Special Issue "Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Andrey Dunaev
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Orel State University, Orel, Russian Federation
Interests: measurement; optics and photonics; biomedical instrumentation; laser optics; optical diagnostics; physiology; instrumentation; biomedical engineering; fluorescence; applied optics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Light-based technologies present unique opportunities for the diagnosis of various pathological disorders of biological tissues. With the advancement of modern science, they allow for the non-invasive identification of diseases in the early stages. The range of applications of optical technologies in clinical practice is quite wide, since the optical properties of biological tissues are subject to significant changes in the development of the disease.

This Special Issue will highlight advantages and unique aspects of the use of optical diagnostic methods in identifying and evaluating various diseases and pathological conditions. Articles may focus on the application of technology, disease, or other aspects of the use of spectroscopy and imaging in clinical practice. Articles should reflect novel innovative research and emerging ideas.

Assoc. Prof. Andrey Dunaev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biophotonics
  • optics
  • spectroscopy
  • imaging
  • diagnostics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases
Diagnostics 2021, 11(5), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11050873 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Light-based technologies provide unique opportunities for the diagnosis of various pathological disorders of biological tissues [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Body Position Affects Capillary Blood Flow Regulation Measured with Wearable Blood Flow Sensors
Diagnostics 2021, 11(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030436 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 361
Abstract
In this study we demonstrate what kind of relative alterations can be expected in average perfusion and blood flow oscillations during postural changes being measured in the skin of limbs and on the brow of the forehead by wearable laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) [...] Read more.
In this study we demonstrate what kind of relative alterations can be expected in average perfusion and blood flow oscillations during postural changes being measured in the skin of limbs and on the brow of the forehead by wearable laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) sensors. The aims of the study were to evaluate the dynamics of cutaneous blood perfusion and the regulatory mechanisms of blood microcirculation in the areas of interest, and evaluate the possible significance of those effects for the diagnostics based on blood perfusion monitoring. The study involved 10 conditionally healthy volunteers (44 ± 12 years). Wearable laser Doppler flowmetry monitors were fixed at six points on the body: two devices were fixed on the forehead, on the brow; two were on the distal thirds of the right and left forearms; and two were on the distal thirds of the right and left lower legs. The protocol was used to record three body positions on the tilt table for orthostatic test for each volunteer in the following sequence: (a) supine body position; (b) upright body position (+75°); (c) tilted with the feet elevated above the head and the inclination of body axis of 15° (−15°, Trendelenburg position). Skin blood perfusion was recorded for 10 min in each body position, followed by the amplitude–frequency analysis of the registered signals using wavelet decomposition. The measurements were supplemented with the blood pressure and heart rate for every body position analysed. The results identified a statistically significant transformation in microcirculation parameters of the average level of skin blood perfusion and oscillations of amplitudes of neurogenic, myogenic and cardiac sensors caused by the postural changes. In paper, we present the analysis of microcirculation in the skin of the forehead, which for the first time was carried out in various positions of the body. The area is supplied by the internal carotid artery system and can be of particular interest for evaluation of the sufficiency of blood supply for the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Doppler Spectrum Analysis Based on Calculation of Cumulative Sums Detects Changes in Skin Capillary Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diagnostics 2021, 11(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020267 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
In this article, we introduce a new method of signal processing and data analysis for the digital laser Doppler flowmetry. Our approach is based on the calculation of cumulative sums over the registered Doppler power spectra. The introduced new parameter represents an integral [...] Read more.
In this article, we introduce a new method of signal processing and data analysis for the digital laser Doppler flowmetry. Our approach is based on the calculation of cumulative sums over the registered Doppler power spectra. The introduced new parameter represents an integral estimation for the redistribution of moving red blood cells over the range of speed. The prototype of the device implementing the technique is developed and tested in preliminary clinical trials. The methodology was verified with the involvement of two age groups of healthy volunteers and in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The main practical result of the study is the development of a set of binary linear classifiers that allow the method to identify typical patterns of the microcirculation for the healthy volunteers and diabetic patients based on the presented diagnostic algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Diagnostics of the Maxillary Sinuses by Digital Diaphanoscopy Technology
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010077 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 513
Abstract
The work is devoted to the development of a scientific and technical basis for instrument implementation of a digital diaphanoscopy technology for the diagnosis of maxillary sinus inflammatory diseases taking into account the anatomical features of patients (differences in skin structure, skull bone [...] Read more.
The work is devoted to the development of a scientific and technical basis for instrument implementation of a digital diaphanoscopy technology for the diagnosis of maxillary sinus inflammatory diseases taking into account the anatomical features of patients (differences in skin structure, skull bone thickness, and sinus size), the optical properties of exercised tissues, and the age and gender characteristics of patients. The technology is based on visualization and analysis of scattering patterns of low-intensity radiation as it passes through the maxillary sinuses. The article presents the experimental data obtained using the digital diaphanoscopy method and the results of numerical simulation of the optical radiation passage through the study area. The experimental setup has been modernized through the installation of a a device for controlling the LED applicator brightness. The approach proposed may have considerable promise for creating diagnostic criteria for various pathological changes and can be used to assess the differences in the optical and anatomical features of males and females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Multimodal Diagnostics of Microrheologic Alterations in Blood of Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetic Patients
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010076 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
Coronary heart disease (CHD) has serious implications for human health and needs to be diagnosed as early as possible. In this article in vivo and in vitro optical methods are used to study blood properties related to the aggregation of red blood cells [...] Read more.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) has serious implications for human health and needs to be diagnosed as early as possible. In this article in vivo and in vitro optical methods are used to study blood properties related to the aggregation of red blood cells in patients with CHD and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The results show not only a significant difference of the aggregation in patients compared to healthy people, but also a correspondence between in vivo and in vitro parameters. Red blood cells aggregate in CHD patients faster and more numerously; in particular the aggregation index increases by 20 ± 7%. The presence of T2DM also significantly elevates aggregation in CHD patients. This work demonstrates multimodal diagnostics and monitoring of patients with socially significant pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic Accuracy of Cross-Polarization OCT and OCT-Elastography for Differentiation of Breast Cancer Subtypes: Comparative Study
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10120994 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
The possibility to assess molecular-biological and morphological features of particular breast cancer types can improve the precision of resection margin detection and enable accurate determining of the tumor aggressiveness, which is important for treatment selection. To enable reliable differentiation of breast-cancer subtypes and [...] Read more.
The possibility to assess molecular-biological and morphological features of particular breast cancer types can improve the precision of resection margin detection and enable accurate determining of the tumor aggressiveness, which is important for treatment selection. To enable reliable differentiation of breast-cancer subtypes and evaluation of resection margin, without performing conventional histological procedures, here we apply cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and compare it with a novel variant of compressional optical coherence elastography (C-OCE) in terms of the diagnostic accuracy (Ac) with histological verification. The study used 70 excised breast cancer specimens with different morphological structure and molecular status (Luminal A, Luminal B, Her2/Neo+, non-luminal and triple-negative cancer). Our first aim was to formulate convenient criteria of visual assessment of CP-OCT and C-OCE images intended (i) to differentiate tumorous and non-tumorous tissues and (ii) to enable more precise differentiation among different malignant states. We identified such criteria based on the presence of heterogeneities and characteristics of signal attenuation in CP-OCT images, as well as the presence of inclusions/mosaic structures combined with visually feasible assessment of several stiffness grades in C-OCE images. Secondly, we performed a blinded reader study of the Ac of C-OCE versus CP-OCT, for delineation of tumorous versus non-tumorous tissues followed by identification of breast cancer subtypes. For tumor detection, C-OCE showed higher specificity than CP-OCT (97.5% versus 93.3%) and higher Ac (96.0 versus 92.4%). For the first time, the Ac of C-OCE and CP-OCT were evaluated for differentiation between non-invasive and invasive breast cancer (90.4% and 82.5%, respectively). Furthermore, for invasive cancers, the difference between invasive but low-aggressive and highly-aggressive subtypes can be detected. For differentiation between non-tumorous tissue and low-aggressive breast-cancer subtypes, Ac was 95.7% for C-OCE and 88.1% for CP-OCT. For differentiation between non-tumorous tissue and highly-aggressive breast cancers, Ac was found to be 98.3% for C-OCE and 97.2% for CP-OCT. In all cases C-OCE showed better diagnostic parameters independently of the tumor type. These findings confirm the high potential of OCT-based examinations for rapid and accurate diagnostics during breast conservation surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Monte Carlo Modeling of Shortwave-Infrared Fluorescence Photon Migration in Voxelized Media for the Detection of Breast Cancer
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110961 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 501
Abstract
Recent progress regarding shortwave-infrared (SWIR) molecular imaging technology has inspired another modality of noninvasive diagnosis for early breast cancer detection in which previous mammography or sonography would be compensated. Although a SWIR fluorescence image of a small breast cancer of several millimeters was [...] Read more.
Recent progress regarding shortwave-infrared (SWIR) molecular imaging technology has inspired another modality of noninvasive diagnosis for early breast cancer detection in which previous mammography or sonography would be compensated. Although a SWIR fluorescence image of a small breast cancer of several millimeters was obtained from experiments with small animals, detailed numerical analyses before clinical application were required, since various parameters such as size as well as body hair differed between humans and small experimental animals. In this study, the feasibility of SWIR was compared against visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region, using the Monte Carlo simulation in voxelized media. In this model, due to the implementation of the excitation gradient, fluorescence is based on rational mechanisms, whereas fluorescence within breast cancer is spatially proportional to excitation intensity. The fluence map of SWIR simulation with excitation gradient indicated signals near the upper surface of the cancer, and stronger than those of the NIR. Furthermore, there was a dependency on the fluence signal distribution on the contour of the breast tissue, as well as the internal structure, due to the implementation of digital anatomical data for the Visible Human Project. The fluorescence signal was observed to become weaker in all regions including the VIS, the NIR, and the SWIR region, when fluorescence-labeled cancer either became smaller or was embedded in a deeper area. However, fluorescence in SWIR alone from a cancer of 4 mm diameter was judged to be detectable at a depth of 1.4 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Blood Vessel Imaging at Pre-Larval Stages of Zebrafish Embryonic Development
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110886 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular animal model biological system. In cardiovascular research, it has been used to model specific cardiac phenomena as well as to identify novel therapies for human cardiovascular disease. While the zebrafish cardiovascular system functioning [...] Read more.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular animal model biological system. In cardiovascular research, it has been used to model specific cardiac phenomena as well as to identify novel therapies for human cardiovascular disease. While the zebrafish cardiovascular system functioning is well examined at larval stages, the mechanisms by which vessel activity is initiated remain a subject of intense investigation. In this research, we report on an in vivo stain-free blood vessel imaging technique at pre-larval stages of zebrafish embryonic development. We have developed the algorithm for the enhancement, alignment and spatiotemporal analysis of bright-field microscopy images of zebrafish embryos. It enables the detection, mapping and quantitative characterization of cardiac activity across the whole specimen. To validate the proposed approach, we have analyzed multiple data cubes, calculated vessel images and evaluated blood flow velocity and heart rate dynamics in the absence of any anesthesia. This non-invasive technique may shed light on the mechanism of vessel activity initiation and stabilization as well as the cardiovascular system’s susceptibility to environmental stressors at early developmental stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Raman Spectroscopy of Changes in the Tissues of Teeth with Periodontitis
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110876 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
The results of experimental studies of the tissues of teeth with periodontitis, using the Raman spectroscopy method, are presented in this work. Spectral changes in the tissues of teeth with periodontitis were identified, and the results can be used for the correction of [...] Read more.
The results of experimental studies of the tissues of teeth with periodontitis, using the Raman spectroscopy method, are presented in this work. Spectral changes in the tissues of teeth with periodontitis were identified, and the results can be used for the correction of treatment of this disease in dental practice. Criteria for the noninvasive diagnosis of periodontitis, based on changes in tooth enamel spectral properties, were developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Machine Learning Aided Photonic Diagnostic System for Minimally Invasive Optically Guided Surgery in the Hepatoduodenal Area
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110873 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Abdominal cancer is a widely prevalent group of tumours with a high level of mortality if diagnosed at a late stage. Although the cancer death rates have in general declined over the past few decades, the mortality from tumours in the hepatoduodenal area [...] Read more.
Abdominal cancer is a widely prevalent group of tumours with a high level of mortality if diagnosed at a late stage. Although the cancer death rates have in general declined over the past few decades, the mortality from tumours in the hepatoduodenal area has significantly increased in recent years. The broader use of minimal access surgery (MAS) for diagnostics and treatment can significantly improve the survival rate and quality of life of patients after surgery. This work aims to develop and characterise an appropriate technical implementation for tissue endogenous fluorescence (TEF) and assess the efficiency of machine learning methods for the real-time diagnosis of tumours in the hepatoduodenal area. In this paper, we present the results of the machine learning approach applied to the optically guided MAS. We have elaborated tissue fluorescence approach with a fibre-optic probe to record the TEF and blood perfusion parameters during MAS in patients with cancers in the hepatoduodenal area. The measurements from the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) channel were used as a sensor of the tissue vitality to reduce variability in TEF data. Also, we evaluated how the blood perfusion oscillations are changed in the tumour tissue. The evaluated amplitudes of the cardiac (0.6–1.6 Hz) and respiratory (0.2–0.6 Hz) oscillations was significantly higher in intact tissues (p < 0.001) compared to the cancerous ones, while the myogenic (0.2–0.06 Hz) oscillation did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. Our results demonstrate that a fibre-optic TEF probe accompanied with ML algorithms such as k-Nearest Neighbours or AdaBoost is highly promising for the real-time in situ differentiation between cancerous and healthy tissues by detecting the information about the tissue type that is encoded in the fluorescence spectrum. Also, we show that the detection can be supplemented and enhanced by parallel collection and classification of blood perfusion oscillations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
New Approaches in the Study of the Pathogenesis of Urethral Pain Syndrome
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110860 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
Introduction: Urethral pain syndrome (UPS) is still a pathology in which the diagnosis is formulated as a “diagnosis of exclusion”. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms are not yet fully understood and clear recommendations for the prevention and treatment of UPS are absent. Methods and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Urethral pain syndrome (UPS) is still a pathology in which the diagnosis is formulated as a “diagnosis of exclusion”. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms are not yet fully understood and clear recommendations for the prevention and treatment of UPS are absent. Methods and Participants: A clinical and laboratory evaluation of 55 patients with established UPS included history taking, basic laboratory tests (e.g., complete blood count and clinical urine test), physical examination, uroflowmetry, and cystourethroscopy. Additionally, transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) with compression elastography and cross-polarization optical tomography (CP OCT) were performed in 24 and 33 patients with UPS, respectively. The control group consisted of 14 patients with no complaints from the urinary system. Results: TVUS showed an expansion in the diameter of the internal lumen of the urethra, especially in the proximal region compared with the norm. Compression elastography revealed areas with increased stiffness (presence of fibrosis) in urethral and surrounding tissues. The performed CP OCT study showed that in UPS, the structure of the tissues in most cases was changed: trophic alterations in the epithelium (hypertrophy or atrophy) and fibrosis of underlying connective tissue were observed. The proximal fragment of the urethra with UPS underwent changes identical to those of the bladder neck. Conclusion: This paper showed that the introduction of new technology—CP OCT—in conjunction with TVUS will allow verification of structural changes in tissues of the lower urinary tract at the level of their architectonics and will help doctors understand better the basics of the UPS pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Liver Functional Reserve Estimation Technique Based on Optical Densitometry
Diagnostics 2020, 10(8), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080599 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
This work is aimed at creating a modified invasive technique for assessing the liver’s functional reserves. A study of the degree of hepatodepression is carried out by measuring the plasma elimination of indocyanine green using the method of optical densitometry. This paper presents [...] Read more.
This work is aimed at creating a modified invasive technique for assessing the liver’s functional reserves. A study of the degree of hepatodepression is carried out by measuring the plasma elimination of indocyanine green using the method of optical densitometry. This paper presents test results for an aqueous solution and an albumin solution, as well as the results of measurements of plasma elimination of indocyanine green for patients with liver disease. Perfecting the proposed method will make an important scientific contribution to modern diagnostic medicine. Diagnosing the stages in the progression of the disease and its developing complications can make it possible to rapidly correct the patient’s treatment algorithm, achieving positive outcomes in medical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cells with Cisplatin-Resistance by Feature Extraction of Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix Using Optical Images
Diagnostics 2020, 10(6), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10060389 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the most malignant of all gynecological cancers. A challenge that deteriorates with ovarian adenocarcinoma in neoplastic disease patients has been associated with the chemoresistance of cancer cells. Cisplatin (CP) belongs to the first-line chemotherapeutic agents and it would be beneficial [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the most malignant of all gynecological cancers. A challenge that deteriorates with ovarian adenocarcinoma in neoplastic disease patients has been associated with the chemoresistance of cancer cells. Cisplatin (CP) belongs to the first-line chemotherapeutic agents and it would be beneficial to identify chemoresistance for ovarian adenocarcinoma cells, especially CP-resistance. Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was characterized imaging from a numeric matrix and find its texture features. Serous type (OVCAR-4 and A2780), and clear cell type (IGROV1) ovarian carcinoma cell lines with CP-resistance were used to demonstrate GLCM texture feature extraction of images. Cells were cultured with cell density of 6 × 105 in a glass-bottom dish to form a uniform coverage of the glass slide to get the optical images by microscope and DVC camera. CP-resistant cells included OVCAR-4, A2780 and IGROV and had the higher contrast and entropy, lower energy, and homogeneity. Signal to noise ratio was used to evaluate the degree for chemoresistance of cell images based on GLCM texture feature extraction. The difference between wile type and CP-resistant cells was statistically significant in every case (p < 0.001). It is a promising model to achieve a rapid method with a more reliable diagnostic performance for identification of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells with CP-resistance by feature extraction of GLCM in vitro or ex vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Scattering of Light from the Systemic Circulatory System
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121026 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
There are many factors of methodological origin that influence the measurement of optical properties of the entire circulatory system which consists of blood as the basic component. The basic idea of this review article is to provide the optical properties of the circulatory [...] Read more.
There are many factors of methodological origin that influence the measurement of optical properties of the entire circulatory system which consists of blood as the basic component. The basic idea of this review article is to provide the optical properties of the circulatory system with all those factors of influence that have been employed in biomedical optics for different applications. We begin with the available optical properties, i.e., absorption, scattering and, reduced scattering coefficient, in general for any tissue inside the human body and prominent scattering theories (e.g., light, X-rays, neutrons) that are helpful in this regard. We have reviewed and compiled already available formulas and their respective available data for different human tissues for these optical properties. Then we have descended to the blood composition and to different scattering techniques available in the literature to study scattering and light propagation inside blood. We have reviewed both computational and theoretical scattering techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Human Diseases)
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