Special Issue "Power Converter Control Applications in Low-Inertia Power Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elyas Rakhshani
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: Power system control and dynamics; Integration of Renewable based generation; Automatic generation control; Power converter application in the power system; Optimal control; heuristic algorithms applied to power systems
Prof. Peter Palensky
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands
Interests: modeling power and energy systems; digital controls; digital transformation of the power system; numerical (co-)simulation; cyberphysical energy systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Aleksandra Lekić
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands
Interests: circuit theory; multiport power system analysis; HVDC-based systems; harmonic stability assessment of the hybrid power systems consisting of the passive and active components; impedance-based MMC and other VSC modeling; nonlinear controlling methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As power electronic (PE) interfaced generation (PEIG) and load (PEIL) behave differently than conventional generation and load, it is of importance to study the possible impact of different types of PE-based energy sources in low-inertia power systems. In most research projects, control and optimization of high shared PE-based generation with different types of energy sources is considered as an immediate challenge of the future power grid.

Technological advances, such as the use of modern power electronic systems, energy storage, intelligence-based methods, and advanced control techniques in power systems, as well as the large-scale penetration of renewable energy sources, have led to a reformulation of the conventional power systems, moving toward a more flexible scheme. Wind and photovoltaic systems together with hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) are among the main technologies that are expected to become essential in future power systems. Embedding HESS to the modern power system will offer a bigger degree of freedom by applying advanced control concepts that are resilient and affordable with flexible operational capabilities.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Advanced control methodologies with dynamic stability assessment of low-inertia systems;
  • Co-simulation and hardware-in-the-loop simulations for low-inertia systems;
  • Flexible control algorithms for power electronics in AC/DC networks;
  • Different control methodologies for providing virtual inertia;
  • Wind power and energy storage integration.

Dr. Elyas Rakhshani
Prof. Peter Palensky
Dr. Aleksandra Lekić
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Control of AC/DC interconnected power systems
  • Power converter control application
  • Renewable energy integration
  • Energy storage applications
  • Low inertia power systems
  • Frequency control
  • Demand response
  • Control systems
  • Inertia emulation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Control of HVDC Links for Frequency Stability Enhancement in Low-Inertia Systems
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6162; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236162 - 24 Nov 2020
Abstract
Decarbonization of power systems has put Renewable Energy Sources (RES) at the forefront when it comes to electric power generation. The increasing shares of converter-connected renewable generation cause a decrease of the rotational inertia of the Electric Power System (EPS), and consequently deteriorate [...] Read more.
Decarbonization of power systems has put Renewable Energy Sources (RES) at the forefront when it comes to electric power generation. The increasing shares of converter-connected renewable generation cause a decrease of the rotational inertia of the Electric Power System (EPS), and consequently deteriorate the system capability to withstand large load-generation imbalances. Low-inertia systems are subjected to fast and large frequency changes in case of in-feed loss, where the traditional primary frequency control is not sufficient to preserve the frequency stability and to maintain the frequency above the critical value. One possible solution to this rising problem is seen in Fast Frequency Response (FFR) provided by the High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC)-based systems. This paper presents the adaptive FFR control of HVDC-based systems for frequency stability enhancement in the low-inertia system. The EPS is considered as a “black box” and the HVDC response is determined only using the locally measured frequency change. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) was developed and demonstrated to provide faster and more appropriate frequency response compared to the PI controller. The described adaptive HVDC control considers the size of disturbance and the inertia of the power system, and it is verified by simulations on the IEEE 39 bus test system implemented in MATLAB/Simulink for different system configurations and different sizes of disturbance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converter Control Applications in Low-Inertia Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cyber Attacks on AC and High-Voltage DC Interconnected Power Systems with Emulated Inertia
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5583; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215583 - 26 Oct 2020
Abstract
The high penetration of renewable energy resources and power electronic-based components has led to a low-inertia power grid which would bring challenges to system operations. The new model of load frequency control (LFC) must be able to handle the modern scenario where controlled [...] Read more.
The high penetration of renewable energy resources and power electronic-based components has led to a low-inertia power grid which would bring challenges to system operations. The new model of load frequency control (LFC) must be able to handle the modern scenario where controlled areas are interconnected by parallel AC/HVDC links and storage devices are added to provide virtual inertia. Notably, vulnerabilities within the communication channels for wide-area data exchange in LFC loops may make them exposed to various cyber attacks, while it still remains largely unexplored how the new LFC in the AC/HVDC interconnected system with emulated inertia would be affected under malicious intrusions. Thus, in this article, we are motivated to explore possible effects of the major types of data availability and integrity attacks—Denial of Service (DoS) and false data injection (FDI) attacks—on such a new LFC system. By using a system-theoretic approach, we explore the optimal strategies that attackers can exploit to launch DoS or FDI attacks to corrupt the system stability. Besides, a comparison study is performed to learn the impact of these two types of attacks on LFC models of power systems with or without HVDC link and emulated inertia. The simulation results on the the exemplary two-area system illustrate that both DoS and FDI attacks can cause large frequency deviations or even make the system unstable; moreover, the LFC system with AC/HVDC interconnections and emulated inertia could be more vulnerable to these two types of attacks in many adversarial scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converter Control Applications in Low-Inertia Power Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Based Method for FAPR Compliance Testing of the Wind Turbine Converters Control
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5203; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195203 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A task for new power generation technologies, interfaced to the electrical grid by power electronic converters, is to stiffen the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) at the initial few milliseconds (ms) after any variation of active power balance. This task is defined [...] Read more.
A task for new power generation technologies, interfaced to the electrical grid by power electronic converters, is to stiffen the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) at the initial few milliseconds (ms) after any variation of active power balance. This task is defined in this article as fast active power regulation (FAPR), a generic definition of the FAPR is also proposed in this study. Converters equipped with FAPR controls should be tested in laboratory conditions before employment in the actual power system. This paper presents a power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) based method for FAPR compliance testing of the wind turbine converter controls. The presented PHIL setup is a generic test setup for the testing of all kinds of control strategies of the grid-connected power electronic converters. Firstly, a generic PHIL testing methodology is presented. Later on, a combined droop- anFd derivative-based FAPR control has been implemented and tested on the proposed PHIL setup for FAPR compliance criteria of the wind turbine converters. The compliance criteria for the FAPR of the wind turbine converter controls have been framed based on the literature survey. Improvement in the RoCoF and and maximum underfrequency deviation (NADIR) has been observed if the wind turbine converter controls abide by the FAPR compliance criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converter Control Applications in Low-Inertia Power Systems)
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