An increased interest regarding the impact of frailty on the prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in the last decade. Frailty is a syndrome characterized by a reduced biological reserve that increases the vulnerability of an individual in relation to stressors. Among the patients with CVD, a higher incidence of frailty has been reported in those with heart failure (HF). Regardless of its conceptualizations, frailty is generally associated with negative outcomes in HF and an increased risk of mortality. Psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, increase the risk of negative outcomes on the cardiac function and mortality. Depression and anxiety are found to be common factors impacting the heart disease and quality of life (QoL) in patients with HF. Depression is considered an independent risk factor of cardiac-related incidents and death, and a strong predictor of rehospitalization. Anxiety seems to be an adequate predictor only in conjunction with depression. The relationship between psychological factors (depression and anxiety) and frailty in HF has hardly been documented. The aim of this paper is to review the reported data from relevant studies regarding the impact of depression and anxiety, and their effects on clinical outcomes and prognosis in frail patients with HF.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited