Next Article in Journal
Multi-Objective Optimization Design and Multi-Physics Analysis a Double-Stator Permanent-Magnet Doubly Salient Machine
Next Article in Special Issue
Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Baffles with Various Thermal and Geometrical Conditions on Thermo-Fluid Dynamics and Kinetic Power of a Solar Updraft Tower
Previous Article in Journal
Fuel-Optimal Thrust-Allocation Algorithm Using Penalty Optimization Programing for Dynamic-Positioning-Controlled Offshore Platforms
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microgrid as a Cost-Effective Alternative to Rural Network Underground Cabling for Adequate Reliability
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes

Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082129
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Harvesting, Storage and Utilization)
  |  
PDF [660 KB, uploaded 16 August 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Electric bicycles (e-bikes) are considered a sustainable alternative to automobile transportation today. The electric bike includes all the benefits that conventional bicycles offer, plus faster, more comfortable and longer trips, as well as less effort for the user. In this paper, we specifically focus on a new type of e-bike, the so-called ‘solar-powered e-bike’. Therefore, this review paper explores existing literature findings for the use of solar energy in transportation, and more specifically in e-bikes. This paper aims to capture the status of and experiences with the use of e-bikes; more specifically, with solar-powered e-bikes. It presents research conducted so far on e-bikes and solar-powered e-bikes, as well as the main technical features of the solar e-bike. Finally, it analyzes a sample of e-bikes’ and solar-powered e-bikes’ users, based on Dutch National Travel Survey data and an experimental field study conducted in 2017. Data showed that the main target group of (solar) e-bikes are commuters in the age group between 40 and 60 years old, commuting distances longer than 6 km, with a gross income higher than €2500. Solar-powered e-bikes are concluded to have potential as a sustainable way of transportation in urban areas and cities, potentially replacing the conventional means of transport. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-bikes; solar powered; photovoltaic; sustainable; mobility; transportation mode; commuting e-bikes; solar powered; photovoltaic; sustainable; mobility; transportation mode; commuting
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Apostolou, G.; Reinders, A.; Geurs, K. An Overview of Existing Experiences with Solar-Powered E-Bikes. Energies 2018, 11, 2129.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top