Interesting Images from the Sea

A topical collection in Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This collection belongs to the section "Marine Diversity".

Viewed by 52281

Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Taxonomy and Systematics Group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2. Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands
Interests: stony corals; coral-associated fauna; coral reef conservation; coral taxonomy; coral trade; tropical marine biodiversity; marine invertebrates; marine biogeography; phylogeny reconstructions; marine invasives
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Kent St, Bentley, WA 6102 Australia
2. Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, Perth Cultural Centre, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
Interests: coral reef; Cnidaria; monitoring; phylogenetics; Scleractinia; taxonomy; systematics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Underwater photographers and aquarists produce many attractive pictures that may tell an interesting story. Most of these pictures are posted on websites and social media where they have little scientific relevance. They could also serve as basis for published observations in Diversity (as Interesting Images), which may lead to new scientific insights and hypotheses. Therefore, Diversity encourages the submission of such Interesting Images. A simple manuscript text (without introduction/methods/results/discussion) should be included, as a short note, preceded by an abstract (max 100 words), a maximum of seven keywords, and at least 5 references. There is no limit to the number of illustrations (which can be arranged as panels in Figures with captions), but they should all be relevant and of good quality. Video footage may be included as Electronic Supplementary Material. Image files can be included either in the template or uploaded separately in high resolution. There are no restrictions on use of color or image size; however, features should be sharp and not blurred. For readability, we recommend that any text in figures is at least 12 pt in size. Submitted images will be peer-reviewed under the same process as a regular research article.

Other relevant “Interesting images” in Diversity, please click here.

Prof. Dr. Bert W. Hoeksema
Dr. Zoe Richards
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diversity is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • animal behaviour
  • associated species
  • commensalism
  • distribution record
  • interspecific relations
  • life history
  • mutualism
  • parasitism
  • predator-prey relations
  • rarity
  • reproduction mechanism
  • species aggregations
  • unusual habitat

Published Papers (23 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

8 pages, 29126 KiB  
Interesting Images
Unique Aggregations of a Large Undescribed Solitary Tunicate in the Arabian Sea
by Kaveh Samimi-Namin, Tito Monteiro da Cruz Lotufo, Bert W. Hoeksema, Sarah M. Tweedt, Christopher Meyer and Gustav Paulay
Diversity 2024, 16(4), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/d16040221 - 06 Apr 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
We document aggregations of an undescribed benthic solitary tunicate of the family Pyuridae from the Arabian Sea. This new genus was found forming dense thickets in shallow rocky substrates around Masirah Island and the Dhofar area in Oman. Such aggregations of tunicates have [...] Read more.
We document aggregations of an undescribed benthic solitary tunicate of the family Pyuridae from the Arabian Sea. This new genus was found forming dense thickets in shallow rocky substrates around Masirah Island and the Dhofar area in Oman. Such aggregations of tunicates have not been reported before from coral reefs in the Indo-West Pacific region and the Atlantic. This observation contributes to our understanding of the ecology and biogeography of ascidians, setting the stage for a comprehensive species description and in-depth analysis of this species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1691 KiB  
Interesting Images
The Millepora Zone Is Back: Recent Findings from the Northernmost Region of the Maldives
by Irene Pancrazi, Hassan Ahmed, Giovanni Chimienti and Monica Montefalcone
Diversity 2024, 16(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/d16040204 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Three species of the tropical hydrocoral genus Millepora were common and abundant in the Maldives before 1998, characterizing extensive shallow reef areas known as ‘Millepora zones’. The 1998 heat wave resulted in mass mortality of all the Millepora species, the characteristic Millepora [...] Read more.
Three species of the tropical hydrocoral genus Millepora were common and abundant in the Maldives before 1998, characterizing extensive shallow reef areas known as ‘Millepora zones’. The 1998 heat wave resulted in mass mortality of all the Millepora species, the characteristic Millepora zones disappeared, and only a few observations of isolated colonies were reported in the years ahead. A recent expedition (January 2024) to the northernmost region of the Maldives (Ihavandhippolhu Atoll) revealed new Millepora zones at 7–13 m depth, suggesting a potential repopulation of a vulnerable genus considered regionally extinct. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1358 KiB  
Interesting Images
Coriocella and the Worms: First Record of Scale-Worm Asterophilia cf. culcitae Ectosymbiotic on a Mollusc
by Giulia Fassio
Diversity 2024, 16(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/d16010065 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Species of the mollusc genus Coriocella (Velutinidae) produce defensive biocompounds, making them potentially valuable hosts for other marine invertebrates. However, so far, only two instances of crustaceans ectosymbiotic on their mantle have been reported. This is the first observation, made in New Caledonia, [...] Read more.
Species of the mollusc genus Coriocella (Velutinidae) produce defensive biocompounds, making them potentially valuable hosts for other marine invertebrates. However, so far, only two instances of crustaceans ectosymbiotic on their mantle have been reported. This is the first observation, made in New Caledonia, of a pair of scale-worms identified as Asterophilia cf. culcitae (Polynoidae) hiding themselves on the mantle of Coriocella cf. tongana. This finding represents the first evidence of a symbiotic interaction between these two groups, expanding the association range for both taxa, and providing new insight into their, mostly unknown, ecology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 931 KiB  
Interesting Images
The Dancing Marsenia: The First Record of a Swimming Velutinid Mollusc
by Giulia Fassio and Johan Bas
Diversity 2024, 16(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/d16010040 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 967
Abstract
Among gastropods, the ability to swim has developed independently several times, mostly among Heterobranchia. Only a few species of Caenogastropoda are known to have swimming adults. Velutinidae Gray, 1840, is a family of caenogastropods with a fragile shell enclosed by the mantle. The [...] Read more.
Among gastropods, the ability to swim has developed independently several times, mostly among Heterobranchia. Only a few species of Caenogastropoda are known to have swimming adults. Velutinidae Gray, 1840, is a family of caenogastropods with a fragile shell enclosed by the mantle. The adults of this family are benthic and ectoparasites of ascidians. Here, we present the first recorded instance of a swimming velutinid, Marsenia cf. gemma, filmed in New Caledonia. The swim propulsion method was based on the movement of the snail’s foot, which followed a ∞-shaped curve. This first report changes our perspective on the biology of this family, unexpectedly placing it within the restricted group of swimming caenogastropods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

4 pages, 2063 KiB  
Interesting Images
Further Loss of Intertidal Mussel Stands on the Nova Scotia Coast (Canada) after the Passage of Cyclone Lee
by Ricardo A. Scrosati
Diversity 2023, 15(11), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15111150 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Intertidal mussel stands are common on temperate rocky seashores and host many small invertebrates, so they are important biodiversity reservoirs. Their integrity, however, is being increasingly affected by environmental extremes. An unusual cold snap in Nova Scotia (Canada) in February 2023 was followed [...] Read more.
Intertidal mussel stands are common on temperate rocky seashores and host many small invertebrates, so they are important biodiversity reservoirs. Their integrity, however, is being increasingly affected by environmental extremes. An unusual cold snap in Nova Scotia (Canada) in February 2023 was followed by the mass disappearance of mussel stands at mid-to-high elevations in rocky intertidal habitats. The present article presents evidence of significant losses at middle intertidal elevations following the passage of cyclone Lee in September 2023, which created severe surf conditions. The increasing occurrence of successive environmental extremes might challenge the persistence of these important biological systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 5388 KiB  
Interesting Images
Branching Lithophyllum Coralline Algae: Dominant Reef Builders on Herbivory-Depressed Tropical Reefs after High Coral Mortality
by Tom Schils
Diversity 2023, 15(9), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15091025 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
A unique shift in benthic community composition, where scleractinian corals are replaced by coralline algae, has been observed on coral reefs in Guam in the western Pacific. Guam’s reefs have been subjected to intense fishing pressure and impaired water quality for decades. Since [...] Read more.
A unique shift in benthic community composition, where scleractinian corals are replaced by coralline algae, has been observed on coral reefs in Guam in the western Pacific. Guam’s reefs have been subjected to intense fishing pressure and impaired water quality for decades. Since 2013, heat stress has emerged as an additional major threat to the island’s coral reefs. After a severe coral bleaching and mortality event in 2017, branching coralline algae of the genus Lithophyllum rapidly overgrew dead coral skeletons of the ecosystem engineer Acropora abrotanoides and have since become major components of forereef communities over a broad depth range. By now, the persistence of increased Lithophyllum cover meets the temporal criterium of phase shifts, but accurate estimates on the degree of dominance over appropriate spatial scales are lacking due to the absence of reliable baseline data. The ecological impacts of coral reef transitions towards increased coralline cover are unclear. Whereas carbonate budgets and reef growth could remain positive in the long term, the downstream effect of changes in structural complexity, (micro)habitat diversity, and benthic community composition on ecological processes and reef-associated faunal assemblages is unknown. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1528 KiB  
Interesting Images
Something’s Fishy: An Unexpected Intertidal Encounter with the New Zealand Lancelet, Epigonichthys hectori (Benham, 1901), near the Whangarei Heads, NZ
by Werner de Gier and Jeroen Hubert
Diversity 2023, 15(9), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15091017 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
A specimen of the endemic New Zealand lancelet Epigonichthys hectori (Benham, 1901) was found and photographed in the intertidal area of a beach near the Whangarei Heads in New Zealand. This only lancelet species for New Zealand is rarely caught and is known [...] Read more.
A specimen of the endemic New Zealand lancelet Epigonichthys hectori (Benham, 1901) was found and photographed in the intertidal area of a beach near the Whangarei Heads in New Zealand. This only lancelet species for New Zealand is rarely caught and is known for its specific habitat requirements, demanding clean, coarse sand. The specimen was found in an almost dried-out puddle during low tide on a beach with a lot of human activity. The species is also known to inhabit greater depths, making this observation (together with another recent, unpublished record) a constitution for evidence that it also inhabits tidal areas. Distribution records from the literature are reviewed, plotted on a map, and supplemented by this new observation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 543 KiB  
Interesting Images
Face-Down, Tail-Up: Unusual In Situ Behavior of the Blackchins Neoscopelus macrolepidotus, Neoscopelus microchir, and Scopelengys tristis (Myctophiformes: Neoscopelidae)
by Leah A. Bergman, Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Victoria E. Assad, Jessica N. Perelman, Jeffrey C. Drazen and Dhugal J. Lindsay
Diversity 2023, 15(7), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15070837 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Orienting vertically with the head facing upward allows fish to look for the shadow of their prey against ambient light, while also making their own shadow smaller to predators beneath them. Here, we describe the in situ behavior of three midwater fish in [...] Read more.
Orienting vertically with the head facing upward allows fish to look for the shadow of their prey against ambient light, while also making their own shadow smaller to predators beneath them. Here, we describe the in situ behavior of three midwater fish in the family Neoscopelidae, Neoscopelus macrolepidotus, Neoscopelus microchir, and Scopelengys tristis, all of which were observed facing vertically with the head downward. This behavior allows the fish to diminish its shadow to hide from predators while hunting prey below. Assessing unique behaviors helps us better understand the role of these and other poorly studied deep-sea fishes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 8404 KiB  
Interesting Images
Hidden Depths: A Unique Biodiversity Oasis in the Persian Gulf in Need of Further Exploration and Conservation
by Kaveh Samimi-Namin and Bert W. Hoeksema
Diversity 2023, 15(6), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15060779 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
The Persian Gulf, a young and shallow epicontinental sea, is known for its unique geological and oceanographic characteristics that foster its diverse and productive marine ecosystems. A substantial portion of the Gulf’s seafloor consists of unconsolidated soft sediments, making it unsuitable for colonization [...] Read more.
The Persian Gulf, a young and shallow epicontinental sea, is known for its unique geological and oceanographic characteristics that foster its diverse and productive marine ecosystems. A substantial portion of the Gulf’s seafloor consists of unconsolidated soft sediments, making it unsuitable for colonization by many sessile organisms. Consequently, relatively few hard grounds and submerged banks provide suitable habitats for benthic and substrate dwellers. This study documents a unique marine habitat on an offshore submerged bank, likely a raised salt dome, south of Qeshm Island, Iran. This area is home to a high concentration of ahermatypic coral species and remains relatively sheltered from human activities. The bank’s geographic location allows inflow currents from the Strait of Hormuz to transport larvae and nutrients, providing suitable substrates for various sessile invertebrates. Moreover, it causes the formation of Taylor columns, which affect fluid dynamics and circulation patterns, indirectly enhancing biodiversity. Despite facing risks from large-scale regional and localized threats, the bank’s remoteness from the main coast and its depth provide some protection. This study emphasizes the need for continued exploration and the implementation of effective conservation measures in the region, along with additional research to clarify the ecological and physical parameters supporting its diversity. It also presents the first in situ photographic evidence for the occurrence of some octocoral genera in the Gulf. Future research should investigate how the species compositions of hidden banks and shoals contribute to the overall biodiversity of the Persian Gulf. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

9 pages, 6268 KiB  
Interesting Images
Short-Lived Aggregations of Filograna/Salmacina Tube Worms in the Gulf of Oman
by Kaveh Samimi-Namin, Harry A. ten Hove, Michel R. Claereboudt, Gustav Paulay and Bert W. Hoeksema
Diversity 2022, 14(11), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14110902 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2008
Abstract
Dense aggregations of serpulid worms were encountered in the Daymaniyat Islands (Gulf of Oman) from 10 to 20 m depth, over the period January–March, 2021. The species responsible for these aggregations belongs to the Filograna/Salmacina-complex (Annelida: Serpulidae). This species has been present [...] Read more.
Dense aggregations of serpulid worms were encountered in the Daymaniyat Islands (Gulf of Oman) from 10 to 20 m depth, over the period January–March, 2021. The species responsible for these aggregations belongs to the Filograna/Salmacina-complex (Annelida: Serpulidae). This species has been present in the area and observed along the Oman coastline, but high-density aggregates like this have not been reported before. The most probable cause of the aggregations, supported by field observations and Aqua-MODIS satellite data, was natural eutrophication with a subsequent algal bloom linked to the local winter monsoon. This observation emphasises the importance of documenting biodiversity and dynamics of reef communities along the Oman coastline. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1905 KiB  
Interesting Images
Sea Cucumber (Holothuria arguinensis) as a Shelter for Juvenile Fish (Diplodus bellottii) in the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Spain)
by Gustavo F. De Carvalho-Souza, David Roque-Atienza and Enrique González-Ortegón
Diversity 2022, 14(10), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14100872 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
During a diving survey on soft-bottom habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Spain), the use of the sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis (Echinodermata, Holothuriidae) as a shelter by juvenile Senegal’s sea bream Diplodus bellottii (Chordata: Sparidae) was observed. Eight juvenile sea bream D. [...] Read more.
During a diving survey on soft-bottom habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Spain), the use of the sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis (Echinodermata, Holothuriidae) as a shelter by juvenile Senegal’s sea bream Diplodus bellottii (Chordata: Sparidae) was observed. Eight juvenile sea bream D. bellottii were videoed sheltering under the sea cucumber’s body. This observation highlights the importance of sea cucumbers as a shelter for juvenile fish, providing a microhabitat to take refuge from predators. This is the first report of juvenile sea bream sheltered by a sea cucumber. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1356 KiB  
Interesting Images
An Encrusting Hard Coral Enclosing Soft Coral in the High-Latitude Asia–Pacific Marginal Distribution Zone
by Taihun Kim and Do-Hyung Kang
Diversity 2022, 14(10), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14100856 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Environmentally adapted and resistant hard and soft coral communities within the high-latitude Asia–Pacific marginal distribution zone are thriving, despite their comparably stressful environment (unfavorable winter water temperature and light regimes). Korea’s Jeju Island is famous for its diverse and abundant soft coral communities, [...] Read more.
Environmentally adapted and resistant hard and soft coral communities within the high-latitude Asia–Pacific marginal distribution zone are thriving, despite their comparably stressful environment (unfavorable winter water temperature and light regimes). Korea’s Jeju Island is famous for its diverse and abundant soft coral communities, which coexist with reef-building hard corals. Although antagonistic interactions between soft and hard corals generally feature the soft coral as the winner, we observed a soft coral of the species Dendronephthya gigantea completely enclosed by the encrusting hard coral Montipora millepora accompanied by a general decrease in soft coral and increase in M. millepora abundances. This indicates an ongoing species/habitat shift with significant impacts on the current state of corals living at their geographic limit. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 3942 KiB  
Interesting Images
A New Northernmost Distribution Record of the Reef Coral Duncanopsammia axifuga at Bird’s Head Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia
by Beginer Subhan, Tries B. Razak, Dondy Arafat, Neviaty P. Zamani, Prehadi, Dea Fauzia Lestari and Bert W. Hoeksema
Diversity 2022, 14(9), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090713 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Duncanopsammia axifuga (Scleractinia: Dendrophylliidae) is reported for the first time from Indonesia. A population was found in 5-m deep, murky water on a sediment-rich, inshore reef at Bird’s Head Peninsula, West Papua. Some corals were attached to dead coral and others were loose [...] Read more.
Duncanopsammia axifuga (Scleractinia: Dendrophylliidae) is reported for the first time from Indonesia. A population was found in 5-m deep, murky water on a sediment-rich, inshore reef at Bird’s Head Peninsula, West Papua. Some corals were attached to dead coral and others were loose fragments living on sediment. One attached specimen was observed to be damaged as a result of direct contact with an adjacent Goniopora coral. Free-living specimens on sand are more likely able to escape competition for space. These observations may help to better understand the northernmost range limit and the natural environment of D. axifuga, a species that is popular in the international aquarium trade, but has not been studied very well in the field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2204 KiB  
Interesting Images
One on Top of the Other: Exploring the Habitat Cascades Phenomenon in Iconic Biogenic Marine Habitats
by Georgios Kazanidis, Adriano Guido, Antonietta Rosso, Rossana Sanfilippo, J. Murray Roberts and Vasilis Gerovasileiou
Diversity 2022, 14(4), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14040290 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
Biogenic habitats often form hot spots of biodiversity. However, the role of epibiosis and the ‘habitat cascades’ phenomenon in enhancing structural heterogeneity and biodiversity in biogenic habitats in remote and difficult-to-access areas is little known. In this work, we provide the first insight [...] Read more.
Biogenic habitats often form hot spots of biodiversity. However, the role of epibiosis and the ‘habitat cascades’ phenomenon in enhancing structural heterogeneity and biodiversity in biogenic habitats in remote and difficult-to-access areas is little known. In this work, we provide the first insight by exploring epibiosis across remote habitats that often support high levels of biodiversity, i.e., cold-water coral reefs and marine caves. The present study acts as a stepping-stone for the further exploration of ‘habitat cascades’ in habitats where scientific knowledge about this phenomenon is limited. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1730 KiB  
Interesting Images
Seahorse Predation by Octopuses in the Caribbean and the West Pacific
by Ellen Muller, David Harasti and Bert W. Hoeksema
Diversity 2022, 14(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14020125 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3879
Abstract
There is much documentation about seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) being threatened by habitat degradation and overfishing, but relatively few published studies mention their natural predators. The present study documents three cases in which seahorses are being caught by octopuses. In one case, the [...] Read more.
There is much documentation about seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) being threatened by habitat degradation and overfishing, but relatively few published studies mention their natural predators. The present study documents three cases in which seahorses are being caught by octopuses. In one case, the seahorse was partly consumed. These observations made at Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands) and New South Wales (Australia) suggest that predation on seahorses by octopuses may be more widespread and common than previously thought. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 1141 KiB  
Interesting Images
Alveopora japonica Conquering Temperate Reefs despite Massive Coral Bleaching
by Taihun Kim, Taeho Kim, Hyun-Sung Yang, Sun Kyeong Choi, Young Baek Son and Do-Hyung Kang
Diversity 2022, 14(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14020086 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
Alveopora japonica is restricted to the Asia-Pacific region, ranging from subtropical to temperate waters. In 2016, a massive bleaching event of an A. japonica population was observed at the south coast of Jeju Island, South Korea, which is within its northernmost limit. After [...] Read more.
Alveopora japonica is restricted to the Asia-Pacific region, ranging from subtropical to temperate waters. In 2016, a massive bleaching event of an A. japonica population was observed at the south coast of Jeju Island, South Korea, which is within its northernmost limit. After the bleaching event, most of the colonies had recovered by 2017. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

7 pages, 2031 KiB  
Interesting Images
The Reef Coral Coscinaraea marshae Is Not a High-Latitude Endemic
by Bert W. Hoeksema, Ofri Johan and Andreas Kunzmann
Diversity 2021, 13(12), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13120681 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
The ‘temperate’ reef coral Coscinaraea marshae Wells, 1962, is reported from Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia), a near-equatorial locality, 3375 km away from its northernmost range limit in Western Australia, where it is considered a high-latitude endemic. This tropical record suggests that the [...] Read more.
The ‘temperate’ reef coral Coscinaraea marshae Wells, 1962, is reported from Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia), a near-equatorial locality, 3375 km away from its northernmost range limit in Western Australia, where it is considered a high-latitude endemic. This tropical record suggests that the latitudinal distributions of poorly recorded reef corals may not yet be fully understood, which might be relevant in the light of progressing seawater warming. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 1644 KiB  
Interesting Images
Unusual Morphotypes of the Giant Barrel Sponge off the Coast of Barbados
by Joseph R. Pawlik, Denise C. Manker, James S. Evans, Patrick M. Erwin and Susanna López-Legentil
Diversity 2021, 13(12), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13120663 - 12 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Giant barrel sponges (GBSs) belong to a cryptic species complex (Xestospongia spp.) and are found on tropical reefs worldwide. Over their range, including most of the Caribbean, GBSs have a cylindrical shape, with variation in height, diameter and surface complexity. However, off [...] Read more.
Giant barrel sponges (GBSs) belong to a cryptic species complex (Xestospongia spp.) and are found on tropical reefs worldwide. Over their range, including most of the Caribbean, GBSs have a cylindrical shape, with variation in height, diameter and surface complexity. However, off the southwest coast of Barbados, GBSs mostly exhibit a clam shape or a tub shape, interspersed with a few that have the normal barrel morphotype, suggesting that this variation is not due to environmental factors. Haplotype identification (mtDNA-COI) of six clam and six normal sponges indicated no clear genetic differentiation based on morphotype; hence, this morphological variation remains unexplained. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 920 KiB  
Interesting Images
Crustaceans and Marine Heterobranchia: A New Symbiotic Relationship in the Mediterranean Sea
by Giulia Furfaro, Michele Solca and Paolo Mariottini
Diversity 2021, 13(12), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13120613 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
The “solar-powered” Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) is an endemic Mediterranean sacoglossan living in rocky substrates at shallow water. During a scuba dive, one E. timida was photographed and collected. The observation revealed the presence of a small crustacean of the Pinnotheridae family. It [...] Read more.
The “solar-powered” Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) is an endemic Mediterranean sacoglossan living in rocky substrates at shallow water. During a scuba dive, one E. timida was photographed and collected. The observation revealed the presence of a small crustacean of the Pinnotheridae family. It was not possible to assign the crustacean to a genus, but it shares typical ecological and external morphological features with other Pinnotherinae species. This is the first report of a pea crab hosted by a non-shelled Heterobranchia and the first case of a symbiotic association between crustaceans and marine Heterobranchia reported in the Mediterranean Sea. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

4 pages, 520 KiB  
Interesting Images
Salpivory by Colonial Reef Corals at Curaçao, Southern Caribbean
by Lars J. V. ter Horst and Bert W. Hoeksema
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13110560 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
A salp swarm was observed in Director’s Bay, Curaçao in July 2021, where salps were caught and consumed by three scleractinian colonial reef corals: Madracis auretenra, Locke, Weil & Coates, 2017; Meandrina meandrites (Linnaeus, 1758), and Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767). The first two [...] Read more.
A salp swarm was observed in Director’s Bay, Curaçao in July 2021, where salps were caught and consumed by three scleractinian colonial reef corals: Madracis auretenra, Locke, Weil & Coates, 2017; Meandrina meandrites (Linnaeus, 1758), and Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767). The first two scleractinians are newly recorded salpivores. Since the coral polyps were collaborating, predation was not restricted by polyp size. This is the first detailed report on salpivorous corals in the Caribbean. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 761 KiB  
Interesting Images
If You Plant It, They Will Come: Rapid Recruitment of Habitat-Dependent Marine Invertebrates to Transplanted Fragments of an Endangered Soft Coral Species
by Meryl F. Larkin, David Harasti, Tom R. Davis and Stephen D. A. Smith
Diversity 2021, 13(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020079 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3270
Abstract
In recent decades, the transplantation of corals has been a primary focus of restoration strategies in areas where coral populations have declined [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2020

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021

6 pages, 605 KiB  
Interesting Images
The First In Situ Observation of the Ram’s Horn Squid Spirula spirula Turns “Common Knowledge” Upside Down
by Dhugal J. Lindsay, James C. Hunt, Mardi McNeil, Robin J. Beaman and Michael Vecchione
Diversity 2020, 12(12), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12120449 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7583
Abstract
The ram’s horn squid Spirula spirula (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only extant cephalopod with an internal calcareous, chambered shell that is coiled, making it the sole living representative of the once speciose order Spirulida [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 2082 KiB  
Interesting Images
New Records of Heliopora hiberniana from SE Asia and the Central Indian Ocean
by Zoe T. Richards, Leon Haines, Patrick Scaps and Denis Ader
Diversity 2020, 12(9), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12090328 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet [...] Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop