparison to a more complex model. In this study the numerical simulation of the models is used intensively and extensively. The approach utilized to model the equivalent circuits permits an adequate simulation of the photovoltaic array systems by considering the compromise between the complexity and accuracy. By utilizing the Newton–Raphson method the studied models are then employed through the use of Matlab/Simulink. Finally, this study concludes with an analysis and comparison of the evolution of maximum power observed in the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen as a Long-Term Large-Scale Energy Storage Solution to Support Renewables
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102825
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a case study of using hydrogen for large-scale long-term storage application to support the current electricity generation mix of South Australia state in Australia, which primarily includes gas, wind and solar. For this purpose two cases of battery energy storage [...] Read more.
This paper presents a case study of using hydrogen for large-scale long-term storage application to support the current electricity generation mix of South Australia state in Australia, which primarily includes gas, wind and solar. For this purpose two cases of battery energy storage and hybrid battery-hydrogen storage systems to support solar and wind energy inputs were compared from a techno-economical point of view. Hybrid battery-hydrogen storage system was found to be more cost competitive with unit cost of electricity at $0.626/kWh (US dollar) compared to battery-only energy storage systems with a $2.68/kWh unit cost of electricity. This research also found that the excess stored hydrogen can be further utilised to generate extra electricity. Further utilisation of generated electricity can be incorporated to meet the load demand by either decreasing the base load supply from gas in the present scenario or exporting it to neighbouring states to enhance economic viability of the system. The use of excess stored hydrogen to generate extra electricity further reduced the cost to $0.494/kWh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Baffles with Various Thermal and Geometrical Conditions on Thermo-Fluid Dynamics and Kinetic Power of a Solar Updraft Tower
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092230
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Solar updraft towers (SUTs) are used for renewable power generation, taking advantage of the thermal updraft air flow caused by solar energy. Aerodynamic devices have been applied to SUTs to improve their performance and the baffle is one such device. Here, we investigate [...] Read more.
Solar updraft towers (SUTs) are used for renewable power generation, taking advantage of the thermal updraft air flow caused by solar energy. Aerodynamic devices have been applied to SUTs to improve their performance and the baffle is one such device. Here, we investigate the effect of baffle installation on the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena in the collector of an SUT and how it enhances the overall SUT performance using computational fluid dynamics analysis. Two geometric parameters (height and width of baffle) and two thermal boundary conditions of the baffle (adiabatic condition and heat flux condition) were tested through simulations with 10 different models. The vortex generated by the baffle has a positive effect on the delivery of heat energy from the ground to the main flow; however, one disadvantage is that the baffle inherently increases the resistance of the main flow. Over 3% higher kinetic power was achieved with some of the simulated baffle models. Therefore, an optimum design for baffle installation can be achieved by considering the positive and negative thermo-fluid dynamics of baffles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Microgrid as a Cost-Effective Alternative to Rural Network Underground Cabling for Adequate Reliability
Energies 2018, 11(8), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11081978
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Microgrids can be used for securing the supply of power during network outages. Underground cabling of distribution networks is another effective but conventional and expensive alternative to enhance the reliability of the power supply. This paper first presents an analysis method for the [...] Read more.
Microgrids can be used for securing the supply of power during network outages. Underground cabling of distribution networks is another effective but conventional and expensive alternative to enhance the reliability of the power supply. This paper first presents an analysis method for the determination of microgrid power supply adequacy during islanded operation and, second, presents a comparison method for the overall cost calculation of microgrids versus underground cabling. The microgrid power adequacy during a rather long network outage is required in order to indicate high level of reliability of the supply. The overall cost calculation considers the economic benefits and costs incurred, combined for both the distribution network company and the consumer. Whereas the microgrid setup determines the islanded-operation power adequacy and thus the reliability of the supply, the economic feasibility results from the normal operations and services. The methods are illustrated by two typical, and even critical, case studies in rural distribution networks: an electric-heated detached house and a dairy farm. These case studies show that even in the case of a single consumer, a microgrid option could be more economical than network renovation by underground cabling of a branch in order to increase the reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Model Analysis of Solar Thermal System with the Effect of Dust Deposition on the Collectors
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071795
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, a TraNsient SYStems (TRNSYS) simulation model for solar thermal systems is developed to assess the potential of solar energy utilization in cold climate zones, such as Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia), which is one of the five cities with the worst air quality [...] Read more.
In this study, a TraNsient SYStems (TRNSYS) simulation model for solar thermal systems is developed to assess the potential of solar energy utilization in cold climate zones, such as Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia), which is one of the five cities with the worst air quality in the world. Since air pollution contaminates solar collectors and decreases their efficiency, this model accounts for dust deposition behavior so that the best cleaning time for the collectors can be estimated. The simulation results show that the best cleaning time falls between the middle of January and the beginning of February. In addition, a collector cleaned once during the heating period is estimated to produce 12% more energy compared with a collector that has not been cleaned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Optimization of Gradient Bandgap Structure for CIGS Solar Cell with ZnS Buffer Layer Using Technology Computer-Aided Design Simulation
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071785
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The band structure characteristics of a copper indium gallium sulfur selenide (Cu(In1–xGax)SeS, CIGS) solar cell incorporating a cadmium-free zinc sulfide (ZnS) buffer layer were investigated using technology computer-aided design simulations. Considering the optical/electrical properties that depend on the [...] Read more.
The band structure characteristics of a copper indium gallium sulfur selenide (Cu(In1–xGax)SeS, CIGS) solar cell incorporating a cadmium-free zinc sulfide (ZnS) buffer layer were investigated using technology computer-aided design simulations. Considering the optical/electrical properties that depend on the Ga content, we numerically demonstrated that the front gradient bandgap enhanced the electron movement over the band-offset of the ZnS interface barrier, and the back gradient bandgap generated a back side field, improving electron transport in the CIGS layer; in addition, the short circuit current density (JSC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) improved. The simulation demonstrated that the conversion efficiency of a double graded bandgap cell is higher than with uniform or normal/reverse gradient cells, and VOC strongly correlated with the average bandgap in the space charge region (SCR) of CIGS. After selecting VOC from the SCR, we optimized the band structure of the CIGS cell with a Cd-free ZnS buffer by evaluating JSC and the fill factor. We demonstrated that the cell efficiency of the fabricated cell was more than 15%, which agrees well with the simulated results. Our numerical method can be used to design high-conversion efficiency CIGS cells with a gradient band structure and Cd-free buffer layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Application of Solar Energy Systems for Electrified Urban Transportation Systems
Energies 2018, 11(4), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040954
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (35671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a novel approach toward the use of solar energy systems in public transportation. The concept of energy generation in PV systems for supplying a trolleybus transportation system is proposed for the city of Gdynia (Poland). The suggested way of energy [...] Read more.
The paper presents a novel approach toward the use of solar energy systems in public transportation. The concept of energy generation in PV systems for supplying a trolleybus transportation system is proposed for the city of Gdynia (Poland). The suggested way of energy production allows reducing the environmental harm impact of the municipal transportation system. Moreover, the proposed way of green energy use can be a more profitable alternative for selling transport items (trolleybuses) to the public energy grid. The presented analysis is based on the Monte Carlo Model method of stochastic simulation. It allows taking in consideration the random nature of the vehicle movement caused by road congestion and the uncertainty of the solar radiation. Several localisations of the PV system and the different structures of traction supply systems were analysed. The results of the analyses showed that despite of the uneven load in the traction power supply, it is possible to use 80% of the generated solar system energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Planning of Demand Response and Distributed Generators in an Active Distribution Network
Energies 2018, 11(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020354
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN) daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed [...] Read more.
The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN) daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed generators can be coordinated to accommodate the renewable energy. However, the investment cost for demand response facilities, i.e., load control switch and advanced metering infrastructure, cannot be ignored, especially when the responsive demand is large. In this paper, an optimal coordinated investment for distributed generator and demand response facilities is proposed, based on a linearized, price-elastic demand response model. To hedge against the uncertainties of renewables and load demand, a two-stage robust investment scheme is proposed, where the investment decisions are optimized in the first stage, and the demand response participation with the coordination of distributed generators is adjusted in the second stage. Simulations on the modified IEEE 33-node and 123-node DN demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
How Do Chinese Residents Expect of Government Subsidies on Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation?—A Case of Wuhan, China
Energies 2018, 11(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010228
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates local residents’ expectations of the Chinese government subsidies on solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation. Residents’ demographics including age, educational attainment, income level, gender, and employment fields are analyzed based on a survey study in Wuhan, China. Results of the regression [...] Read more.
This paper investigates local residents’ expectations of the Chinese government subsidies on solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation. Residents’ demographics including age, educational attainment, income level, gender, and employment fields are analyzed based on a survey study in Wuhan, China. Results of the regression analysis on the influence of demographic variables on residents’ expectations indicate that: (1) residents with different demographics have significantly different expectations of the Chinese government subsidies for adopting PV power generation facilities; (2) income, education attainment, and residents’ employment fields have a significant impact on their expectations of government subsidies. With these findings, this paper concludes with useful policy implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082129
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically [...] Read more.
Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called ‘solar-powered e-bike’. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes’ and solar-powered e-bikes’ users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than €2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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