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Open AccessArticle

Characterisation of NiTi Orthodontic Archwires Surface after the Simulation of Mechanical Loading in CACO2-2 Cell Culture

1
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Doktora Subotića 8, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Department of Surface Physics and Chemistry of Materials, Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070440
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
Nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires are crucial in the initial stages of orthodontic therapy when the movement of teeth and deflection of the archwire are the largest. Their great mechanical properties come with their main disadvantage—the leakage of nickel. Various in vitro studies measured nickel leakage from archwires that were only immersed in the medium with little or minimal simulation of all stress and deflection forces that affect them. This study aims to overcome that by simulating deflection forces that those archwires are exposed to inside the mouth of a patient. NiTi orthodontic archwires were immersed in CACO2-2 cell culture medium and then immediately loaded while using a simulator of multiaxial stress for 24 h. After the experiment, the surface of the NiTi orthodontic archwires were analysed while using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The observations showed significant microstructural and compositional changes within the first 51 nm thickness of the archwire surface. Furthermore, the released nickel and titanium concentrations in the CACO2-2 cell culture medium were measured while using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). It was found out that the level of released nickel ions was 1.310 µg/L, which can be assigned as statistically significant results. These data represent the first mention of the already detectable release of Ni ions after 24 h during the simulation of mechanical loading in the CACO2-2 cell culture medium, which is important for clinical orthodontic praxis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nickel-titanium; orthodontic archwires; surface; simulation; mechanical loading; CACO2-2 cell culture medium; scanning electron microscopy (SEM); auger electron spectroscopy (AES); inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) nickel-titanium; orthodontic archwires; surface; simulation; mechanical loading; CACO2-2 cell culture medium; scanning electron microscopy (SEM); auger electron spectroscopy (AES); inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lepojević, N.; Šćepan, I.; Glišić, B.; Jenko, M.; Godec, M.; Hočevar, S.; Rudolf, R. Characterisation of NiTi Orthodontic Archwires Surface after the Simulation of Mechanical Loading in CACO2-2 Cell Culture. Coatings 2019, 9, 440.

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