Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Hybrid and Composite Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 17492

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: graphene-based materials; electrochemical (bio)sensors; surface analysis; functionalization; coatings; catalysis

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Interests: graphene-based materials; materials for energy applications; materials chemistry; electrochemistry; carbon nanotubes; thin films and nanotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Graphene-based materials, such as monolayer graphene, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, as well as functionalized versions of all these, are an essential part of innovative technologies relevant to the development of many fields of industry. The use of graphene-based nanostructures or their nanocomposites with specific physicochemical properties could promote technological progress in electronics, catalysis, biosensors, biomedicine, and many other areas that can improve the quality of human life. Due to the broad and diverse range of potential applications of graphene-based materials, the development of new synthesis and functionalization pathways, reliable characterization, and a better understanding of the structure-property relationships in materials are rightfully considered to be critical scientific issues. Scientific research dealing with the synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of graphene-based materials will contribute positively to the development of future technologies.

The scope of this Special Issue of Crystals, entitled “Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials”, includes, but is not limited to, the preparation and functionalization routes, characterization, and application of graphene-based materials, as well as their nanocomposite materials that are important in the fields of electronics, energy storage, and biomedicine, among others. We would like to invite researchers to submit work in the form of an original research article or a review paper related to the new synthesis methods of graphene-based nanomaterials, and their prospects in the different fields of application.

Dr. Justina Gaidukevic
Prof. Dr. Jurgis Barkauskas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • graphene and its related materials
  • reduced graphene oxide
  • carbon nanotubes
  • nanocomposites
  • synthesis and preparation
  • functionalization
  • surface characterization
  • coatings
  • (bio)sensors
  • energy storage devices

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 7680 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Small Quasi-Square Graphene Nanoflakes
by Andrés Serna-Gutiérrez and Nicolás A. Cordero
Crystals 2024, 14(4), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14040314 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The rise of straintronics—the possibility of fine-tuning the electronic properties of nanosystems by applying strain to them—has enhanced the interest in characterizing the mechanical properties of these systems when they are subjected to tensile (or compressive), shear and torsion strains. Four parameters are [...] Read more.
The rise of straintronics—the possibility of fine-tuning the electronic properties of nanosystems by applying strain to them—has enhanced the interest in characterizing the mechanical properties of these systems when they are subjected to tensile (or compressive), shear and torsion strains. Four parameters are customarily used to describe the mechanical behavior of a macroscopic solid within the elastic regime: Young’s and shear moduli, the torsion constant and Poisson’s ratio. There are some relations among these quantities valid for elastic continuous isotropic systems that are being used for 2D nanocrystals without taking into account the non-continuous anisotropic nature of these systems. We present in this work computational results on the mechanical properties of six small quasi-square (aspect ratio between 0.9 and 1.1) graphene nanocrystals using the PM7 semiempirical method. We use the results obtained to test the validity of two relations derived for macroscopic homogeneous isotropic systems and sometimes applied to 2D systems. We show they are not suitable for these nanostructures and pinpoint the origin of some discrepancies in the elastic properties and effective thicknesses reported in the literature. In an attempt to recover one of these formulas, we introduce an effective torsional thickness for graphene analogous to the effective bending thickness found in the literature. Our results could be useful for fitting interatomic potentials in molecular mechanics or molecular dynamics models for finite carbon nanostructures, especially near their edges and for twisted systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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13 pages, 3792 KiB  
Article
Ultraviolet Exposure Improves SERS Activity of Graphene-Coated Ag/ZrO2 Substrates
by Hanna Bandarenka, Aliaksandr Burko, Diana Laputsko, Lizaveta Dronina, Nikolai Kovalchuk, Alise Podelinska, Uladzislau Shapel, Anatoli I. Popov and Dmitry Bocharov
Crystals 2023, 13(11), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13111570 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 859
Abstract
This study reveals a significant improvement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Ag/ZrO2 substrates covered with a few-layer graphene preliminary exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. The SERS-active substrates are formed by the “silver mirror” deposition of Ag nanoparticles on annealed zirconia [...] Read more.
This study reveals a significant improvement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Ag/ZrO2 substrates covered with a few-layer graphene preliminary exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. The SERS-active substrates are formed by the “silver mirror” deposition of Ag nanoparticles on annealed zirconia blocks. The film composed of ~3 graphene layers is grown on copper foil by a chemical vapor deposition and then wet-transferred to the SERS-active substrates. The graphene-free Ag/ZrO2 samples are found to provide an enhancement of the Raman scattering from rhodamine 6G (R6G) at a micromolar concentration, which is associated with combined effects from the surface plasmon resonance in the Ag nanoparticles and a charge transfer facilitated by zirconium dioxide. It is revealed that the SERS signal from the analyte molecules can be suppressed by a UV exposure of the Ag/ZrO2 samples due to photocatalytic activity of the wide band gap semiconductor. However, if the samples are covered with a few-layer graphene (Gr/Ag/ZrO2) it prevents the dye molecule decomposition upon the UV treatment and improves SERS activity of the substrates. The 365 nm treatment leads to a 40% increase in the 10–6 M R6G SERS spectrum intensity, while the 254 nm irradiation causes it to rise by 47%, which is explained by different responses from the surface and bulk zirconia crystals to the short and long UV wavelengths. This enhancement is attributed to the distinct responses of surface and in-depth zirconia crystals to varied UV wavelengths and underscores the pivotal role of graphene as a protective and enhancing layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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15 pages, 9830 KiB  
Article
Graphocrown—A Novel, Two-Dimensional Oxocarbon: A Theoretical Study
by Mikhail A. Kalinin, Maximilian Kriebel, Alexander S. Oshchepkov and Dmitry I. Sharapa
Crystals 2023, 13(6), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13060909 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
An innovative 2D-material, graphocrown, was designed and studied. Our graphocrown computations revealed a higher stability compared to previous materials studied with the same generalized C2O formula. The energetic benefit of the graphocrown formation from benzenehexol was also evaluated. The structure and [...] Read more.
An innovative 2D-material, graphocrown, was designed and studied. Our graphocrown computations revealed a higher stability compared to previous materials studied with the same generalized C2O formula. The energetic benefit of the graphocrown formation from benzenehexol was also evaluated. The structure and properties of graphocrowns with various layer arrangements were analysed and compared. In addition, the formation of potassium complexes with the new material was studied. It was found that graphocrown binds potassium better than 18-crown-6, and the intercalation of graphocrown with potassium is more favourable, compared to graphite. Finally, the band structure, as well as the mobility of the charge carriers in the graphocrown, were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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17 pages, 5543 KiB  
Article
Effect of pH and Concentration of Dopamine Solution on the Deposited Polydopamine Film and the Prepared Graphene-like Material
by Dongyang Wang, Qiang Wang, Zongqiong Lin, Tiantian Pang and Ning Ding
Crystals 2023, 13(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13040607 - 2 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
In this study, according to the acquired polydopamine deposition rates, polydopamine films with equal thickness were prepared under different conditions on SiO2 substrates. Subsequently, we investigated the influence of dopamine solution pH and concentration on the formation of surface aggregates of the [...] Read more.
In this study, according to the acquired polydopamine deposition rates, polydopamine films with equal thickness were prepared under different conditions on SiO2 substrates. Subsequently, we investigated the influence of dopamine solution pH and concentration on the formation of surface aggregates of the deposited polydopamine films. Assumptions were made to explain how pH and concentration execute their effects. Based on the optimized parameters, a continuous and smooth polydopamine film with a thickness of about 14 nm and a roughness of 1.76 nm was fabricated on a silicon dioxide substrate, through the deposition for 20 minutes in a dopamine solution with a concentration of 1.5 mg/mL and a pH of 8.2. The prepared polydopamine film was then employed as a precursor and subjected to a high-temperature process for the carbonization and graphitization of the film. Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the resulting graphene-like film had fewer structural defects in comparison with previous works and the results of XPS indicated that most of the carbon atoms were bound into the cross-linked honeycomb lattice structure. The prepared graphene-like material also exhibited high electrical conductivity and satisfying mechanical elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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14 pages, 2999 KiB  
Article
Effect of Few-Layer Graphene on the Properties of Mixed Polyolefin Waste Stream
by S. M. Nourin Sultana, Emna Helal, Giovanna Gutiérrez, Eric David, Nima Moghimian and Nicole R. Demarquette
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020358 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
This work demonstrates how the addition of few-layer graphene (FLG) influences the processability and mechanical properties of the mixed polyolefin waste stream (R-(PE/PP)). Three different types of compounds were investigated: (1) R-(PE/PP) with FLG; (2) blends of R-(PE/PP) with prime polyethylene (PE) or [...] Read more.
This work demonstrates how the addition of few-layer graphene (FLG) influences the processability and mechanical properties of the mixed polyolefin waste stream (R-(PE/PP)). Three different types of compounds were investigated: (1) R-(PE/PP) with FLG; (2) blends of R-(PE/PP) with prime polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) or PP copolymer; and (3) R-(PE/PP) with both the prime polymer and FLG. The processability was assessed by measuring the torque during melt extrusion, the melt flow index (MFI), and viscosity of the compounds. Investigations of the processability and mechanical properties of the composites indicate that the presence of FLG can reinforce the composites without hindering the processability, an unusual but desired feature of rigid fillers. A maximum increase in tensile strength by 9%, flexural strength by 23%, but a reduction in impact strength were observed for the compounds containing R-(PE/PP), 4 wt.% FLG, and 9 wt.% prime PP. The addition of FLG concentrations higher than 4 wt.% in R-(PE/PP), however, resulted in higher tensile and flexural properties while preserving the impact strength. Remarkably, the addition of 10 wt.% FLG increased the impact strength of the composite by 9%. This increase in impact strength is attributed to the dominant resistance of the rigid FLG particles to crack propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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18 pages, 3291 KiB  
Article
Effect of Polar Faces of SiC on the Epitaxial Growth of Graphene: Growth Mechanism and Its Implications for Structural and Electrical Properties
by Stefan A. Pitsch and R. Radhakrishnan Sumathi
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020189 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
In this study, epitaxial graphene layers of cm2 sizes were grown on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by high-temperature sublimation. The behavior of the two crystallographic SiC-polar faces and its effect on the growth mechanism of graphene layers and their properties were investigated. [...] Read more.
In this study, epitaxial graphene layers of cm2 sizes were grown on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by high-temperature sublimation. The behavior of the two crystallographic SiC-polar faces and its effect on the growth mechanism of graphene layers and their properties were investigated. Crystallographic structural differences observed in AFM studies were shown to cause disparities in the electrical conductivity of the grown layers. On the silicon-polar (Si-polar) face of SiC, the graphene formation occurred in spike-like structures that originated orthogonally from atomic steps of the substrate and grew outwards in the form of 2D nucleation with a fairly good surface coverage over time. On the carbon-polar (C-polar) face, a hexagonal structure already formed at the beginning of the growth process. On both polar faces, the known process of step-bunching promoted the formation of nm-scale structural obstacles. Such a step-bunching effect was found to be more pronounced on the C-polar face. These 2D-obstacles account for a low probability of a complete nano-sheet formation, but favor 2D-structures, comparable to graphene nanoribbons. The resulting direction-dependent anisotropic behavior in electrical conductivity measured by four-point probe method mainly depends on the height and spacing between these structural-obstacles. The anisotropy becomes less prudent as and when more graphene layers are synthesized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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10 pages, 3313 KiB  
Article
Adsorption and Sensing Properties of Formaldehyde on Chemically Modified Graphene Surfaces
by Lunwei Yang, Wei Xiao, Jianwei Wang, Xiaowu Li and Ligen Wang
Crystals 2022, 12(4), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12040553 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Chemically modifying graphene (such as chemical doping) is a commonly used method to improve its formaldehyde sensing properties, but the microscopic mechanisms of heteroatoms in the adsorption and sensing process are still unclear. In this paper, the adsorption and sensing properties of formaldehyde [...] Read more.
Chemically modifying graphene (such as chemical doping) is a commonly used method to improve its formaldehyde sensing properties, but the microscopic mechanisms of heteroatoms in the adsorption and sensing process are still unclear. In this paper, the adsorption and sensing properties of formaldehyde on graphene surfaces modified by X doping (X = B, N, O, P, S, Mg and Al) were systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. The adsorption geometries, adsorption energies, charge transfers, and electronic structures were obtained and analyzed. The adsorption strengths of HCHO molecule on the Mg- and Al-doped graphene surfaces were stronger than those of non-metal (B, N, O, P and S)-doped cases. These results showed that the Mg- or Al-doped graphene was better for HCHO detecting than the non-metal-doped graphene systems. The sensing properties were simulated by theNEGF method for the two-probe nano-sensors constructed from Al- and Mg-doped graphene. The maximum sensing responses of nano-sensors based on Al- and Mg-doped graphene were obtained to be 107% and 60%, respectively. The present study supplies a theoretical basis for designing superior graphene-based HCHO gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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Review

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14 pages, 2255 KiB  
Review
Graphene Production and Biomedical Applications: A Review
by Klaudia Malisz and Beata Świeczko-Żurek
Crystals 2023, 13(10), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13101413 - 23 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial composed of carbon atoms with sp2 hybrid orbitals. Both graphene and graphene-based composite have gained broad interest among researchers because of their outstanding physiochemical, mechanical, and biological properties. Graphene production techniques are divided into top-down and bottom-up [...] Read more.
Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial composed of carbon atoms with sp2 hybrid orbitals. Both graphene and graphene-based composite have gained broad interest among researchers because of their outstanding physiochemical, mechanical, and biological properties. Graphene production techniques are divided into top-down and bottom-up synthesis methods, of which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most popular. The biomedical applications of graphene and its composite include its use in sensors, implantology, and gene and drug delivery. They can be used for tissue engineering, anticancer therapies, and as antimicrobial agents in implant application. The biocompatibility of graphene-based nanomaterials enables their use in the field of biomedicine. This article reviews the properties of graphene, the methods used to produce it, the challenges associated with its use, and the potential applications of this material in biomedicine, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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24 pages, 5218 KiB  
Review
Graphene Supports for Metal Hydride and Energy Storage Applications
by Cezar Comanescu
Crystals 2023, 13(6), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13060878 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Energy production, distribution, and storage remain paramount to a variety of applications that reflect on our daily lives, from renewable energy systems, to electric vehicles and consumer electronics. Hydrogen is the sole element promising high energy, emission-free, and sustainable energy, and metal hydrides [...] Read more.
Energy production, distribution, and storage remain paramount to a variety of applications that reflect on our daily lives, from renewable energy systems, to electric vehicles and consumer electronics. Hydrogen is the sole element promising high energy, emission-free, and sustainable energy, and metal hydrides in particular have been investigated as promising materials for this purpose. While offering the highest gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacity of all known materials, metal hydrides are plagued by some serious deficiencies, such as poor kinetics, high activation energies that lead to high operating temperatures, poor recyclability, and/or stability, while environmental considerations related to the treatment of end-of-life fuel disposal are also of concern. A strategy to overcome these limitations is offered by nanotechnology, namely embedding reactive hydride compounds in nanosized supports such as graphene. Graphene is a 2D carbon material featuring unique mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties, which all recommend its use as the support for metal hydrides. With its high surface area, excellent mechanical strength, and thermal conductivity parameters, graphene can serve as the support for simple and complex hydrides as well as RHC (reactive hydride composites), producing nanocomposites with very attractive hydrogen storage properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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Other

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10 pages, 1655 KiB  
Brief Report
Laser-Induced Graphene in Polyimide for Antenna Applications
by Aivaras Sartanavičius, Justina Žemgulytė, Paulius Ragulis, Karolis Ratautas and Romualdas Trusovas
Crystals 2023, 13(7), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13071003 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Laser-induced graphene (LIG) has gained considerable attention recently due to its unique properties and potential applications. In this study, we investigated using LIG in polyimide (PI) as a material for antenna applications. The LIG-−PI composite material was prepared by a facile picosecond laser [...] Read more.
Laser-induced graphene (LIG) has gained considerable attention recently due to its unique properties and potential applications. In this study, we investigated using LIG in polyimide (PI) as a material for antenna applications. The LIG-−PI composite material was prepared by a facile picosecond laser (1064 nm) irradiation process, which resulted in a conductive graphene network within the PI matrix. Furthermore, LIG formation was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements. Finally, a patch antenna from LIG with 2.45 GHz microwaves was simulated, produced and tested. These findings suggest that LIG−PI composites have great potential for use in high-frequency electronic devices and can provide a new avenue for the development of flexible and wearable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Graphene-Based Materials)
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