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Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 April 2023) | Viewed by 18845

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
R&D Department, Gnarus Institute, Itajubá 37500-052, Brazil
Interests: intelligent systems; non-classical logic; power systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Smart Grids (SG) have caused significant impacts on how electrical networks operate, involving elements and techniques of telecommunications, information/data computing, and the Internet, among others. Smart Grid is a combination of hardware, management, and reporting software, built atop an intelligent communications infrastructure.

SG needs to consider all sides of the power grid, making it more innovative and more flexible. This idea can be represented by four pillars: generation optimization, transmission optimization, distribution optimization, and demand side management. In generation optimization, topics such as (but not limited to) wind farm and other non-conventional sources, dispatching scheduling optimization, the use of distributed generation, and fuel cells are welcome in this Special Issue. In the transmission optimization area, possible topics include the phasor measurement technique, wide area measurement, flexible AC transmission system, adoptive islanding, self-healing grids, probabilistic and dynamic stability assessment, substation monitoring, and control, among others. In the distribution optimization area, topics such as (but not limited to) distribution automation, demand optimization, selective load control, and islanding of microgrids are of interest. Finally, the demand side management area includes (but is not limited to) distributed generation, on-site generation, district energy, decentralized energy, distributed energy resources (DER), and distributed energy storage systems. Topics such as energy efficiency and demand response are also very welcome to this Special Issue.

Descriptions of numerical, statistical, intelligent, or hybrid methodologies are also welcome, including situations where market barriers are solved, such as extensive field testing before widespread integration into the power grid, new technologies being too expensive, risk-averse mentality, long-scale cycles for equipment, regulatory questions, and financial constraints.

The papers of this Special Issue should focus on the optimization of the electrical grid process and on contributing to better practices in SG and how the explained process could benefit toward a more effective management of SG, such as reduced cost of energy, reduced stress on the electric energy infrastructure, and improved energy efficiency.

This Special Issue focuses on bringing together innovative developments and synergies in new control strategies and power grids.

Other potential topics include but are not limited to:

Energy storage devices;
More on-site power generation;
Flexible demand response;
Real-time distribution and customer data;
Real-time price signals;
Smart distribution system and processes;
Better customer information, choice and tools;
Smart metering experiences.

Prof. Dr. Germano Lambert-Torres
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart grids
  • power grids
  • wind farm
  • fuel cells
  • distributed generation
  • on-site generation, district energy, decentralized energy, distributed energy resources (DER)
  • energy storage devices
  • energy efficiency
  • demand response

Published Papers (10 papers)

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10 pages, 2444 KiB  
Communication
GA-Based Voltage Optimization of Distribution Feeder with High-Penetration of DERs Using Megawatt-Scale Units
by Aswad Adib, Joao Onofre Pereira Pinto and Madhu S. Chinthavali
Energies 2023, 16(13), 4842; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16134842 - 21 Jun 2023
Viewed by 606
Abstract
In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA)-based voltage optimization of a modified IEEE-34 node distribution feeder with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) is proposed using two megawatt-scale reactive power sources. Traditional voltage support units present in distribution grids are not suitable for [...] Read more.
In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA)-based voltage optimization of a modified IEEE-34 node distribution feeder with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) is proposed using two megawatt-scale reactive power sources. Traditional voltage support units present in distribution grids are not suitable for DER-rich feeders, while voltage support using small-scale DERs present in the feeder requires considerable communication effort to reach a global solution. In this work, two megawatt-scale units are placed to improve the voltage profile across the IEEE 34-node feeder, which has been modified to include several PV units and an energy storage unit. The megawatt-scale units are optimized using GA for fast and accurate operation. The performance of the proposed scheme is verified using simulation results with a multi-platform setup where the modified IEEE-34 node feeder is modeled in OpenDSS while the GA optimization scheme is programmed in MATLAB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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25 pages, 8066 KiB  
Article
Predictive Controller Based on Paraconsistent Annotated Logic for Synchronous Generator Excitation Control
by João Inácio Da Silva Filho, Raphael Adamelk Bispo de Oliveira, Marcos Carneiro Rodrigues, Hyghor Miranda Côrtes, Alexandre Rocco, Mauricio Conceição Mario, Dorotéa Vilanova Garcia, Jair Minoro Abe, Claudio Rodrigo Torres, Viviane B. Duarte Ricciotti, Antonio Carlos Duarte Ricciotti, Arnaldo de Carvalho, Jr. and Germano Lambert-Torres
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041934 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
This study presents a new Model Predictive Controller (MPC), built with algorithms based on Paraconsistent Annotated Logic (PAL), with application examples in the excitation control of a synchronous generator. PAL is a non-classical evidential and propositional logic that is associated with a Hasse [...] Read more.
This study presents a new Model Predictive Controller (MPC), built with algorithms based on Paraconsistent Annotated Logic (PAL), with application examples in the excitation control of a synchronous generator. PAL is a non-classical evidential and propositional logic that is associated with a Hasse lattice, and which presents the property of accepting the contradiction in its foundations. In this research, the algorithm was constructed with a version of the PAL that works with two information signals in the degrees of evidence format and, therefore, is called Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v). For the validation of the algorithmic structure, the computational tool MATLAB® Release 2012b, The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, United States was used. Simulations were performed which compared the results obtained with PPC-PAL2v to those obtained in essays with the AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) controls in conjunction with the PSS (Power System Stabilizer) and the conventional MPC of fixed weights. The comparative results showed the PPC-PAL2v to display superior performance in the action of the excitation control of the synchronous generator, with a great efficiency in response to small signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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20 pages, 2895 KiB  
Article
Cross-Correlated Scenario Generation for Renewable-Rich Power Systems Using Implicit Generative Models
by Dhaval Dalal, Muhammad Bilal, Hritik Shah, Anwarul Islam Sifat, Anamitra Pal and Philip Augustin
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041636 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Generation of realistic scenarios is an important prerequisite for analyzing the reliability of renewable-rich power systems. This paper satisfies this need by presenting an end-to-end model-free approach for creating representative power system scenarios on a seasonal basis. A conditional recurrent generative adversarial network [...] Read more.
Generation of realistic scenarios is an important prerequisite for analyzing the reliability of renewable-rich power systems. This paper satisfies this need by presenting an end-to-end model-free approach for creating representative power system scenarios on a seasonal basis. A conditional recurrent generative adversarial network serves as the main engine for scenario generation. Compared to prior scenario generation models that treated the variables independently or focused on short-term forecasting, the proposed implicit generative model effectively captures the cross-correlations that exist between the variables considering long-term planning. The validity of the scenarios generated using the proposed approach is demonstrated through extensive statistical evaluation and investigation of end-application results. It is shown that analysis of abnormal scenarios, which is more critical for power system resource planning, benefits the most from cross-correlated scenario generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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14 pages, 4294 KiB  
Article
VSG Control Applied to Seven-Level PV Inverter for Partial Shading Impact Abatement
by Tiago H. de A. Mateus, José A. Pomilio, Ruben B. Godoy and João O. P. Pinto
Energies 2022, 15(17), 6409; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176409 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
This paper describes the use of a Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter to deal with the problem of partial shading in a photovoltaic system connected to the grid. Combined with the topology, it proposes the use of a virtual synchronous generator for power sharing [...] Read more.
This paper describes the use of a Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter to deal with the problem of partial shading in a photovoltaic system connected to the grid. Combined with the topology, it proposes the use of a virtual synchronous generator for power sharing between photovoltaic arrays and to ensure the connection to the power grid even in extreme shading situations with no power buffer. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the strategy adopted and the limitations to overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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22 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Active Distribution Networks with Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resources Optimization Using Hierarchical Model
by Thaís M. Blasi, Cyntia C. C. B. de Aquino, Rafael S. Pinto, Mauro O. de Lara Filho, Thelma S. P. Fernandes, Clodomiro U. Vila, Alexandre R. Aoki, Rodrigo B. dos Santos and Fabricio H. Tabarro
Energies 2022, 15(11), 3992; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15113992 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Distribution networks have undergone a series of changes, with the insertion of distributed energy resources, such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and demand response, allowing the consumers to produce energy and have an active role in distribution systems. Thus, it is possible [...] Read more.
Distribution networks have undergone a series of changes, with the insertion of distributed energy resources, such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and demand response, allowing the consumers to produce energy and have an active role in distribution systems. Thus, it is possible to form microgrids. From the active grid’s point of view, it is necessary to plan the operation considering the distributed resources and the microgrids connected to it, aiming to ensure the maintenance of grid economy and operational safety. So, this paper presents the proposition of a hierarchical model for planning the daily operation of active distribution grids with microgrids. In this case, the entire grid operation is optimized considering the results from the microgrid optimization itself. If none of the technical constraints, for example voltage levels, are reached, the grid is optimized, however, if there are some violations in the constraints feedback is sent to the internal microgrid optimization to be run again. Several scenarios are evaluated to verify the iteration among the controls in a coordinated way allowing the optimization of the operation of microgrids, as well as of the distribution network. A coordinated and hierarchical operation of active distribution networks with microgrids, specifically when they have distributed energy resources allocated and operated in an optimized way, results in a reduction in operating costs, losses, and greater flexibility and security of the whole system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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28 pages, 3386 KiB  
Article
Integrating Smart Grid Devices into the Traditional Protection of Distribution Networks
by Bruno Silva Torres, Luiz Eduardo Borges da Silva, Camila Paes Salomon and Carlos Henrique Valério de Moraes
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072518 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Smart grids are a reality in distribution systems. They have assisted in the operation, control, and most of all, the protection of urban networks, significantly solving the contingencies of these networks. This paper treats the initial stage of implementing smart grid switching devices [...] Read more.
Smart grids are a reality in distribution systems. They have assisted in the operation, control, and most of all, the protection of urban networks, significantly solving the contingencies of these networks. This paper treats the initial stage of implementing smart grid switching devices in distribution networks. In this stage, smart grid technologies need to operate with the traditional protection elements (such as fuses, reclosers, and sectionalizers). This fact can create trouble in the protection schemes because there are two distinctive philosophies. In some companies, especially those without substantial capital, these two protection philosophies can run together for many years. The most popular intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) available in the market are studied to verify their features and the possibility to incorporate techniques to allow the two philosophies to work together. After that, the proposed approach shows how the existing IEDs can interact with the traditional devices. Special functions can also be incorporated to inform the control center of an operational problem, increasing the observability of the network. With the proposed approach, the IEDs are transformed into intelligent agents. Practical examples using real distribution systems are presented and discussed, proving the efficacy of the proposed methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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23 pages, 4108 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Power Distribution Restoration Based on a Multi-Objective Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm
by Carlos Henrique Valério de Moraes, Jonas Lopes de Vilas Boas, Germano Lambert-Torres, Gilberto Capistrano Cunha de Andrade and Claudio Inácio de Almeida Costa
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041445 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
The importance of power in society is indisputable. Virtually all economic activities depend on electricity. The electric power systems are complex, and move studies in different areas are motivated to make them more efficient and solve their operational problems. The smart grids emerged [...] Read more.
The importance of power in society is indisputable. Virtually all economic activities depend on electricity. The electric power systems are complex, and move studies in different areas are motivated to make them more efficient and solve their operational problems. The smart grids emerged from this approach and aimed to improve the current systems and integrate electric power using alternative and renewable sources. Restoration techniques of these networks are being developed to reduce the impacts caused by the usual power supply interruptions due to failures in the distribution networks. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the performance of a multi-objective version of the Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm for finding the minor handling switches that maximize the number of buses served, keeping the configuration radial system and within the limits of current in the conductors and bus voltage. An electrical system model was created, and routines were implemented for the network verification, which was used as a function of the Multi-Objective Bacterial Foraging Optimization Hybrid Algorithm. The proposed method has been applied in two distribution systems with 70 buses and 201 buses, respectively, and the algorithm’s effectiveness to solve the restoration problem is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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20 pages, 8074 KiB  
Article
Power Scheduling Scheme for DSM in Smart Homes with Photovoltaic and Energy Storage
by Sławomir Zator
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8571; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248571 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
This article presents a case study of a single-family house with several photovoltaic micro-installations oriented in different directions, in which the energy electricity storage systems have been operating for several months. In the house, the heat source is the air–water heat pump cooperating [...] Read more.
This article presents a case study of a single-family house with several photovoltaic micro-installations oriented in different directions, in which the energy electricity storage systems have been operating for several months. In the house, the heat source is the air–water heat pump cooperating with heat buffers. The first photovoltaic installation was installed in 2016 and, in the subsequent five years, was expanded using microinverters. The final amount of energy from photovoltaics covers 50% of the energy demand of the building. The procedure for dealing with technical and economic aspects was presented, allowing us to determine whether it is profitable to install energy storage in the given conditions of energy prices, equipment efficiency, and prices, as well as government support. This paper presents the effects of the designed and built home energy management system that supervises energy storage in heat and batteries, mainly through its impact on the self-consumption of energy from the photovoltaic system and on final costs. Comparative calculations were performed with the demand-side management, which dictated the instantaneous energy costs. Attention was paid to the possibility of obtaining a high self-consumption, but the economic calculations showed that it was not always beneficial. An annual self-consumption increased by approximately one-sixth upon installation of the electrical energy storage system and by one-third from the start of use of the home energy management system. Concurrently, by utilising energy storage in heat and batteries, almost 95% of energy was consumed in the cheapest multi-zone tariff. The impact of inverters and battery charging systems on the power grid is also presented. Often, when the active energy was nearing zero, the capacitive reactive energy was significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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20 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
A Robust Algorithm for Real-Time Phasor and Frequency Estimation under Diverse System Conditions
by Babak Jafarpisheh and Anamitra Pal
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7112; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217112 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive approach for performing phasor and frequency estimation from voltage and/or current signals of the modern power system. Undesirable components, such as decaying DC, if present in the input signal, are first attenuated using a complex-gain filter. The initial [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive approach for performing phasor and frequency estimation from voltage and/or current signals of the modern power system. Undesirable components, such as decaying DC, if present in the input signal, are first attenuated using a complex-gain filter. The initial estimates of phasor and frequency are obtained next using the discrete Fourier transform and an improved estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique, respectively. Finally, the accuracy of phasor and frequency estimates are increased based on the identified system condition. Simulations performed to evaluate the proposed approach confirm that it can do fast and accurate estimation of phasor and frequency under diverse operating conditions, making it ideal for wide-area monitoring, protection, and control applications in power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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25 pages, 6958 KiB  
Hypothesis
Stochastic Security-Constrained Economic Dispatch of Load-Following and Contingency Reserves Ancillary Service Using a Grid-Connected Microgrid during Uncertainty
by Kalyani Makarand Kurundkar and Geetanjali Abhijit Vaidya
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062607 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
In the context of the growing penetration of renewable power sources in power systems causing probabilistic contingency conditions, a suitable economic dispatch model is decisively needed. There is a lack of research in the field of probabilistic mathematical formulation considering the uncertainties due [...] Read more.
In the context of the growing penetration of renewable power sources in power systems causing probabilistic contingency conditions, a suitable economic dispatch model is decisively needed. There is a lack of research in the field of probabilistic mathematical formulation considering the uncertainties due to the stochastic nature of renewables and contingency occurrence, as it is a very complex problem to be solved. The most appropriate model is the stochastic security-constrained economic dispatch (SSCED) model for optimized economic dispatch decisions during uncertainty. However, because of its complexity, it is rarely employed. This paper attempts to solve the complex SSCED problem in the presence of the uncertainty of resources and probabilistic contingency conditions, which is a novel effort in this regard. The SSCED is carried out over multiple periods to provide the load-following or contingency reserves. In the proposed SSCED, the uncertainty problem is addressed by modeling the stochastic wind energy power source by using “probability transition scenarios”. The uncertainty caused by probabilistic contingency conditions in the dispatch schedule is approximated using a “state-specific transition matrix”. The frequency control reserves in contingency conditions are co-optimized with energy, and stochastic security-constrained economic dispatch is achieved. The efforts are put forward to suggest a new market model in the presence of the uncertainty of renewable energy availability. Case studies are examined to show the potential technical and financial advantages of the proposed SSCED through co-optimization. Grid-connected microgrid owners offer frequency control ancillary services by providing load-following ramping reserves in the normal state and contingency reserves in the state of contingency. The probabilistic contingencies considered are generator failure and an underloading condition. A modified “IEEE 30 bus system” is considered a grid-connected microgrid for testing the proposed SSCED. The results show that the greater the flexibility of the resources, the greater the technical and economic benefits. The increase in ramping flexibility of a wind source results in almost an 8.1% reduction in operational costs compared to the base case. The contingency condition analysis shows that the presence of ramping reserves in the system enhances the power system performance, avoiding the cascading effects that ultimately cause a power system failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Energy Management in Smart Grids)
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