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Special Issue "Electric Vehicle Charging Networks"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "E: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 7230

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Kari Tammi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Interests: mechatronics; electric machines; energy efficiency; dynamics; control; adaptive systems; new machine concepts; innovation management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global warming accompanied by the energy crisis and environmental degradation have triggered a paradigm shift from the use of vehicles driven by internal combustion engines (ICEs) to electric vehicles (EVs). Driving range anxiety is associated with EVs as their range is lower than the range of ICE vehicles. Thus, the large-scale deployment of EVs calls for the development of sustainable and easily accessible charging networks.

Hence, this Special Issue seeks to contribute to promoting the EV charging network agenda through illuminating the scientific and multidisciplinary knowledge regarding different aspects of charging station deployment. Topics of interest for this publication include, but are not limited to:

  1. Charging technologies for EVs
  2. Impact of charging networks on the power grid
  3. Charging station placement
  4. Global charging standards
  5. Algorithms for planning of charging station networks
  6. Interaction of charging stations with grids (G2V and V2G)
  7. Scheduling of charging activity in charging station networks
  8. Smart charging
  9. Big data analytics in charging station networks
  10. Renewable energy integrated charging stations
  11. Business models for charging network deployment
  12. Pricing strategies in charging station networks

Prof. Dr. Kari Tammi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • charging stations
  • charging standards
  • planning
  • smart charging

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Modelling and Design of a Coils Structure for 100 kW Three-Phase Inductive Power Transfer System
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5079; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145079 - 12 Jul 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
This paper presents the modeling, the design and verification of a three-phase coil structure for high-power Wireless-Power-Transfer (WPT) in automotive applications. The system, a Three-Polar-Pad (TPP), with complex mechanical geometry, is analytically modeled with an equivalent simplified structure. Thanks to this simplification, a [...] Read more.
This paper presents the modeling, the design and verification of a three-phase coil structure for high-power Wireless-Power-Transfer (WPT) in automotive applications. The system, a Three-Polar-Pad (TPP), with complex mechanical geometry, is analytically modeled with an equivalent simplified structure. Thanks to this simplification, a numerical design is performed to minimize cross-coupling effects among different phases of the same side (receiver or transmitter) maximizing the linkage flux receiver-to-transmitter and then the power transferred. The analytical model is then verified in a Finite-Element-Analysis (FEA) environment. A final design, comprehensive of the shielding, is proposed matching the preliminary design constraints. Hence, the preliminary model is verified by testing a prototype using a three-phase Silicon Carbide (SiC) inverter at the transmitter side. The capability of the system is demonstrated by transferring 100 kW with more than 94% DC-to-DC efficiency over a 50 mm air gap in perfectly aligned conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Method for Planning, Optimizing, and Regulating EV Charging Infrastructure
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4756; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134756 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The paper presents and solves the problems of modeling and designing the required EV charging service capacity for systems with a slow dynamic component. This includes possible bursts within a peak hour interval. A simulation tool with a newly implemented capacity planning method [...] Read more.
The paper presents and solves the problems of modeling and designing the required EV charging service capacity for systems with a slow dynamic component. This includes possible bursts within a peak hour interval. A simulation tool with a newly implemented capacity planning method has been developed and implemented for these needs. The method can be used for different system simulations and simultaneously for systems with high, medium, and low service dynamics. The proposed method is based on a normal distribution, a primary mechanism that describes events within a daily interval (24 h) or a peak hour interval (rush hour). The goal of the presented approach, including the proposed method, is to increase the level and quality of the EV charging service system. The near-optimal solution with the presented method can be found manually by changing the service capacity parameter concerning the criterion function. Manual settings limit the number of rejected events, the time spent in the queue, and other service system performance parameters. In addition to manual search for near-optimal solutions, the method also provides automatic search by using the automation procedure of simulation runs and increasing/decreasing the service capacity parameter by a specifically calculated amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Designing Dynamic Inductive Charging Infrastructures for Airport Aprons with Multiple Vehicle Types
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4085; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114085 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
In the effort to combat climate change, the CO2 emissions of the aviation sector must be reduced. The traffic caused by numerous types of ground vehicles on airport aprons currently contributes to those emissions as the vehicles typically operate with combustion engines, [...] Read more.
In the effort to combat climate change, the CO2 emissions of the aviation sector must be reduced. The traffic caused by numerous types of ground vehicles on airport aprons currently contributes to those emissions as the vehicles typically operate with combustion engines, which is why an electrification of those vehicles has already begun. While stationary conductive charging of the vehicles is the current standard technology, dynamic wireless charging might be an attractive technological alternative, in particular for airport aprons; however, designing a charging network for an airport apron is a challenging task with important technical and economic aspects. In this paper, we propose a model to characterize the problem, especially for cases of multiple types of vehicles sharing the same charging network, such as passenger buses and baggage vehicles. In a numerical study inspired by real-world airports, we design such charging networks subject to service level constraints and evaluate the resulting structures via a discrete-event simulation, and thus, show the way to assess the margin of safety with respect to the vehicle batteries’ state of charge that is induced by the spatial structure of the charging network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Energy-Environmental Planning of Electric Vehicles (EVs): A Case Study of the National Energy System of Pakistan
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093054 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Energy-environmental planning for road transportation involves a vast investigation of vehicles’ technologies and electricity production. However, in developing countries where the public transportation sector is growing quickly, energy-environmental planning is urgently needed. This paper evaluates the future electricity demand, as well as fuel [...] Read more.
Energy-environmental planning for road transportation involves a vast investigation of vehicles’ technologies and electricity production. However, in developing countries where the public transportation sector is growing quickly, energy-environmental planning is urgently needed. This paper evaluates the future electricity demand, as well as fuel consumption and CO2 emissions reduction, due to the operation of an expected increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) in Pakistan. The planning of EVs up to 2040 is performed with the ePop simulator that calculates the future EVs’ electricity demand, while EnergyPLAN® assesses the expected new power capacities. Two scenarios are investigated by penetrating 30% and 90% of 2/3 electric wheelers and cars by 2030 and 2040 compared to 2020, respectively. To fulfill the expected energy demand, PV in the daytime and the national electric grid at nighttime are here considered. Finally, a 9 GW of PV capacity is needed to satisfy the EVs’ electricity demand of 14.7 TWh/year, and a 0.7 GW power plants capacity is needed to fulfill 4.7 TWh/year by 2040. Consequently, EVs’ charging scenarios at daytime and nighttime are assessed. Results indicated a total reduction of 10.4 Mtonnes of CO2 emissions and 9.1 Mtoe of fuel consumption by 2040 in the transportation sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Impact of Charging Electric Vehicles under Different State of Charge Levels and Extreme Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6589; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206589 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
High penetration levels of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) could cause stress on the network and might violate the limits and constraints under extreme conditions, such as exceeding power and voltage limits on transformers and power lines. This paper defines extreme conditions as the [...] Read more.
High penetration levels of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) could cause stress on the network and might violate the limits and constraints under extreme conditions, such as exceeding power and voltage limits on transformers and power lines. This paper defines extreme conditions as the state of a load or network that breaks the limits of the constraints in an optimization model. Once these constraints are violated, the optimization algorithm might not work correctly and might not converge to a feasible solution, especially when the complexity of the system increases and includes nonlinearities. Hence, the algorithm may not help in mitigating the impact of penetrating PEVs under extreme conditions. To solve this problem, an original algorithm is suggested that is able to adapt the constraints’ limits according to the energy demand and the energy needed to charge the PEVs. Different case scenarios are studied for validation purposes, such as charging PEVs under different state of charge levels, different energy demands at home, and different pricing mechanisms. Results show that our original algorithm improved the profiles of the voltage and power under extreme conditions. Hence, the algorithm is able to improve the integration of a high number of PEVs on the distribution system under extreme conditions while preserving its stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Electrical Infrastructure Design Methodology of Dynamic and Static Charging for Heavy and Light Duty Electric Vehicles
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123362 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Full electrification of the transport sector is a necessity to combat climate change and a pressing societal issue: climate agreements require a fuel shift of all the modes of transport, but while uptake of passenger electric vehicles is increasing, long haul trucks rely [...] Read more.
Full electrification of the transport sector is a necessity to combat climate change and a pressing societal issue: climate agreements require a fuel shift of all the modes of transport, but while uptake of passenger electric vehicles is increasing, long haul trucks rely almost completely on fossil fuels. Providing highways with proper charging infrastructure for future electric mobility demand is a problem that is not fully investigated in literature: in fact, previous work has not addressed grid planning and infrastructure design for both passenger vehicles and trucks on highways. In this work, the authors develop a methodology to design the electrical infrastructure that supplies static and dynamic charging for both modes of transport. An algorithm is developed that selects substations for the partial electrification of a highway and, finally, the design of the electrical infrastructure to be implemented is produced and described, assessing conductors and substations sizing, in order to respect voltage regulations. The system topology of a real highway (E18 in Norway) and its traffic demand is analyzed, together with medium-voltage substations present in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Forecasting Charging Demand of Electric Vehicles Using Time-Series Models
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051487 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
This study compared the methods used to forecast increases in power consumption caused by the rising popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). An excellent model for each region was proposed using multiple scaled geographical datasets over two years. EV charging volumes are influenced by [...] Read more.
This study compared the methods used to forecast increases in power consumption caused by the rising popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). An excellent model for each region was proposed using multiple scaled geographical datasets over two years. EV charging volumes are influenced by various factors, including the condition of a vehicle, the battery’s state-of-charge (SOC), and the distance to the destination. However, power suppliers cannot easily access this information due to privacy issues. Despite a lack of individual information, this study compared various modeling techniques, including trigonometric exponential smoothing state space (i.e., Trigonometric, Box–Cox, Auto-Regressive-Moving-Average (ARMA), Trend, and Seasonality (TBATS)), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural networks (ANN), and long short-term memory (LSTM) modeling, based on past values and exogenous variables. The effect of exogenous variables was evaluated in macro- and micro-scale geographical areas, and the importance of historic data was verified. The basic statistics regarding the number of charging stations and the volume of charging in each region are expected to aid the formulation of a method that can be used by power suppliers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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Article
Solar-Powered Charging Networks for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2021, 14(4), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040966 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The cost of solar-generated electricity and battery costs have been decreasing significantly. These developments can be combined to introduce solar-powered charging networks with demand management prices (DMP) to enable electric vehicle (EV) customers to help utilities to manage renewable energy. As solar-generated electricity [...] Read more.
The cost of solar-generated electricity and battery costs have been decreasing significantly. These developments can be combined to introduce solar-powered charging networks with demand management prices (DMP) to enable electric vehicle (EV) customers to help utilities to manage renewable energy. As solar-generated electricity becomes the cheapest source of power, the need to increase demand for electricity during the day can be met by charging EVs at an attractive DMP in parking lots with solar panels and charging stations that are connected to the electrical grid. The demand for electricity can be managed and controlled by the utility with the goal of increasing demand for power as needed so that all electricity that is generated can be sold. The proposal is to introduce a new DMP rate that is only implemented when the utility wants to increase demand and sell power at this low rate in order to make full use of the supply. As utilities strive to reach 100% renewable electrical power to serve a society transported by EVs, cooperative plans to make good use of batteries in EVs for managing the electrical grid will become more important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging Networks)
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