Special Issue "Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Susan C. Walley

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Children’s of Alabama, 1600 7th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: tobacco; nicotine; secondhand smoke exposure; electronic cigarette; vape devices; quality improvement; asthma; bronchiolitis
Guest Editor
Prof. Lori Pbert

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: adolescent tobacco use prevention and treatment; pediatric obesity; clinician-delivered behavior-change interventions; clinical–community linkages

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure remain the number one cause of preventable death and disease in the world. While much progress has been made, the advent and popularity of emerging tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and vape devices threaten to addict an entire generation to nicotine and tobacco use. In this Special Issue of Children, we hope to highlight the health harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) and tobacco use in children and adolescents, as well as the health and public health impact of electronic cigarettes and vape devices.

The journal Children is soliciting manuscripts to be featured in an upcoming special issue focusing on tobacco and nicotine use and exposure among children and adolescents. The Special Issue aims to provide an overview of current research surrounding tobacco and nicotine use, particularly electronic cigarettes and vape devices, as well as tobacco smoke and unintentional nicotine exposure. The supplement also will discuss the health and public health impact of tobacco and nicotine products and strategies to address tobacco and nicotine use.

Potential topics for papers include:
• Epidemiology of youth tobacco use, particularly electronic cigarette and vape device use
• Child health outcomes of second- and thirdhand smoke
• International impact of tobacco smoke exposure on child health
• Clinical screening and interventions for parent and youth tobacco use
• Tobacco use and SHS exposure as a factor in poverty, health disparities, and toxic stress
• Impact of regulation and local, state and national policy on youth tobacco use, initiation and SHS exposure
• Second- and thirdhand youth health effects of electronic cigarettes and vape devices

Assoc. Prof. Susan C. Walley
Prof. Lori Pbert
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tobacco
  • Nicotine
  • Tobacco smoke exposure
  • Secondhand smoke exposure
  • Thirdhand smoke exposure
  • Electronic cigarette
  • Vape devices

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Smoke-Free Ordinances and Policies Protect Youth, but Ordinances Appear to Have Little Impact on Non-Combustible Tobacco Use
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Smoke-free ordinances and policies protect youth from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and cigarette use. This study investigated whether smoke-free ordinances also protect youth from the use of other tobacco products. We compared the prevalence of SHS exposure, cigarette smoking, cigar smoking, smokeless [...] Read more.
Smoke-free ordinances and policies protect youth from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and cigarette use. This study investigated whether smoke-free ordinances also protect youth from the use of other tobacco products. We compared the prevalence of SHS exposure, cigarette smoking, cigar smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and e-cigarette use among high school students living in a municipality with or without a smoke-free ordinance and in homes with and without smoke-free policies. Data were analyzed using the 2017 Mississippi Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1923). Smoke-free ordinances were found to be associated with lower prevalence of SHS exposure (41.9% vs. 51.5%), cigarette smoking (5.1% vs. 11.4%), and cigar smoking (7.2% vs. 10.9%). There were no differences in smokeless tobacco use (6.6% vs. 6.5%) or e-cigarette use (11.2% vs 12.1%). Smoke-free homes were associated with lower prevalence of SHS exposure (38.0% vs 74.6%), cigarette smoking (4.8% vs. 17.6%), cigar smoking (6.4% vs. 16.4%), smokeless tobacco use (4.9% vs. 13.2%), and e-cigarette use (9.6% vs. 19.5%), p < 0.05 for all comparisons. The results suggest that smoke-free ordinances and policies protect against exposure to tobacco smoke and use of combustible tobacco products, but smoke-free ordinances do not protect from smokeless tobacco and e-cigarette use. Tobacco-free, rather than smoke-free, ordinances might offer more protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessCommunication Regulation of E-Cigarettes in the United States and Its Role in a Youth Epidemic
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
During the first decade of federal regulation of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), the e-cigarette industry has rapidly grown. Recently, the U.S. Surgeon General and Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration each declared the rapid rise in rates of youth using these [...] Read more.
During the first decade of federal regulation of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), the e-cigarette industry has rapidly grown. Recently, the U.S. Surgeon General and Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration each declared the rapid rise in rates of youth using these products to be an “epidemic.” While a foundational basis for regulating ENDS has been in effect since 2016, deferred enforcement has contributed to acute rise in use by youth. The Agency has undertaken several initiatives to address the problem and warned manufacturers that if current youth trends continue, it will be “game over.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle Quality Improvement Project to Improve Screening for Tobacco Use in Adolescent Inpatients at a Children’s Hospital
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
Tobacco use begins in adolescence for the majority of smokers. The purpose of this study was to increase screening and reporting of tobacco use in hospitalized adolescents at a tertiary care children’s hospital. We completed a nursing focus group to understand challenges and [...] Read more.
Tobacco use begins in adolescence for the majority of smokers. The purpose of this study was to increase screening and reporting of tobacco use in hospitalized adolescents at a tertiary care children’s hospital. We completed a nursing focus group to understand challenges and completed four iterative Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, which included: (1) in-person nursing education regarding tobacco use screening, (2) addition of an e-cigarette-specific screening question, (3) the creation and dissemination of an educational video for nursing, and (4) adding the video as a mandatory component of nursing orientation. Run charts of the percentage of patients screened who reported tobacco use were created. Absolute counts of tobacco products used were also captured. From January 2016 to September 2018, 12,999 patients ≥13 years of age were admitted to the hospital. At baseline, 90.1% of patients were screened and 4.8% reported tobacco use. While the absolute number of adolescents reporting e-cigarette use increased from zero patients per month at baseline to five, the percentage of patients screened and reporting tobacco use was unchanged; the majority of e-cigarette users reported use of other tobacco products. This study demonstrates that adding e-cigarettes to screening increases reporting and suggests systems level changes are needed to improve tobacco use reporting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle Tobacco Use as a Health Disparity: What Can Pediatric Clinicians Do?
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Tobacco use is a global health crisis, and has a tremendous and negative impact on health and wellbeing. Tobacco use disproportionately affects members of vulnerable populations, and by acting on multiple socioecological levels, serves to perpetuate and reinforce cycles of poverty. Members of [...] Read more.
Tobacco use is a global health crisis, and has a tremendous and negative impact on health and wellbeing. Tobacco use disproportionately affects members of vulnerable populations, and by acting on multiple socioecological levels, serves to perpetuate and reinforce cycles of poverty. Members of the pediatric medical community can play a key role in interrupting cycles of tobacco use. Providers can serve as powerful allies to vulnerable communities by treating tobacco use in caregivers, counseling youth against using tobacco products, protecting children from the impact of secondhand smoke exposure, and advocating for economic, social, and health policies to disrupt intergenerational smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle Stakeholder Engagement in Developing an Electronic Clinical Support Tool for Tobacco Prevention in Adolescent Primary Care
Children 2018, 5(12), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5120170
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Following guideline recommendations to promote tobacco prevention in adolescent primary care, we developed a patient-facing clinical support tool. The electronic tool screens patients for use and susceptibility to conventional and alternative tobacco products, and promotes patient–provider communication. The purpose of this paper is [...] Read more.
Following guideline recommendations to promote tobacco prevention in adolescent primary care, we developed a patient-facing clinical support tool. The electronic tool screens patients for use and susceptibility to conventional and alternative tobacco products, and promotes patient–provider communication. The purpose of this paper is to describe the iterative stakeholder engagement process used in the development of the tool. During the pre-testing phase, we consulted with scientists, methodologists, clinicians, and Citizen Scientists. Throughout the development phase, we engaged providers from three clinics in focus groups. Usability testing was conducted via in-depth, cognitive interviewing of adolescent patients. Citizen Scientists (n = 7) played a critical role in the final selection of educational content and interviewer training by participating in mock-up patient interviews. Cognitive interviews with patients (n = 16) ensured that systems were in place for the feasibility trial and assessed ease of navigation. Focus group participants (n = 24) offered recommendations for integrating the tool into clinical workflow and input on acceptability and appropriateness, and anticipated barriers and facilitators for adoption and feasibility. Engaging key stakeholders to discuss implementation outcomes throughout the implementation process can improve the quality, applicability, and relevance of the research, and enhance implementation success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Electronic Cigarettes and Youth in the United States: A Call to Action (at the Local, National and Global Levels)
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
E-cigarettes have emerged and soared in popularity in the past ten years, making them the most common tobacco product used among youth in the United States (US). In this review, we discuss what the Surgeon General has called a public health “epidemic”—the precipitous [...] Read more.
E-cigarettes have emerged and soared in popularity in the past ten years, making them the most common tobacco product used among youth in the United States (US). In this review, we discuss what the Surgeon General has called a public health “epidemic”—the precipitous increase in youth use of e-cigarettes and the health consequences of this behavior. Further, we review tobacco control policy efforts (e.g., Tobacco 21, banning flavors, advertising restrictions, and clean indoor air laws)—efforts proven to be critical in reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among US children and adults—including their potential and challenges regarding managing and mitigating the emergence of e-cigarettes. Finally, we close with a discussion of the efforts of transnational tobacco companies to rebrand themselves using e-cigarettes and other new products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco and Nicotine Use and Exposure Among Children and Adolescents)
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