Down Syndrome: Pathophysiology, Cognitive Assessments and Potential Therapies

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Developmental Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 549

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Interests: down syndrome; neurophysiology; neuropsychology; preclinical research; clinical research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue of Brain Sciences, we will be discussing the general topic of Down Syndrome: Pathophysiology, Cognitive Assessments and Potential Therapies. We aim to highlight critical areas of translational and clinical brain research that may one day lead to the discovery of pharmacological/genetic ways of addressing the neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes, associated with the trisomy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). We will welcome articles describing system-specific neuropsychological deficits and neurological and psychiatric disorders commonly found in persons with Down syndrome, new experimental data (collected from human beings and animal models) and reviews on the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of Down syndrome, and critical reviews on the design and conduct of clinical trials in this field. We hope we can count on your valuable contribution to make this a successful and impactful Special Issue for this journal.

Prof. Dr. Alberto Costa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Down syndrome
  • neuropsychology
  • neurophysiology
  • neurobiology
  • genetics
  • neuropharmacology
  • clinical trials

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

21 pages, 2274 KiB  
Article
Category-Based Effect on False Memory of People with Down Syndrome
by Ching-Fen Hsu, Qian Jiang and Shi-Yu Rao
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(6), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14060538 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Background: People with Down syndrome (DS) are deficient in verbal memory but relatively preserved in visuospatial perception. Verbal memories are related to semantic knowledge. Receptive ability is better than expressive ability in people with DS but still seriously lags behind their age-matched [...] Read more.
Background: People with Down syndrome (DS) are deficient in verbal memory but relatively preserved in visuospatial perception. Verbal memories are related to semantic knowledge. Receptive ability is better than expressive ability in people with DS but still seriously lags behind their age-matched controls. This lag may result in the weak semantic integration of people with DS. Aims: This study aimed to examine the ability of semantic integration of people with DS by using false-memory tasks. Possible differences in the number of false memories induced by nouns and verbs were of focus. Methods and Procedures: Two phases were involved in the false-memory task. In the study phase, ten-word lists with semantically related associates were presented. In the recognition phase, judgments were to be made about whether the words presented had been heard before. Three types of words were tested: previously presented associates, semantically related lures, and semantically unrelated new words. Outcomes and Results: People with DS overall showed the lowest accuracy among groups in response to tested word types. In the processing of lures, people with DS were worse in recognition than MA controls. In processing unrelated words, people with DS responded least accurately to all types of words compared to control groups. In the processing of associates, people with DS showed similar recognition rates as the MA controls but were less accurate than the CA controls. No difference was observed between nouns and verbs in recognizing word types among groups, though faster responses to nouns than to verbs emerged in college students. Further analyses on topic-wised comparisons of errors across syntactic categories revealed differences in specific concepts among groups, suggesting people with DS were atypical in semantic organization. Conclusions and Implications: People with DS showed mixed patterns in semantic integration by false-memory tasks with delay to associates and deviance to lures together with unrelated words. People with DS showed distinct patterns in processing nouns and verbs while conducting topic-wise comparisons, suggesting that they formed false memories differently based on distinct syntactic categories. We concluded that people with DS develop a deviant semantic structure, hence showing problems in language and social cognition. Category-based rehabilitation is suggested to be implemented for people with DS to improve their semantic knowledge through lexical connections. Full article
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