Special Issue "Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Stefano Farris

Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Packaging Division, Milan State University, via Celoria 2, Milan 20133, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +39-0250316672
Interests: biopolymer coatings; food packaging; gas barrier coatings; nanostructured coatings; nanocomposite coatings; surface activation of polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global packaging industry has steadily grown over the recent years, with sales mostly concentrated in Asia, North America, and Western Europe, which together accounted for approximately 80% of the total in value terms. According to recent studies, the segmentation of the market is forecasted to change by 2018, with emerging countries gaining a larger share of the market in North America and Western Europe. The food and beverage sector, in particular, accounts for a large share of global packaging production, with a potential demand growth rate of 3.4%, on average, to 2018. Several reasons drive this growth. Among others, growing urbanization, increased living standards, and personal disposable income in the developing regions play a main role.

The increasing demand for food and beverage packaging materials (especially oil-based plastics) poses serious concerns in terms of environmental impact. Over recent years, several strategies have been undertaken to face the threat associated with the large amount of non-biodegradable plastics dumped into landfills and seas. For example, biodegradable plastics from renewable resources have been considered to be the most promising alternative to plastics of fossil origin. However, high production costs, low performance and, not less important, ethical implications, still hinder the market penetration of bioplastics. Recyclability is similarly deemed as a valid approach for reducing the overall production of plastic packaging materials. However, technical limitations associated with the physicochemical properties of polymers, the economic disadvantages of recycling multi-layer structures and highly contaminated materials, inadequate recycling plants, and lack of incentives invest explain why the only efficient closed loop recycling process for plastics concerns PET bottles.

Of late, coating technology has been proposed as an additional strategy for accomplishing a more rational use of the materials used within the food packaging sector. According to the packaging optimization concept, the use of multifunctional thin layers would allow the replacement of multi-layer and heavy structures, thus reducing the upstream amount of packaging materials, while keeping (or even improving) the functional properties of the final package, so as to pursue the goal of overall shelf life extension. Concurrently, the increasing requirements among consumers for convenience, smaller package sizes, and for minimally processed, fresh, and healthy foods have imposed the necessity of designing highly sophisticated and engineered coatings. To this scope, new chemical pathways, new raw materials (e.g., biopolymers), and non-conventional deposition technologies have been used. Nanotechnology, in particular, paved the way for the development of new architectures and never before seen patterns that eventually yielded nanostructured and nanocomposite coatings with outstanding performances.

This Special Issue of Coatings on "Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings" is intended to cover original research articles as well as critical reviews and perspectives on all aspects related to recent advances in the design and development of coatings for the food and beverage packaging sector (e.g., gas barrier, water vapor barrier, antifog, UV-shield, sealing, and active coatings). Contributions on the potential impact of coatings on environmental issues (e.g., bio-based coating systems, water-based formulations, and recycling of coated materials) are particularly welcome.

Dr. Stefano Farris
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • biopolymer coatings
  • environmental impact
  • functional barrier
  • multifunctional coatings
  • nanocomposite coatings
  • nanostructured coatings
  • oxygen barrier coatings
  • packaging optimization
  • shelf life extension

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Novel Way of Adhering PET onto Protein (Wheat Gluten) Plastics to Impart Water Resistance
Coatings 2018, 8(11), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8110388
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
This study presents an approach to protect wheat gluten (WG) plastic materials against water/moisture by adhering it with a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film using a diamine (Jeffamine®) as a coupling agent and a compression molding operation. The laminations were applied using
[...] Read more.
This study presents an approach to protect wheat gluten (WG) plastic materials against water/moisture by adhering it with a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film using a diamine (Jeffamine®) as a coupling agent and a compression molding operation. The laminations were applied using two different methods, one where the diamine was mixed with the WG powder and ground together before compression molding the mixture into plates with PET films on both sides. In the other method, the PET was pressed to an already compression molded WG, which had the diamine brushed on the surface of the material. Infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation data indicated that the diamine did act as a coupling agent to create strong adhesion between the WG and the PET film. Both methods, as expected, yielded highly improved water vapor barrier properties compared to the neat WG. Additionally, these samples remained dimensionally intact. Some unintended side effects associated with the diamine can be alleviated through future optimization studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Elaboration and Characterization of Active Apple Starch Films Incorporated with Ellagic Acid
Coatings 2018, 8(11), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8110384
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
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Abstract
Apple starch films were obtained from apples harvested at 60, 70, 80 and 90 days after full bloom (DAFB). Mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP) were evaluated. The apple starch films at 70 DAFB presented higher values in the variables of tensile
[...] Read more.
Apple starch films were obtained from apples harvested at 60, 70, 80 and 90 days after full bloom (DAFB). Mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP) were evaluated. The apple starch films at 70 DAFB presented higher values in the variables of tensile strength (8.12 MPa), elastic modulus (3.10 MPa) and lower values of water vapor permeability (6.77 × 10−11 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1) than apple starch films from apples harvested at 60, 80 and 90 DAFB. Therefore, these films were chosen to continue the study incorporating ellagic acid (EA). The EA was added at three concentrations [0.02% (FILM-EA0.02%), 0.05% (FILM-EA0.05%) and 0.1% (FILM-EA0.1%) w/w] and compared with the apple starch films without EA (FILM-Control). The films were characterized by their physicochemical, optical, morphological and mechanical properties. Their thermal stability and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. The FILM-Control and FILM-EA0.02% showed a uniform surface, while FILM-EA0.05% and FILM-EA0.1% showed a rough surface and insoluble EA particles. Compared to FILM-Control, EA modified the values of tensile strength, elasticity modulus and elongation at break. The antioxidant capacity increased as EA concentration did. EA incorporation allowed obtaining films with higher antioxidant capacity, capable of blocking UV light with better mechanical properties than film without EA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Superhydrophobic Bio-Coating Made by Co-Continuous Electrospinning and Electrospraying on Polyethylene Terephthalate Films Proposed as Easy Emptying Transparent Food Packaging
Coatings 2018, 8(10), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8100364
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Interest in coated films with micro/nanofeatures has grown rapidly in recent years due to their enhanced functional performance and better durability under demanding contact conditions or aggressive environments. In the current work, it is reported a one-step co-continuous bilayer coating process to generate
[...] Read more.
Interest in coated films with micro/nanofeatures has grown rapidly in recent years due to their enhanced functional performance and better durability under demanding contact conditions or aggressive environments. In the current work, it is reported a one-step co-continuous bilayer coating process to generate a multilayer film that rendered superhydrophobicity to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. A continuous coating based on ultrathin polylactide (PLA) fibers was deposited onto PET films by means of electrospinning, which increased the water contact angle of the substrate. Sequentially, nanostructured silica (SiO2) microparticles were electrosprayed onto the coated PET/PLA films to achieve superhydrophobic behavior. This multilayer was then treated at different annealing temperatures, that is, 150 °C, 160 °C, and 170 °C, in order to create interlayers’ adhesion to each other and to the substrate. It was found that co-continuous deposition of PLA fibers and nanostructured SiO2 microparticles onto PET films constituted a useful strategy to increase the surface hydrophobicity of the PET substrate, achieving an optimal apparent water contact angle of 170° and a sliding angle of 6°. Unfortunately, a reduction in background transparency was observed compared to the uncoated PET film, especially after electrospraying of the SiO2 microparticles but the films were seen to have a good contact transparency. The materials developed show significant potential in easy emptying transparent food packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Photoactivated Self-Sanitizing Chlorophyllin-Containing Coatings to Prevent Microbial Contamination in Packaged Food
Coatings 2018, 8(9), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8090328
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Chlorophyllins are semi-synthetic porphyrins obtained from chlorophyll that—when exposed to visible light—generate radical oxygen substances with antimicrobial activity. In this work, chlorophyllins incorporated with polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (HPMC), and gelatin (G) were formulated for application as coatings in packages
[...] Read more.
Chlorophyllins are semi-synthetic porphyrins obtained from chlorophyll that—when exposed to visible light—generate radical oxygen substances with antimicrobial activity. In this work, chlorophyllins incorporated with polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (HPMC), and gelatin (G) were formulated for application as coatings in packages providing antimicrobial activity after photoactivation. First, the antimicrobial properties of two porphyrins (sodium magnesium chlorophyllin, E-140, and sodium copper chlorophyllin, E-141) were analyzed against L. monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that E-140 was more active than E-141 and that chlorophyllins were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, both chlorophyllins were more efficient when irradiated with halogen lamps than with LEDs, and they were inactive in dark conditions. Then, coatings on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film were prepared, and their effect against the test bacteria was similar to that shown previously with pure chlorophyllins, i.e., greater activity in films containing E-140. Among the coating matrices, those based on PE presented the least effect (1 log reduction), whereas PVOH, HPMC, and G were lethal (7 log reduction). The self-sanitizing effect of these coatings was also analyzed by contaminating the surface of the coatings and irradiating them through the PET surface, which showed high efficiency, although the activity of the coatings was limited to L. monocytogenes. Finally, coated films were applied as separators of bologna slices. After irradiation, all the films showed count reductions of L. monocytogenes and the usual microbial load; the gelatin coating was the most effective, with an average of 3 log reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of an Edible Coating Based on Chitosan and Oxidized Starch on Shelf Life of Carica papaya L., and Its Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties
Coatings 2018, 8(9), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8090318
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Papaya production plays an important economic role in Mexico’s economy. After harvest, it continues to ripen, leading to softening, skin color changes, development of strong aroma, and microbial spoilage. The objective of this work was to apply an active coating of chitosan–starch to
[...] Read more.
Papaya production plays an important economic role in Mexico’s economy. After harvest, it continues to ripen, leading to softening, skin color changes, development of strong aroma, and microbial spoilage. The objective of this work was to apply an active coating of chitosan–starch to increase papaya shelf life and to evaluate physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of the coating. Papaya surfaces were coated with a chitosan-oxidized starch (1:3 w/w) solution and stored at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C) for 15 days. Variables measured were color, titratable acidity, vitamin C, pH, soluble solids, volatile compounds by gas chromatography, texture, homogeneity by image analysis, and coating antimicrobial activity. At the end of the storage time, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between coated and uncoated papayas for pH (4.3 ± 0.2), titratable acidity (0.12% ± 0.01% citric acid), and soluble solids (12 ± 0.2 °Bx). Papaya firmness decreased to 10 N for coated and 0.5 N for uncoated papayas. Volatile compounds identified in uncoated papaya (acetic acid, butyric acid, ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate) are related to fermentation. Total microbial population of coated papaya decreased after 15 days, whereas population of uncoated papaya increased. This active coating permitted longer shelf life of papaya than that of the uncoated fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Chitosan Coating Structure and Changes during Storage on Their Egg Preservation Performance
Coatings 2018, 8(9), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8090317
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
To explore the influences of chitosan coating structure and structure changes during storage on egg preservation, eggs coated by chitosan solution for single time (CS1), two times (CS2), and three times (CS3) were prepared separately and stored with untreated eggs (CK1), eggs washed
[...] Read more.
To explore the influences of chitosan coating structure and structure changes during storage on egg preservation, eggs coated by chitosan solution for single time (CS1), two times (CS2), and three times (CS3) were prepared separately and stored with untreated eggs (CK1), eggs washed by water (CK2) and eggs treated by acetic acid solution (CK3) at 25 °C, 80% RH. The weight loss, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, eggshell morphologies and infrared (FTIR—Fourier Transform Infrared) spectra of all the samples were monitored. CS2 and CS3 presented the lowest weight loss, highest Haugh unit and yolk index, stabilized pH, and the highest thickness of chitosan coating layers (>2 μm) among all the groups, which extended egg shelf life for 20 days longer compared to CK1 and CK2. CS1 with very thin chitosan coating showed similar egg qualities with CK3, which are second only to CS2 and CS3. Furthermore, destructions were found on chitosan coatings during storage as revealed by the eggshell morphologies and FTIR spectra, which caused the quality deterioration of eggs. The results demonstrated that eggs with the thickest coating showed the best qualities during storage, while destructions on coating layers led to the quality drop of eggs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Alginate and Chitosan as a Functional Barrier for Paper-Based Packaging Materials
Coatings 2018, 8(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8070235
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paper-based food packaging materials are widely used, renewable, and biodegradable. Because of its porous structure, paper has poor or no barrier performance against grease, water vapor, water, and volatile organic compounds. Moreover, recycled paperboard can be a source of organic residuals that are
[...] Read more.
Paper-based food packaging materials are widely used, renewable, and biodegradable. Because of its porous structure, paper has poor or no barrier performance against grease, water vapor, water, and volatile organic compounds. Moreover, recycled paperboard can be a source of organic residuals that are able to migrate into packed food. Two different types of paperboard produced from primary and secondary cellulosic fibers were coated using renewable materials, such as alginate and chitosan, and comprehensive barrier measurements showed multifunctional barrier properties of these two biomaterials. Both paper substrates were successfully coated using a draw-down coater, and the measured air permeability of the coated samples was 0 mL·min−1. Grease resistance was improved, while it was possible to reduce water vapor transmission, the migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH/MOAH), and the permeation of volatile compounds for both paper substrates when compared with uncoated substrates. Wettability and water absorptiveness of chitosan- and alginate-coated papers were found to be substrate-dependent properties, and could be significantly affected by bio-based coatings. In summary, industrially produced paperboard was upgraded by coating it with the naturally biodegradable biopolymers, alginate and chitosan, thus achieving extraordinary barrier performance for various applications within the packaging industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Effective Postharvest Preservation of Kiwifruit and Romaine Lettuce with a Chitosan Hydrochloride Coating
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110196
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kiwifruits and romaine lettuce, among the most horticulturally-consumed fresh products, were selected to investigate how to reduce damage and losses before commercialization. The film-forming properties, physico-chemical, and morphological characteristics, as well as the antimicrobial response against Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
[...] Read more.
Kiwifruits and romaine lettuce, among the most horticulturally-consumed fresh products, were selected to investigate how to reduce damage and losses before commercialization. The film-forming properties, physico-chemical, and morphological characteristics, as well as the antimicrobial response against Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum of chitosan hydrochloride (CH)-based coatings were investigated. The results underlined the film-forming capability of this CH that maintained its physico-chemical characteristics also after dissolution in water. Morphological investigations by FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) underlined a well-distributed and homogeneous thin coating (less than 3–5 μm) on the lettuce leaves that do not negatively affect the food product functionality, guaranteeing the normal breathing of the food. FESEM images also highlighted the good distribution of CH coating on kiwifruit peels. The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that both the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and the bacterial growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were totally inhibited by the presence of CH, whereas in vivo antimicrobial properties were proved for 5–7 days on lettuce and until to 20–25 days on kiwifruits, demonstrating that the proposed coating is able to contrast gray mold frequently caused by the two selected plant pathogens during postharvest phases of fruit or vegetable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Testing of PVA/Chitosan Bilayer Films for Strawberry Packaging
Coatings 2017, 7(8), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7080109
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strawberry packaging based on four different chitosan–poly(vinylalcohol) blend films with chitosan contents of 0 wt %, 20 wt %, 25 wt %, and 30 wt % was tested. The samples were stored at 18 ± 2 °C and 60% ± 5% relative humidity
[...] Read more.
Strawberry packaging based on four different chitosan–poly(vinylalcohol) blend films with chitosan contents of 0 wt %, 20 wt %, 25 wt %, and 30 wt % was tested. The samples were stored at 18 ± 2 °C and 60% ± 5% relative humidity for six days. Strawberry quality was evaluated during and after storage. Strawberries packaged using these films showed significant differences in weight loss and firmness, decay percentage, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and ascorbic acid content when compared to non-packaged strawberries. The 25 wt % bilayer film showed the best performance in terms of delaying changes in strawberries. The findings suggest that these 25 wt % chitosan films can used to extend strawberry shelf lives while maintaining quality levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Technological Strategies to Preserve Burrata Cheese Quality
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
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Abstract
Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out
[...] Read more.
Burrata cheese is a very perishable product due to microbial proliferation and undesirable sensory changes. In this work, a step-by-step optimization approach was used to design proper processing and packaging conditions for burrata in brine. In particular, four different steps were carried out to extend its shelf life. Different headspace gas compositions (MAP-1 30:70 CO2:N2; MAP-2 50:50 CO2:N2 and MAP-3 65:35 CO2:N2) were firstly tested. To further promote product preservation, a coating was also optimized. Then, antimicrobial compounds in the filling of the burrata cheese (lysozyme and Na2-EDTA) and later in the coating (enzymatic complex and silver nanoparticles) were analyzed. To evaluate the quality of the samples, in each step headspace gas composition, microbial population, and pH and sensory attributes were monitored during storage at 8 ± 1 °C. The results highlight that the antimicrobial compounds in the stracciatella, coating with silver nanoparticles, and packaging under MAP-3 represent effective conditions to guarantee product preservation, moving burrata shelf life from three days (control sample) to ten days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
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