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High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 24798

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK
Interests: energy storage; battery; supercapacitor; nanoporous carbons and materials for energy storage; carbon dioxide storage/sequestration; hydrogen storage; industrial energy management
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the increasing energy requirements of upcoming systems and associated concerns regarding the depletion of fossil fuels and their environmental-related effects on the planet, the deployment of renewable energy sources such as wind, wave, and solar power will play a key role in our future energy demands. However, efficient exploitation of renewable energy sources characterized by random fluctuations is only possible when a combination of various energy storage devices with ability to store and release energy with different time-scales is deployed.

Apart from batteries, accumulators, and fuel cells that are only effective for the storage and delivery of energy at slow rates over a long period of time, electrochemical capacitors have become imperative in the response to the short term fluctuations in energy outputs when a surge of energy in a short time is required or released. Therefore, they are the subject of great interest to the scientific community dealing with aspects of energy storage improvement and management.

In order to meet all the requirements to improve the quality of the energy supply in high energy and power applications, the development of supercapacitors with properties such as rapid charge/discharge, exceptionally high capacitance retention and long cycle life, and high energy density is essential to complement other storage devices when a wide spectrum of energy and power is required.

Researchers are now invited to submit manuscripts for the Special Issue ‘High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors” that will stimulate the development of technology for a wide range of energy and power supplies.

We are particularly interested in articles and reviews that explore aspects of novel electrode materials, electrolytes, and binders for electrochemical capacitors and their energy storage mechanisms and also processes and implementations in which the currently existing challenges associated with their synthesis and production are addressed. Moreover, performance analysis of the device and its integration with other storage technologies to improve the overall performance of energy systems are also of special interest.

Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Synthesis, characterization, and properties of the electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors.
  • Novel and benign electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors
  • Understanding of the underlying mechanisms of energy storage in electrochemical capacitors
  • Performance analysis of electrochemical capacitors under different conditions

Integration of electrochemical capacitors with other storage technologies to improve the overall performance of energy systems

Dr. Mojtaba Mirzaeian
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electric double layer capacitors
  • Pseudocapacitors
  • Capacitance
  • Carbon-based electrodes
  • Metal oxide-based electrodes
  • Electrolytes
  • Energy storage in electrochemical capacitors
  • Energy density
  • Power density

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
High-Energy Electrochemical Capacitors
by Mojtaba Mirzaeian
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103478 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
The decarbonization of energy to meet the low-carbon energy strategy set for 2050 has led to a continuous increase in the contribution of electricity generated from renewables to our growing energy demands, where their inherent intermittency of supply must be addressed by a [...] Read more.
The decarbonization of energy to meet the low-carbon energy strategy set for 2050 has led to a continuous increase in the contribution of electricity generated from renewables to our growing energy demands, where their inherent intermittency of supply must be addressed by a step-change in energy storage [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)

Research

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14 pages, 8964 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Channel Fast Impedance Spectroscopy Instrument Developed for Quality Assurance of Super-Capacitors
by Farhan Farooq, Asad Khan, Seung June Lee, Mohammad Mahad Nadeem and Woojin Choi
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041139 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
Conventional experimental methods for testing the performance of super-capacitors include the measurement of capacitance through charge and discharge, measurement of equivalent series resistance (ESR) and measurement of self-discharge and the equivalent circuit model (ECM) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). However, the methods are [...] Read more.
Conventional experimental methods for testing the performance of super-capacitors include the measurement of capacitance through charge and discharge, measurement of equivalent series resistance (ESR) and measurement of self-discharge and the equivalent circuit model (ECM) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). However, the methods are not suitable for the mass production line of supercapacitors since they require a long time for the test and several kinds of different instrument. EIS is an attractive method to evaluate the performance of supercapacitors except that it takes a long time for a single test. In this paper a fast EIS instrument suitable for quality assurance for the mass production of supercapacitors is proposed. In order to reduce the time for the test, a multi-sine sweeping method is used for the EIS test and the results are analyzed by extracting the parameters of the ECM to evaluate the performance of the supercapacitors. The proposed instrument is developed to have multi-channel to further decrease the time for the test with a supercapacitor. It is also presented as to how the extracted parameter values of the ECM can be used to evaluate the performance of the supercapacitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)
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21 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Pseudocapacitive Effect of Carbons Doped with Different Functional Groups as Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors
by Mojtaba Mirzaeian, Qaisar Abbas, Michael. R. C. Hunt and Peter Hall
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5577; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215577 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3324
Abstract
In this study, RF-based un-doped and nitrogen-doped aerogels were produced by polymerisation reaction between resorcinol and formaldehyde with sodium carbonate as catalyst and melamine as the nitrogen source. Carbon/activated carbon aerogels were obtained by carbonisation of the gels under inert atmosphere (Ar) followed [...] Read more.
In this study, RF-based un-doped and nitrogen-doped aerogels were produced by polymerisation reaction between resorcinol and formaldehyde with sodium carbonate as catalyst and melamine as the nitrogen source. Carbon/activated carbon aerogels were obtained by carbonisation of the gels under inert atmosphere (Ar) followed by activation of the carbons under CO2 at 800 °C. The BET analysis of the samples showed a more than two-fold increase in the specific Surf. area and pore volume of carbon from 537 to 1333 m2g−1 and 0.242 to 0.671 cm3g−1 respectively after nitrogen doping and activation. SEM and XRD analysis of the samples revealed highly porous amorphous nanostructures with denser inter-particle cross-linked pathways for the activated nitrogen-doped carbon. The X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the presence of nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms on the Surf. and within the carbon matrix where improvement in wettability with the drop in the contact angle from 123° to 80° was witnessed after oxygen and nitrogen doping. A steady drop in the equivalent series (RS) and charge transfer (RCT) resistances was observed by electrochemical measurements after the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. The highest specific capacitance of 289 Fg−1 with the lowest values of 0.11 Ω and 0.02 Ω for RS and RCT was achieved for nitrogen and oxygen dual-doped activated carbon in line with its improved Surf. chemistry and wettability, and its enhanced conductivity due to denser inter-particle cross-linked pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)
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16 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Pseudocapacitive Performance of Cobalt Oxide-Based Electrodes for Electrochemical Capacitors
by Mojtaba Mirzaeian, Nazym Akhanova, Maratbek Gabdullin, Zhanar Kalkozova, Aida Tulegenova, Shyryn Nurbolat and Khabibulla Abdullin
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5228; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195228 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3087
Abstract
Cobalt oxide nanopowders are synthesized by the pyrolysis of aerosol particles of water solution of cobalt acetate. Cobalt nanopowder is obtained by subsequent reduction of obtained cobalt oxide by annealing under a hydrogen atmosphere. The average crystallite size of the synthesized porous particles [...] Read more.
Cobalt oxide nanopowders are synthesized by the pyrolysis of aerosol particles of water solution of cobalt acetate. Cobalt nanopowder is obtained by subsequent reduction of obtained cobalt oxide by annealing under a hydrogen atmosphere. The average crystallite size of the synthesized porous particles ranged from 7 to 30 nm, depending on the synthesis temperature. The electrochemical characteristics of electrodes based on synthesized cobalt oxide and reduced cobalt oxide are investigated in an electrochemical cell using a 3.5 M KOH solution as the electrolyte. The results of electrochemical measurements show that the electrode based on reduced cobalt oxide (Re-Co3O4) exhibits significantly higher capacity, and lower Faradaic charge–transfer and ion diffusion resistances when compared to the electrodes based on the initial cobalt oxide Co3O4. This observed effect is mainly due to a wide range of reversible redox transitions such as Co(II) ↔ Co(III) and Co(III) ↔ Co(IV) associated with different cobalt oxide/hydroxide species formed on the surface of metal particles during the cell operation; the small thickness of the oxide/hydroxide layer providing a high reaction rate, and also the presence of a metal skeleton leading to a low series resistance of the electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)
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11 pages, 17535 KiB  
Article
Laser Cutting Characteristics on Uncompressed Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Dongkyoung Lee and Jungdon Suk
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102630 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are actively used for many applications due to many advantages. Although electrodes are important during laser cutting, most laser cutting studies use commercially available electrodes. Thus, effects of electrodes characteristics on laser cutting have not been effectively studied. Since the electrodes’ [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are actively used for many applications due to many advantages. Although electrodes are important during laser cutting, most laser cutting studies use commercially available electrodes. Thus, effects of electrodes characteristics on laser cutting have not been effectively studied. Since the electrodes’ characteristics can be manipulated in the laboratory, this study uses an uncompressed anode on laser cutting for the first time. Using the lab-made anode, this study identifies laser cutting characteristics of the uncompressed anode. First, the absorption coefficients of graphite and copper in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range are measured. The measured absorptivity of the graphite and copper at the wavelength of 1070 nm is 88.25% and 1.92%, respectively. In addition, cutting phenomena can be categorized in five regions: excessive cutting, proper cutting, defective cutting, excessive ablation, and proper ablation. The five regions are composed of a combination of multi-physical phenomena, such as ablation of graphite, melting of copper, evaporation of copper, and explosive boiling of copper. In addition, the top width varies in the order of 10 μm and 1 μm when applying high and low volume energy, respectively. The logarithmic relationship between the melting width and the volume laser energy was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)
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Review

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14 pages, 1236 KiB  
Review
Short Review: Timeline of the Electrochemical Lithium Recovery System Using the Spinel LiMn2O4 as a Positive Electrode
by Hwajoo Joo, Jaehan Lee and Jeyong Yoon
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236235 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3758
Abstract
Various lithium recovery technologies have been developed as securing lithium resources has become increasingly important. Among these technologies, the electrochemical lithium recovery (ELR) system is a rapid and eco-friendly extraction method that has been studied recently. In this paper, an ELR system using [...] Read more.
Various lithium recovery technologies have been developed as securing lithium resources has become increasingly important. Among these technologies, the electrochemical lithium recovery (ELR) system is a rapid and eco-friendly extraction method that has been studied recently. In this paper, an ELR system using a spinel-type LiMn2O4 (LMO) is briefly reviewed. As LMO electrodes have high Li+ selectivity and stability compared to other lithium battery cathodes, they have been widely used as positive electrodes for the ELR system. This paper summarizes the system proposal, LMO electrode modification, system analysis, and industrial applications. Perspectives of the ELR technology are presented considering the progress of the research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)
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41 pages, 5283 KiB  
Review
Current State and Future Prospects for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Systems
by Qaisar Abbas, Mojtaba Mirzaeian, Michael R.C. Hunt, Peter Hall and Rizwan Raza
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5847; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215847 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 7558
Abstract
Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems such as electrochemical capacitors, batteries and fuel cells are considered as the most important technologies proposing environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions to address rapidly growing global energy demands and environmental concerns. Their commercial applications individually or in [...] Read more.
Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems such as electrochemical capacitors, batteries and fuel cells are considered as the most important technologies proposing environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions to address rapidly growing global energy demands and environmental concerns. Their commercial applications individually or in combination of two or more devices are based on their distinguishing properties e.g., energy/power densities, cyclability and efficiencies. In this review article, we have discussed some of the major electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems and encapsulated their technological advancement in recent years. Fundamental working principles and material compositions of various components such as electrodes and electrolytes have also been discussed. Furthermore, future challenges and perspectives for the applications of these technologies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Electrochemical Capacitors)
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