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Energies 2018, 11(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020354

Co-Planning of Demand Response and Distributed Generators in an Active Distribution Network

1,2
,
1
,
2,3,* , 2
and
2
1
School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
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Abstract

The integration of renewables is fast-growing, in light of smart grid technology development. As a result, the uncertain nature of renewables and load demand poses significant technical challenges to distribution network (DN) daily operation. To alleviate such issues, price-sensitive demand response and distributed generators can be coordinated to accommodate the renewable energy. However, the investment cost for demand response facilities, i.e., load control switch and advanced metering infrastructure, cannot be ignored, especially when the responsive demand is large. In this paper, an optimal coordinated investment for distributed generator and demand response facilities is proposed, based on a linearized, price-elastic demand response model. To hedge against the uncertainties of renewables and load demand, a two-stage robust investment scheme is proposed, where the investment decisions are optimized in the first stage, and the demand response participation with the coordination of distributed generators is adjusted in the second stage. Simulations on the modified IEEE 33-node and 123-node DN demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand response; solar energy; wind power; uncertainties; distributed generator; active distribution network demand response; solar energy; wind power; uncertainties; distributed generator; active distribution network
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Yu, Y.; Wen, X.; Zhao, J.; Xu, Z.; Li, J. Co-Planning of Demand Response and Distributed Generators in an Active Distribution Network. Energies 2018, 11, 354.

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