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The Role of Depression and Anxiety in Frail Patients with Heart Failure

Department of Nursing, Medical Faculty, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu”, 400083 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu”, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
ICU Department, Clinical Municipal Hospital, 400139 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diseases 2019, 7(2), 45;
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
PDF [365 KB, uploaded 19 June 2019]


An increased interest regarding the impact of frailty on the prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in the last decade. Frailty is a syndrome characterized by a reduced biological reserve that increases the vulnerability of an individual in relation to stressors. Among the patients with CVD, a higher incidence of frailty has been reported in those with heart failure (HF). Regardless of its conceptualizations, frailty is generally associated with negative outcomes in HF and an increased risk of mortality. Psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, increase the risk of negative outcomes on the cardiac function and mortality. Depression and anxiety are found to be common factors impacting the heart disease and quality of life (QoL) in patients with HF. Depression is considered an independent risk factor of cardiac-related incidents and death, and a strong predictor of rehospitalization. Anxiety seems to be an adequate predictor only in conjunction with depression. The relationship between psychological factors (depression and anxiety) and frailty in HF has hardly been documented. The aim of this paper is to review the reported data from relevant studies regarding the impact of depression and anxiety, and their effects on clinical outcomes and prognosis in frail patients with HF. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; depression; frailty; heart failure; psychological factors anxiety; depression; frailty; heart failure; psychological factors

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Hiriscau, E.I.; Bodolea, C. The Role of Depression and Anxiety in Frail Patients with Heart Failure. Diseases 2019, 7, 45.

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