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Children 2016, 3(3), 14;

Reliance on Pumped Mother’s Milk Has an Environmental Impact

BEST Services, Galway H91T22T, Ireland
Chemical and Environmental Sciences Department, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sari A. Acra
Received: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [159 KB, uploaded 10 September 2016]


Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother’s milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother’s milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother’s milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; breast pump; environmental impact; green healthcare; life cycle analysis human milk; breast pump; environmental impact; green healthcare; life cycle analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Becker, G.; Ryan-Fogarty, Y. Reliance on Pumped Mother’s Milk Has an Environmental Impact. Children 2016, 3, 14.

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