Coatings and Interfaces in Cultural Heritage Conservation and Preservation

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 12321

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: coatings; surfaces and interfaces; wetting and dewetting; superhydrophobicity and superomniphobicity; water repellency and self-cleaning; nanostructured materials; biomimetics; nanocomposites; nanoparticles; polymers; archaeological chemistry; textile history; conservation science
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: surface modification and functionalization; wettability; nanomaterials; thin layer; cultural heritage protection; colloids and interfaces; photocatalysis and VOC sensing; advanced oxidation processes for environmental remediation; formulation technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Conservation Department, The Palace Museum, Beijing 100009, China
Interests: pigment; ceramics; glaze; glass; bead
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Investigative Science, Historic England, Fort Cumberland, Fort Cumberland Rd, Southsea, Portsmouth PO4 9LD, UK
Interests: heritage science; archaeological science; nanomaterials; organic coatings; photocatalysis; material characterization; conservation of cultural heritage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface and interfacial phenomena are extremely important for the conservation and preservation of objects and buildings of historical or cultural value, as they play pivotal roles in the interactions of the original cultural heritage materials with (i) the environment and (ii) modern conservation products such as adhesives, biocides, coatings and consolidants, just to name a few. Moreover, surface phenomena and interfacial interactions are involved in any cleaning procedure (contact or non-contact) applied to buildings and objects of cultural heritage. Finally, interfaces are inherently important for multi-constituent composite materials and multilayer objects (e.g., paintings) which have been produced since antiquity.

The Special Issue will serve as a forum for research papers, communications, and review articles in the following concepts, within the broad area of cultural heritage conservation:

  • Advanced adhesives, biocides and consolidants for the conservation of natural stone, metal, wood, paper, ceramics, paintings and textiles.
  • Natural and synthetic protective coatings for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage.
  • Anti-graffiti materials.
  • Green conservation materials.
  • Multifunctional and composite conservation materials.
  • Interfacial phenomena in cleaning procedures for objects and buildings of cultural heritage: wet methods, gels and methods using non-contact tools for surface cleaning.
  • Multilayer cultural heritage objects: analysis and degradation phenomena.
  • Interactions of cultural heritage materials with the environment: durability, deterioration and decay.

Prof. Dr. Ioannis Karapanagiotis
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Cappelletti
Dr. Yong Lei
Dr. Francesca Gherardi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cultural heritage
  • art
  • surface
  • interface
  • coating

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3587 KiB  
Article
Tuning the Wettability of a Commercial Silane Product to Induce Superamphiphobicity for Stone Protection
by Panagiotis N. Manoudis, Zebunnisa Chughtai, Vasilios Tsiridis, Sotiris P. Evgenidis, Panagiotis K. Spathis, Thodoris D. Karapantsios and Ioannis Karapanagiotis
Coatings 2023, 13(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13040700 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Silane-based materials are used for the protection of heritage and modern buildings. A versatile method is developed to tune the wetting properties of a typical silane-based material from hydrophobicity to superamphiphobicity, thus enhancing the protective efficacy against rainwater and organic pollutants. A commercially [...] Read more.
Silane-based materials are used for the protection of heritage and modern buildings. A versatile method is developed to tune the wetting properties of a typical silane-based material from hydrophobicity to superamphiphobicity, thus enhancing the protective efficacy against rainwater and organic pollutants. A commercially available silane product is blended with a fluoropolymer to lower the surface energy and silica (SiO2) nanoparticles to affect the surface morphologies of the produced coatings on marble. Contact angles of water and oil drops are measured on the coating surfaces which were prepared using 16 different combinations of fluoropolymer and nanoparticle concentrations. It is shown that the synergistic effect of surface structure and chemistry can lead to the production of coatings that possess superamphiphobic properties. The wetting properties of a selected non-wettable coating are further characterised using a custom-made, fully-automated device (Kerberos) which monitors simultaneously the deformation of the liquid interface, spreading and sliding of the drop along the sample surface during tilting. Several tests are carried out to evaluate the durability of the selected superamphiphobic coating, offering overall promising results. The versatile method can be used to impart superamphiphobicity to the surfaces of various materials. The method developed herein can be adopted to tune the wetting properties of other silane-based commercial products which are used for the protection of buildings. Full article
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11 pages, 2944 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Materials and Techniques of Red Lacquer Painting of a Horizontal Plaque Inscribed by General Feng Yü-hsiang
by Liping Zheng, Liqin Wang, Xing Zhao, Zhoukuan Xi, Xianzhu Wu and Xiaopan Fan
Coatings 2023, 13(3), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13030583 - 8 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The “Tian Di Chang Chun” horizontal plaque was inscribed by General Feng Yü-hsiang in R.O.C. 25 (1936). Due to the aging of the materials and some factors in the preservation environment, the red painted layer on the surface of the plaque [...] Read more.
The “Tian Di Chang Chun” horizontal plaque was inscribed by General Feng Yü-hsiang in R.O.C. 25 (1936). Due to the aging of the materials and some factors in the preservation environment, the red painted layer on the surface of the plaque has shed. In this study, in order to analyse the materials and techniques used for the production of the inscribed plaques, the digital microscope system, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR) were used to analyse the materials and techniques used on this plaque. It has been shown that the decorative layer of the plaque consists of a red Chinese lacquer film layer on the surface and a ground layer. The red lacquer film layer comprises Chinese lacquer, tung oil, and cinnabar. The materials used for the ground layer are blood putty made of a blood product, youman (flour–oil–lime mixture), and brick powder. The technique used is the SDH (San Dao Hui) layer technique in ancient buildings. This study provides physical evidence regarding the materials and techniques used in inscribed plaque relics, and also provides technical support to further protect and restore the plaque. Full article
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13 pages, 3523 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Analytical Protocol for Decision Making to Study Copper Alloy Artefacts from Underwater Excavations and Plan Their Conservation
by Francesca Gherardi and Heather Stewart
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111640 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
The multi-analytical protocol currently in use at Historic England for the investigation of copper alloy artefacts recovered during underwater excavations aims to determine their manufacturing processes, identify repairs, and assess their state of preservation. Each step of the scientific analysis is described, and [...] Read more.
The multi-analytical protocol currently in use at Historic England for the investigation of copper alloy artefacts recovered during underwater excavations aims to determine their manufacturing processes, identify repairs, and assess their state of preservation. Each step of the scientific analysis is described, and the results obtained from the study of a selection of copper alloy objects recovered from the Dutch East India Company (VOC) Rooswijk shipwreck (1740) are used as examples of the application of the protocol to gain archaeological, metallurgical, and conservation data. This information is crucial to plan the most appropriate procedures and determine treatment steps for the study and conservation of copper alloy artefacts from the marine environment. Full article
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17 pages, 6215 KiB  
Article
Application of Advanced Analytical Techniques in Organic Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Ancient Architecture Relics in the Palace Museum (Beijing)
by Le Wei, Yue Ma, Zhimou Guo, Junjie Ding, Gaowa Jin, An Gu and Yong Lei
Coatings 2022, 12(5), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12050636 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Multilayer objects with different interfaces are quite typical for architectural heritage, and from them may be inferred the age, production process, and deterioration mechanism through analyzing characteristic compositions with advanced analytical techniques. The Meiwu ceiling in the Hall of Mental Cultivation of the [...] Read more.
Multilayer objects with different interfaces are quite typical for architectural heritage, and from them may be inferred the age, production process, and deterioration mechanism through analyzing characteristic compositions with advanced analytical techniques. The Meiwu ceiling in the Hall of Mental Cultivation of the Palace Museum was found to contain many paper-based layers during conservation. Once several surface strata were detached, a colorful layer of printed fabric textile was discovered integrally. Through microscopic observation and micro-attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) imaging, the overall structure consisted of 11 layers, namely, bast paper, cotton wiring, xuan paper, cotton printed fabric, two yellow board papers, bamboo paper, three wood pulp paper and surface coatings, and starch was considered as an organic adhesive. For identification of the printed fabric’s color palette, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) technology, non-invasive macro X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) were applied in situ. Seven industrial synthetic dyes, including auramine O, malachite green, and eosin Y with corresponding by-products, as well as chromium-based pigments considered as dark draft line, were confirmed. By X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and micro Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FTIR, other results showed chalk soil and talc for the outermost coating. According to the synthetic time of industrial dyes and degradation degree of paper, there were at least four occurrences and their specific time periods were speculated. Full article
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17 pages, 7348 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effects of Cu/Cu-Zn Alloy Components Adjacent to Wood in Historic Architecture: Surface Performance Changes by Artificial Wood Degradation
by Yishan Zhou, Toshiya Matsui, Eiichi Obataya and Li Li
Coatings 2022, 12(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030352 - 7 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Here, we investigated the wood-whitening phenomenon adjacent to metal components that are commonly observed in Japanese historic architectures. The higher detection of Cu/Zn elements and fine particles of copper/zinc oxalate hydrate in whitened wood has been verified in a previous field investigation. In [...] Read more.
Here, we investigated the wood-whitening phenomenon adjacent to metal components that are commonly observed in Japanese historic architectures. The higher detection of Cu/Zn elements and fine particles of copper/zinc oxalate hydrate in whitened wood has been verified in a previous field investigation. In order to explore the related cause of this phenomenon, this study established model experiments to evaluate some surface performance changes of wood plate samples with impregnated Cu(II)/Zn(II) contents under artificial degradation. The evaluation included the following: (1) the state of metal oxalates in the wood tissue; (2) the mechanical performance of the resistance to the external forces; and (3) the colour change of the wood surface. As the result, the accumulation of metal oxalates and their growth in particle sizes were confirmed in samples containing metal, in particular those with a higher Cu(II) content, regardless of wood species. Meanwhile, this metal-involved degradation could introduce the risk of embrittlement of wood ahead of the occurrence of visible whitening discolouration. Full article
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10 pages, 2635 KiB  
Article
The Study of POSS/Polyurethane as a Consolidant for Fragile Cultural Objects
by Xing Zhao, Lang Guo, Liqin Wang, Ziming Wang, Meiman Peng, Liping Zheng and Qing Niu
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020153 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Moisture-curable polyurethane (MCPU) is a specifically designed material for the consolidation of fragile cultural objects in high-humidity environments. In order to solve the problem of its susceptibility to yellowing due to heat ageing, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was added to the MCPU to [...] Read more.
Moisture-curable polyurethane (MCPU) is a specifically designed material for the consolidation of fragile cultural objects in high-humidity environments. In order to solve the problem of its susceptibility to yellowing due to heat ageing, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was added to the MCPU to prepare POSS/MCPU. The appearance, stability and mechanical properties of the POSS/MCPU films were characterized using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer, a gloss meter, a colorimeter, a thermal analyzer and a universal material testing machine. The results showed that the films are colorless and transparent and have a light transmission of over 80%. The addition of POSS has almost no effect on the chromaticity of the MCPU, while the thermal stability of the POSS/MCPU is improved compared to the pristine MCPU. The modified film is 2.50 times more resistant to yellowing by heat. The addition of POSS also simultaneously enhances the strength and toughness of the film. Using POSS/MCPU to reinforce the fragile object, the material was found to be significantly effective, indicating it has the potential to be used during the extraction of fragile cultural objects from archaeological sites. Full article
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