Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 26822

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Institute of Metal Forming, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Straße 4, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Interests: ICME—numerical material and process modeling for metallic materials; production processes (forming and heat treatment) for modern steels; development of alloy concepts and process technologies for the nanostructuring of structures as well as for the adjustment of metastable micro-structural phases; combination of experimental laboratory techniques with numerical simulation to model, evaluate and optimize industrial forming and heat treatment processes; forming technology
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Institut für Metallformung, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Interests: thermomechanical processes; metallic materials; materials processing; mechanical behavior; microstructure; crystallography; mechanical testing; mechanical properties
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Guest Editor
Institut für Metallformung, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Interests: multi-physics modeling; fatigue and fracture; crack propagation; crystal plasticity; metal matrix composite; material characterization; finite element analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advancement in material science has led to the development of complex materials for targeted applications and has pushed manufacturing boundaries. As the microstructural attributes of any material are responsible for bulk deformation behavior and life after failure, it is important to engineer microstructural attributes for obtaining the desired material properties necessary for their safe functionality during service life. The formability limits of such materials play a huge role in dictating bulk deformation process limits during manufacturing and, hence, can affect the cost of production significantly.

In the recent past, crystal plasticity-based numerical simulation models have paved the way for developing microstructurally informed, detailed models to analyze the global and local deformation behavior of single and multi-phase materials. Such models can be used to study the effect of microstructural artifacts on the deformation and damage behavior of materials under multiaxial loading conditions. In conjunction with machine learning algorithms, these models can also be applied to optimize the microstructural attributes for the desired material application or a process route.

In this Special Issue, we are looking forward to receiving, editing, and publishing articles from research groups using crystal plasticity-based microstructurally informed numerical models for providing answers to the challenges faced by forming industries, such as rolling, extrusion, and forging. Particularly, we welcome work related to thermo-mechanical treatments. In addition, the simulation of polycrystalline metals and alloys forming at different length scales for modeling of multiscale localization phenomena such as slip bands, cracks, and twins would be of interest.

We would be pleased to consider work related to the adoption of novel techniques that use the integrated framework between experiment and simulation to capture material forming, using materials informatics to interpret large scale datasets and guide continuum or microstructural theory developments.

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Prahl
Dr. Sergey Guk
Dr. Faisal Qayyum
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • crystal plasticity
  • bulk deformation
  • material forming
  • polycrystalline metals
  • numerical modeling
  • multiscale modeling
  • ICME
  • formability limit
  • microstructure
  • polycrystalline metals
  • multi-phase metals
  • process modeling
  • metal forming technology
  • computational materials engineering
  • plasticity
  • thermomechanical processes
  • materials processing
  • mechanical behavior
  • crystallography
  • mechanical testing
  • mechanical properties
  • multi-phase metallic materials
  • TRIP/TWIP Steels
  • metal matrix composites
  • multi-physics modeling

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 163 KiB  
Editorial
Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies
by Faisal Qayyum, Sergey Guk and Ulrich Prahl
Crystals 2022, 12(10), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12101466 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
The Special Issue on ‘Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies’ is a collection of 11 original articles dedicated to theoretical and experimental research that provides new insights and practical findings in topics related to crystal plasticity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)

Research

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25 pages, 9817 KiB  
Article
The Reliability of SAC305 Individual Solder Joints during Creep–Fatigue Conditions at Room Temperature
by Mohammed Abueed, Raed Al Athamneh, Moayad Tanash and Sa’d Hamasha
Crystals 2022, 12(9), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12091306 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
The failure of one solder joint out of the hundreds of joints in a system compromises the reliability of the electronics assembly. Thermal cycling is a result of both creep–fatigue mechanisms working together. To better understand the failure process in thermal cycling, it [...] Read more.
The failure of one solder joint out of the hundreds of joints in a system compromises the reliability of the electronics assembly. Thermal cycling is a result of both creep–fatigue mechanisms working together. To better understand the failure process in thermal cycling, it is crucial to analyze both the effects of creep and fatigue mechanisms in a methodical manner. In this work, individual solder junctions are subjected to accelerated shear fatigue testing to investigate the effects of creep and fatigue on joint dependability at room temperature. A modified fixture is used to conduct fatigue tests on an Instron 5948 micromechanical tester. SAC305 joints with an OSP surface finish were cycled under stress control at first, and then the strain was maintained for a set amount of time. In this investigation, three stress amplitudes of 16, 20, and 24 MPa are used, together with varying residence periods of 0, 10, 60, and 180 s. The fatigue life of solder junctions is described for each testing condition using the two-parameter Weibull distribution. Additionally, as a function of stress amplitude and residence time, a dependability model is created. For each testing scenario, the progression of the stress–strain loops was studied. By quantifying relevant damage metrics, such as plastic work per cycle and plastic strain at various testing circumstances, the damage due to fatigue is distinguished from creep. To investigate the relationships between plastic work and plastic strain with fatigue life, the Coffin–Manson and Morrow Energy model is used. The results indicate that using greater stress magnitudes or longer dwell periods significantly shortens fatigue life and dramatically increases plastic work and plastic strain. The housing impact is significant; in some circumstances, testing with a longer dwelling period and lower stress amplitude resulted in more damage than testing with a shorter dwelling period and higher stress levels. When illustrating the fatigue behavior of solder junctions under various stress amplitudes or dwellings, the Coffin–Manson and Morrow Energy model were both useful. In the end, general reliability models are developed as functions of plastic work and plastic strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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40 pages, 9004 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Structural, Microstructural, Elastic, and Microplastic Properties of the AAAC (A50) and ACSR (AC50/8) Cables after Various Operation Periods in Power Transmission Lines
by Aleksandr A. Levin, Maria V. Narykova, Alexey I. Lihachev, Boris K. Kardashev, Andrej G. Kadomtsev, Nikita D. Prasolov, Andrei G. Panfilov, Roman V. Sokolov, Pavel N. Brunkov, Makhsud M. Sultanov, Alexander V. Strizhichenko and Ilia A. Boldyrev
Crystals 2022, 12(9), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12091267 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
In modern economic infrastructure, Al cables of overhead power transmission lines are used both without and with a steel core (respectively, all aluminum alloy conductor (AAAC) and aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) cables). In this article, the changes in structural, microstructural, and elastic-microplastic [...] Read more.
In modern economic infrastructure, Al cables of overhead power transmission lines are used both without and with a steel core (respectively, all aluminum alloy conductor (AAAC) and aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) cables). In this article, the changes in structural, microstructural, and elastic-microplastic properties have been analyzed for the outer wires of the AAAC (A50) and ACSR cables (AC50/8 cables with a steel core of ~8 mm2 cross-section, hereinafter referred to as AC50) with the cross-section of the stranded conductor of ~50 mm2, which were in operation for 0–20 years in the Volgograd region of Russia. Using the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction, densitometry, and the acoustic method, the structural and microstructural features of the wires have been compared and found to be correlated with their elastic-microplastic properties. It has been ascertained that the presence of a steel core in AC50 leads to a decrease in the defectiveness of the near-surface layer of their aluminum wires. Compared with A50 cables, the development of void defects in the near-surface layer of Al-wires of AC50 cables slows down (by ~1 year with a service life of ~10 years and by ~3 years with a service life of ~20 years). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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10 pages, 2062 KiB  
Article
The Griffith Crack and the Interaction between Screw Dislocation and Semi-Infinite Crack in Cubic Quasicrystal Piezoelectric Materials
by Jiandong Pi and Lianhe Li
Crystals 2022, 12(9), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12091250 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
The Griffith crack problem and the interaction between screw dislocation and semi-infinite crack in cubic quasicrystal piezoelectric materials are studied by using the complex variable function method. The stress intensity factors and electric displacement intensity factors are obtained. The effects of the linear [...] Read more.
The Griffith crack problem and the interaction between screw dislocation and semi-infinite crack in cubic quasicrystal piezoelectric materials are studied by using the complex variable function method. The stress intensity factors and electric displacement intensity factors are obtained. The effects of the linear force and coupling elastic coefficient on the stress intensity factor of phonon field and phason fields are discussed in detail. By numerical examples, it is found that the linear force and the coupling elastic constant have a significant effect on the stress intensity factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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7 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Intergranular Cracking in Mg-Gd-Y Alloy during Tension Test
by Jianhua Liu, Jie Sun, Qingqiang Chen and Laixiao Lu
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081040 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
The intergranular cracking in the Mg-Gd-Y alloy was investigated by an in situ tension test combined with an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurement and digital image correlation (DIC). During the tension test, the crack was found at the triangle point of the grain [...] Read more.
The intergranular cracking in the Mg-Gd-Y alloy was investigated by an in situ tension test combined with an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurement and digital image correlation (DIC). During the tension test, the crack was found at the triangle point of the grain boundary area with profuse slip traces. DIC results show that inhomogeneous strain distribution can be found at the triangle point area, leads to serious deformation incompatibility at this point. This also leads to a weak point for crack initiation, and as tension strain increases, the crack would extend from the weak point along the grain boundary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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18 pages, 7549 KiB  
Article
Transformation of 2D RVE Local Stress and Strain Distributions to 3D Observations in Full Phase Crystal Plasticity Simulations of Dual-Phase Steels
by Shaochen Tseng, Faisal Qayyum, Sergey Guk, Chingkong Chao and Ulrich Prahl
Crystals 2022, 12(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12070955 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
Crystal plasticity-based numerical simulations help understand the local deformation behavior of multiphase materials. It is known that in full phase simulations, the local 2-dimensional (2D) representative volume elements (RVEs) results are distinctly different from 3-dimensional (3D) RVEs. In this work, the difference in [...] Read more.
Crystal plasticity-based numerical simulations help understand the local deformation behavior of multiphase materials. It is known that in full phase simulations, the local 2-dimensional (2D) representative volume elements (RVEs) results are distinctly different from 3-dimensional (3D) RVEs. In this work, the difference in the results of 2D and 3D RVEs is investigated systematically, and the effect of magnification, total strain and composition are analyzed. The 3D RVEs of dual-phase (DP)-steel are generated using DREAM-3D. The 2D RVEs are the sliced surfaces of corresponding 3D RVEs for a direct pixel-to-pixel comparison of results. It is shown that the corresponding 3D distribution can be rapidly derived from the 2D result based on the alternative error and least square method. The interactive parameters for these processes are identified and analyzed for the ferrite phase, which provides information about the convergence. Examined by qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis, it is shown that the corresponding 2D distribution by the fourth iteration has a prominent similarity with the exact 3D distribution. The work presented here contributes toward solving the paradox of comparing local strain from 2D crystal plasticity (CP) simulations with the effective 3D specimen used for tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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19 pages, 7152 KiB  
Article
Description of Dynamic Recrystallization by Means of An Advanced Statistical Multilevel Model: Grain Structure Evolution Analysis
by Peter Trusov, Nikita Kondratev and Andrej Podsedertsev
Crystals 2022, 12(5), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12050653 - 02 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
Physical multilevel models of inelastic deformation that take into account the material structure evolution hold promise for the development of functional materials. In this paper, we propose an advanced (modified via analyzing the mutual arrangement of crystallites) statistical multilevel model for studying thermomechanical [...] Read more.
Physical multilevel models of inelastic deformation that take into account the material structure evolution hold promise for the development of functional materials. In this paper, we propose an advanced (modified via analyzing the mutual arrangement of crystallites) statistical multilevel model for studying thermomechanical processing of polycrystals that includes a description of the dynamic recrystallization process. The model is based on the consideration of homogeneous elements (grains, subgrains) aggregated into a representative volume (macropoint) under the Voigt hypothesis. In the framework of this statistical approach, there is no mandatory requirement for continuous filling of the computational domain with crystallites; however, the material grain structure cannot be created arbitrarily. Using the Laguerre polyhedra, we develop a method of grain structure simulation coupled with subsequent processing and transferring of the necessary data on the grain structure to the modified statistical model. Our research is of much current interest due to the fact that the mutual arrangement of crystallites, as well as the interfaces between them, has a significant impact on the properties of polycrystals, which are particularly important for physical mechanisms that provide and accompany the processes of inelastic deformation (recrystallization, grain boundary hardening, grain boundary sliding, etc.). The results of the simulations of the high-temperature deformation of a copper polycrystal, including the description of the recrystallization process, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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12 pages, 12022 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of Grain-Boundary Misorientation on Slip Transfer in Magnesium Alloy Using a Misorientation Distribution Map
by Jie Sun, Jianhua Liu, Qingqiang Chen, Laixiao Lu and Yanhua Zhao
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030388 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
The microstructure evolution of a Mg–Gd–Y alloy was studied using uniaxial tension combined with an electron backscatter diffraction technique. The results show that large amounts of slip transfer phenomena can be observed around the grain–boundary area after tension, and the activation of these [...] Read more.
The microstructure evolution of a Mg–Gd–Y alloy was studied using uniaxial tension combined with an electron backscatter diffraction technique. The results show that large amounts of slip transfer phenomena can be observed around the grain–boundary area after tension, and the activation of these slips depends largely on the misorientation of grain boundaries. The Mg–Gd–Y alloy shows almost randomized grain–boundary misorientation, but transferred slip traces were preferred at boundaries with misorientation around the [0001] axis between 0–30°. Theoretically, materials with a higher fraction of slip transfer at the grain–boundary area would improve the ductility. Upon comparing the two groups of magnesium alloy with different grain–boundary misorientation distributions, the one with more grain boundaries favored for slip transfer achieved higher elongation during a tension test. Therefore, in addition to weakening the texture, adjusting the misorientation of the grain boundaries appears to be a new method to improve the ductility of magnesium alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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16 pages, 12734 KiB  
Article
Development of the Concurrent Multiscale Discrete-Continuum Model and Its Application in Plasticity Size Effect
by Zhenting Zhang, Zhen Tong and Xiangqian Jiang
Crystals 2022, 12(3), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12030329 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
A concurrent multiscale model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics to the finite element method is developed to investigate the plastic mechanism of materials at micron/submicron length scales. In this model, the plastic strain is computed in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) and transferred to the [...] Read more.
A concurrent multiscale model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics to the finite element method is developed to investigate the plastic mechanism of materials at micron/submicron length scales. In this model, the plastic strain is computed in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) and transferred to the finite element method (FEM) to participate in the constitutive law calculation, while the FEM solves the complex boundary problem for DDD simulation. The implementation of the whole coupling scheme takes advantage of user subroutines in the software ABAQUS. The data structures used for information transferring are introduced in detail. Moreover, a FE mesh-based regularization method is proposed to localize the discrete plastic strain to continuum material points. Uniaxial compression tests of single crystal micropillars are performed to validate the developed model. The results indicate the apparent dependence of yield stress on sample size, and its underlying mechanisms are also analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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30 pages, 18949 KiB  
Article
Influence of Non-Metallic Inclusions on Local Deformation and Damage Behavior of Modified 16MnCrS5 Steel
by Faisal Qayyum, Muhammad Umar, Vladislav Elagin, Markus Kirschner, Frank Hoffmann, Sergey Guk and Ulrich Prahl
Crystals 2022, 12(2), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12020281 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
This work investigates a ferrite matrix with multiple non-metallic inclusions to evaluate their influence on the global and local deformation and damage behavior of modified 16MnCrS5 steel. For this purpose, appropriate specimens are prepared and polished. The EBSD technique is used to record [...] Read more.
This work investigates a ferrite matrix with multiple non-metallic inclusions to evaluate their influence on the global and local deformation and damage behavior of modified 16MnCrS5 steel. For this purpose, appropriate specimens are prepared and polished. The EBSD technique is used to record local phase and orientation data, then analyze and identify the size and type of inclusions present in the material. The EBSD data are then used to run full phase crystal plasticity simulations using DAMASK-calibrated material model parameters. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of these full phase simulations provides a detailed insight into how the distribution of non-metallic inclusions within the ferrite matrix affects the local stress, strain, and damage behavior. In situ tensile tests are carried out on specially prepared miniature dog-bone-shaped notched specimens in ZEISS Gemini 450 scanning electron microscope with a Kammrath and Weiss tensile test stage. By adopting an optimized scheme, tensile tests are carried out, and local images around one large and several small MnS inclusions are taken at incremental strain values. These images are then processed using VEDDAC, a digital image correlation-based microstrain measurement tool. The damage initiation around several inclusions is recorded during the in situ tensile tests, and damage initiation, propagation, and strain localization are analyzed. The experimental results validate the simulation outcomes, providing deeper insight into the experimentally observed trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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11 pages, 2960 KiB  
Article
Low Temperature and High-Pressure Study of Bending L-Leucinium Hydrogen Maleate Crystals
by Kseniya D. Skakunova and Denis A. Rychkov
Crystals 2021, 11(12), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11121575 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2290 | Correction
Abstract
The polymorphism of molecular crystals is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in modifications of physicochemical properties of solid phases. Low temperatures and high pressures are widely used to find phase transitions and quench new solid forms. In this study, L-Leucinium hydrogen maleate (LLHM), the [...] Read more.
The polymorphism of molecular crystals is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in modifications of physicochemical properties of solid phases. Low temperatures and high pressures are widely used to find phase transitions and quench new solid forms. In this study, L-Leucinium hydrogen maleate (LLHM), the first molecular crystal that preserves its anomalous plasticity at cryogenic temperatures, is studied at extreme conditions using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy. LLHM was cooled down to 11 K without any phase transition, while high pressure impact leads to perceptible changes in crystal structure in the interval of 0.0–1.35 GPa using pentane-isopentane media. Surprisingly, pressure transmitting media (PTM) play a significant role in the behavior of the LLHM system at extreme conditions—we did not find any phase change up to 3.05 GPa using paraffin as PTM. A phase transition of LLHM to amorphous form or solid–solid phase transition(s) that results in crystal fracture is reported at high pressures. LLHM stability at low temperatures suggests an alluring idea to prove LLHM preserves plasticity below 77 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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Review

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34 pages, 19724 KiB  
Review
Crystal Plasticity Simulation of Magnesium and Its Alloys: A Review of Recent Advances
by Mohammadreza Yaghoobi, George Z. Voyiadjis and Veera Sundararaghavan
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040435 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4011
Abstract
Slip and extension twinning are the dominant deformation mechanisms in Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Crystal plasticity is a powerful tool to study these deformation mechanisms. Different schemes have incorporated crystal plasticity models to capture different properties, which vary from the simple homogenization [...] Read more.
Slip and extension twinning are the dominant deformation mechanisms in Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Crystal plasticity is a powerful tool to study these deformation mechanisms. Different schemes have incorporated crystal plasticity models to capture different properties, which vary from the simple homogenization Taylor model to the full-scale crystal plasticity finite element model. In the current study, a review of works available in the literature that addresses different properties of Mg and its alloys using crystal plasticity modes is presented. In addition to slip and twinning, detwinning is another deformation mechanism that is activated in Mg and its alloys. The different models that capture detwinning will also be addressed here. Finally, the recent experimental frameworks, such as in-situ neutron diffraction, 3D high energy synchrotron X-ray techniques, and digital image correlation under scanning electron microscopy (SEM-DIC), which are incorporated along crystal plasticity models to investigate the properties of Mg and its alloys, are addressed. Future research directions towards improving the deformation response of Mg and its alloys are identified, which can lead to increased deployment of the lightest structural metal in engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Crystal Plasticity in Forming Technologies)
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