Special Issue "Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Therapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ulrich Ronellenfitsch
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Halle (Saale), Germany
Interests: upper gastrointestinal cancer; multimodal treatment; gastrectomy; esophagectomy; sarcoma; quality of care; meta-analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent decades have seen remarkable advances in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal malignancies, i.e., adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as gastrointestinal stromal and other rare tumors of the esophagus and stomach. While, historically, surgical resection has been the sole treatment for these tumors, multimodal therapies have meanwhile proven their efficacy. At present, pre- and postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, targeted drug therapy, and stage-specific surgical approaches are all indispensable cornerstones of an individualized treatment for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. With such multimodal treatment, better outcomes comprising improved quality of life and prolonged survival have been achieved for patients. However, for many tumor entities and stages, the ideal combination and sequence of treatments is still being evaluated in clinical trials. Moreover, the value of novel approaches such as immunotherapy or robotic surgery remains a matter of research.

In this Special Issue of Cancers, up-to-date original research, short communications, and comprehensive review articles on all modalities playing a role in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal malignancies will be published. Moreover, the results of preclinical studies with implications on treatment also qualify for publication.

Dr. Ulrich Ronellenfitsch
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • upper gastrointestinal cancer
  • multimodal treatment
  • chemotherapy
  • radiotherapy
  • surgery
  • immunotherapy
  • targeted therapy

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Does Circular Stapler Size in Surgical Management of Esophageal Cancer Affect Anastomotic Leak Rate? 4-Year Experience of a European High-Volume Center
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113474 - 22 Nov 2020
Abstract
Anastomotic leak is one of the most severe postoperative complications and is therefore considered a benchmark for the quality of surgery for esophageal cancer. There is substantial debate on which anastomotic technique is the best for patients undergoing Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Our standardized [...] Read more.
Anastomotic leak is one of the most severe postoperative complications and is therefore considered a benchmark for the quality of surgery for esophageal cancer. There is substantial debate on which anastomotic technique is the best for patients undergoing Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Our standardized technique is a circular stapled anastomosis with either a 25 or 28 mm anvil. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze whether the stapler diameter had an impact on postoperative anastomotic leak rates during a 4-year time frame from 2016 to 2020. A total of 632 patients (open, hybrid, and totally minimally invasive esophagectomy) met the inclusion criteria. A total of 214 patients underwent an anastomosis with a 25 mm stapler vs. 418 patients with a 28 mm stapler. Anastomotic leak rates were 15.4% vs. 10.8%, respectively (p = 0.0925). Stapler size should be chosen according to the individual anatomical situation of the patient. Stapler size may be of higher relevance in patients undergoing totally minimally invasive reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Pretherapeutic and Preoperative Sarcopenia on Short-Term Outcome after Esophagectomy
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3409; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113409 - 17 Nov 2020
Abstract
By introducing minimally invasive surgery the rate of postoperative morbidity in esophageal cancer patients could be reduced. But esophagectomy is still associated with a relevant risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients often present with nutritional deficiency and sarcopenia even at time of [...] Read more.
By introducing minimally invasive surgery the rate of postoperative morbidity in esophageal cancer patients could be reduced. But esophagectomy is still associated with a relevant risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients often present with nutritional deficiency and sarcopenia even at time of diagnosis. This study focuses on the influence of skeletal muscle index (SMI) on postoperative morbidity and mortality. Fifty-two patients were included in this study. SMI was measured using computer tomographic images at the time of diagnosis and before surgery. Then, SMI and different clinicopathological and demographic features were correlated with postoperative morbidity. There was no correlation between SMI before neoadjuvant therapy (p = 0.5365) nor before surgery (p = 0.3530) with the short-term postoperative outcome. Regarding cholesterol level before surgery there was a trend for a higher risk of complications with lower cholesterol levels (p = 0.0846). Our findings suggest that a low preoperative SMI does not necessarily predict a poor postoperative outcome in esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy but that there are many factors that influence the nutritional status of cancer patients. To improve nutritional status, cancer patients at our clinic receive specialized nutritional counselling during neoadjuvant treatment as well as after surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Open AccessArticle
Histopathologic Response Is a Positive Predictor of Overall Survival in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant/Perioperative Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancers—Analysis from a Large Single Center Cohort in Germany
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082244 - 11 Aug 2020
Abstract
There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of neoadjuvant/perioperative chemotherapy (NCT) for gastro-esophageal cancer (GEC) on overall survival. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of multimodal treatments in a large single center cohort. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated with [...] Read more.
There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of neoadjuvant/perioperative chemotherapy (NCT) for gastro-esophageal cancer (GEC) on overall survival. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of multimodal treatments in a large single center cohort. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated with NCT, followed by intended curative oncological surgery for locally advanced gastric cancer. Uni- and multivariate regression analysis were performed to identify the predictors of overall survival. From over 3000 patients, 702 eligible patients were analyzed. In the univariate analysis clinical stage, application of preoperative PLF, requirement of surgical extension, UICC-stage, grading, R-status, Lauren histotype, and HPR were the prognostic survival factors. In multivariate analysis PLF regimen, UICC-stages, R-status, Lauren histotype, and histopathologic regression (HPR) were significant predictors of overall survival. Overall HPR-rate was 26.9%. HPR was highest in the cT2cN0 stage (55.9%), and lowest in the cT3/4 cN+ stage (21.6%). FLOT demonstrated the highest HPR (37.5%). Independent predictors for HPR were the clinical stage and grading. Kaplan Meier analyses demonstrated significant survival benefits for the responding patients (p < 0.0001). HPR after NCT was an important prognostic factor to predict overall survival for locally advanced GEC. FLOT should be the preferred regimen in patients undergoing NCT ahead of surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Postoperative Morbidity and Failure to Rescue in Surgery for Gastric Cancer: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study of 1107 Patients from 1972 to 2014
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071953 - 18 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative morbidity, mortality, and failure to rescue following complications after radical resection for gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the surgical database of patients with gastroesophageal malignancies at our institution was performed. All [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative morbidity, mortality, and failure to rescue following complications after radical resection for gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the surgical database of patients with gastroesophageal malignancies at our institution was performed. All consecutive patients undergoing R0 gastrectomy for pT1–4 M0 gastric adenocarcinoma between October 1972 and February 2014 were eligible for this analysis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the date of surgery: an early cohort operated on from 1972–1992 and a late cohort operated on from 1993–2014. Both groups were compared regarding patient characteristics and surgical outcomes. Results: A total of 1107 patients were included. Postoperative mortality was more than twice as high in patients operated on from 1972–1992 compared to patients operated on from 1993–2014 (6.8% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.017). Between both groups, no significant difference in failure to rescue after major surgical complications was observed (20.8% vs. 20.5%, p = 1.000). Failure to rescue after other surgical and non-surgical complications was 37.8% in the early cohort compared to 3.2% in the late cohort (p < 0.001). Non-surgical complications accounted for 71.2% of lethal complications between 1972 and 1992, but only for 18.2% of lethal complications between 1993 and 2014 (p = 0.002). Conclusion: In the course of four decades, postoperative mortality after radical resection for gastric cancer has more than halved. In this cohort, the reason for this decrease was reduced mortality due to non-surgical complications. Major surgical morbidity after gastrectomy remains challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Open AccessArticle
Outcomes of Radiotherapy for Mesenchymal and Non-Mesenchymal Subtypes of Gastric Cancer
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040943 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes following postoperative chemotherapy (XP) versus chemoradiotherapy (XP-RT) according to mesenchymal subtype based on RNA sequencing in gastric cancer (GC) in a cohort of the Adjuvant chemoRadioTherapy In Stomach Tumor (ARTIST) trial. [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes following postoperative chemotherapy (XP) versus chemoradiotherapy (XP-RT) according to mesenchymal subtype based on RNA sequencing in gastric cancer (GC) in a cohort of the Adjuvant chemoRadioTherapy In Stomach Tumor (ARTIST) trial. Methods: Of the 458 patients enrolled in the ARTIST trial, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were available from 106 (23.1%) patients for RNA analysis. The mesenchymal subtype was classified according to a previously reported 71-gene MSS/EMT signature using the NanoString assay. Results: Of the 106 patients analyzed (50 in XP arm, 56 in XP-RT arm), 36 (34.0%) patients were categorized as mesenchymal subtype by NanoString assay. Recurrence-free survival (RFS, p = 0.009, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21–3.70) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.003, HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.31–3.96) were significantly lower in the mesenchymal subtype than in the non-mesenchymal subtype. In terms of post-operative radiotherapy (RT), mesenchymal subtype was not an independent variable to predict RFS or OS regardless to the assigned arm (XP with or without RT) in this patient cohort. However, there was a trend in the adjuvant XP arm, which showed higher OS than the XP-RT arm for the mesenchymal subtype and lower OS than the XP-RT arm for the non-mesenchymal subtype. Conclusions: We could not determine any significant differences between the mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal subtypes with respect to the effects of adjuvant XP with or without RT in gastric cancer following curative surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Clinical Pathways for Oncological Gastrectomy: Are They a Suitable Instrument for Process Standardization to Improve Process and Outcome Quality for Patients Undergoing Gastrectomy? A Retrospective Cohort Study
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020434 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: Oncological gastrectomy requires complex multidisciplinary management. Clinical pathways (CPs) can potentially facilitate this task, but evidence related to their use in managing oncological gastrectomy is limited. This study evaluated the effect of a CP for oncological gastrectomy on process and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Oncological gastrectomy requires complex multidisciplinary management. Clinical pathways (CPs) can potentially facilitate this task, but evidence related to their use in managing oncological gastrectomy is limited. This study evaluated the effect of a CP for oncological gastrectomy on process and outcome quality. (2) Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing oncological gastrectomy before (n = 64) or after (n = 62) the introduction of a CP were evaluated. Assessed parameters included catheter and drain management, postoperative mobilization, resumption of diet and length of stay. Morbidity, mortality, reoperation and readmission rates were used as indicators of outcome quality. (3) Results: Enteral nutrition was initiated significantly earlier after CP implementation (5.0 vs. 7.0 days, p < 0.0001). Readmission was more frequent before CP implementation (7.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.05). Incentive spirometer usage increased following CP implementation (100% vs. 90.6%, p = 0.11). Mortality, morbidity and reoperation rates remained unchanged. (4) Conclusions: After implementation of an oncological gastrectomy CP, process quality improved, while indicators of outcome quality such as mortality and reoperation rates remained unchanged. CPs are a promising tool to standardize perioperative care for oncological gastrectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Open AccessArticle
Conversion Surgery in Metastatic Gastric Cancer and Cancer Dormancy as a Prognostic Biomarker
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010086 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The role of conversion surgery in metastatic gastric cancer remains unclear. Cancer dormancy markers might have a role in predicting the survival in patients with conversion surgery. We identified 26 patients who went through conversion surgery, i.e., a curative-intent gastrectomy with metastasectomy after [...] Read more.
The role of conversion surgery in metastatic gastric cancer remains unclear. Cancer dormancy markers might have a role in predicting the survival in patients with conversion surgery. We identified 26 patients who went through conversion surgery, i.e., a curative-intent gastrectomy with metastasectomy after chemotherapy in initially metastatic gastric cancer. As controls, 114 potential candidates for conversion surgery who only received chemotherapy were included for the propensity score matching. Conversion surgery showed a significantly longer overall survival (OS) compared with only palliative chemotherapy (median—43.6 vs. 14.0 months, respectively, p < 0.001). This better survival in the conversion surgery group persisted even after propensity matching (p < 0.001), and also when compared to patients with tumor response over 5.1 months in the chemotherapy only group (p = 0.005). In the conversion surgery group, OS was longer in patients with R0 resection (22/26, 84.6%) than without R0 resection (4/26, 15.4%) (median—not reached vs 22.1 months, respectively, p = 0.005). Although it should be interpreted with caution due to the primitive analysis in a small population, the positive expression of NR2F1 showed a longer duration of disease-free survival (DFS) after conversion surgery (p = 0.016). In conclusion, conversion surgery showed a durable OS even in patients with initially metastatic gastric cancer when R0 resection was achieved after chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Role of the Lymph Node Ratio in Advanced Gastric Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121914 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The ratio of positive lymph nodes (LNs) to the total LN harvest is called the LN ratio (LNR). It is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [...] Read more.
The ratio of positive lymph nodes (LNs) to the total LN harvest is called the LN ratio (LNR). It is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on the LNR (ypLNR) in patients with advanced GC. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with advanced GC, who underwent gastrectomy with N1 and N2 (D2) lymphadenectomy between August 2011 and January 2019 in the Department of Surgical Oncology at the Medical University of Lublin. The exclusion criteria were a lack of preoperative NAC administration, suboptimal lymphadenectomy (<D2 and/or removal of less than 15 lymph nodes), and a lack of data on tumor regression grading (TRG) in the final pathological report. A total of 95 patients were eligible for the analysis. A positive correlation was found between the ypLNR and tumor diameter (p < 0.001), post treatment pathological Tumour (ypT) stage (p < 0.001), Laurén histological subtype (p = 0.0001), and the response to NAC (p < 0.0001). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the ypLNR was an independent prognostic factor in patients with intestinal type GC (p = 0.0465) and in patients with no response to NAC (p = 0.0483). In the resection specimen, tumor diameter and depth of infiltration, Laurén histological subtype, and TRG may reflect the impact of NAC on LN status, as quantified by ypLNR in advanced GC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Role of Postoperative Complications in Overall Survival after Radical Resection for Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis of 1107 Patients
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121890 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of postoperative complications on overall survival (OS) after radical resection for gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective analysis of our institutional database for surgical patients with gastroesophageal malignancies was performed. All consecutive patients [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of postoperative complications on overall survival (OS) after radical resection for gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective analysis of our institutional database for surgical patients with gastroesophageal malignancies was performed. All consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection for M0 gastric cancer between October 1972 and February 2014 were included. The impact of postoperative complications on OS was evaluated in the entire cohort and in a subgroup after exclusion of 30 day and in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 1107 patients were included. In the entire cohort, both overall complications (p < 0.001) and major surgical complications (p = 0.003) were significant risk factors for decreased OS in univariable analysis. In multivariable analysis, overall complications were an independent risk factor for decreased OS (p < 0.001). After exclusion of patients with complication-related 30 day and in-hospital mortality, neither major surgical (p = 0.832) nor overall complications (p = 0.198) were significantly associated with decreased OS. Conclusion: In this study, postoperative complications influenced OS due to complication-related early postoperative deaths. In patients successfully rescued from early postoperative complications, neither overall complications nor major surgical complications were risk factors for decreased survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
From Interconnection between Genes and Microenvironment to Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Upper Gastro-Intestinal Cancers—A Multidisciplinary Perspective
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082105 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
Despite the progress during the last decade, patients with advanced gastric and esophageal cancers still have poor prognosis. Finding optimal therapeutic strategies represents an unmet need in this field. Several prognostic and predictive factors have been evaluated and may guide clinicians in choosing [...] Read more.
Despite the progress during the last decade, patients with advanced gastric and esophageal cancers still have poor prognosis. Finding optimal therapeutic strategies represents an unmet need in this field. Several prognostic and predictive factors have been evaluated and may guide clinicians in choosing a tailored treatment. Data from large studies investigating the role of immunotherapy in gastrointestinal cancers are promising but further investigations are necessary to better select those patients who can mostly benefit from these novel therapies. This review will focus on the treatment of metastatic esophageal and gastric cancer. We will review the standard of care and the role of novel therapies such as immunotherapies and CAR-T. Moreover, we will focus on the analysis of potential predictive biomarkers such as Modify as: Microsatellite Instability (MSI) and PD-L1, which may lead to treatment personalization and improved treatment outcomes. A multidisciplinary point of view is mandatory to generate an integrated approach to properly exploit these novel antiproliferative agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Therapy of Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies)
Back to TopTop