Special Issue "Electrochemical Immunosensor"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Cecilia Cristea
Website
Guest Editor
Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, "Iuliu Haţieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 4 Louis Pasteur St., 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: electrochemical and optical sensors; graphene; nanomaterials based electrodes; bioanalysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical immunosensors are analytical devices coupling immunochemical reactions to electrochemical transducers. They form one of the most important classes of affinity biosensors based on the specific recognition of antigens by antibodies, forming a stable complex, in a similar way to immunoassays. Electrochemical immunosensors are able to measure peptides, proteins or other molecules of interest directly in a sample, without any sample pre-treatment or separation. This direct detection can be done making use of the specific interaction of targets with antibodies. The recent developments in the immunosensors field, regarding the incorporation of nanomaterials for increased sensitivity, multiplexing or microfluidic-based devices, may have potential for promising use in clinical analysis. Therefore, due to their simplicity, low price and possibility of miniaturization, electrochemical immunosensors are good candidates for future Point Of Care (POC) devices. But, future challenges and obstacles for their implementation into the clinical analysis still must be discussed. Nevertheless, their application field is not limited to clinical analysis but also to drug abuse control, food and environmental analysis.

How close are we to the widespread use of these devices? The commercialization of such immunosensors still represents a front that needs more attention since there is a lack of efficiency in applying these sensing platforms into fast and portable devices.

I would like you to invite you too to answer this question by submitting your original research papers and review articles on this extremely dynamic research field. This Special Issue aims to gather valuable articles regarding the employment of electrochemical immunosensors for the detection of analytes from various matrices.

Prof. Cecilia Cristea
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electrochemical immunosensors
  • Label-free detection
  • Antibodies
  • microarray
  • Point of care devices

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Label-Free Electrochemical Aptasensor for the Detection of Tau381 and its Preliminary Application in AD and Non-AD Patients’ Sera
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030084 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The electrochemical aptamer sensor has been designed for detecting tau381, a critical biomarker of Alzheimer′s disease in human serum. The aptasensor is obtained by immobilizing the aptamer on a carboxyl graphene/thionin/gold nanoparticle modified glassy-carbon electrode. As a probe and bridge molecule, thionin connected [...] Read more.
The electrochemical aptamer sensor has been designed for detecting tau381, a critical biomarker of Alzheimer′s disease in human serum. The aptasensor is obtained by immobilizing the aptamer on a carboxyl graphene/thionin/gold nanoparticle modified glassy-carbon electrode. As a probe and bridge molecule, thionin connected carboxyl graphene and gold nanoparticles, and gave the electrical signal. Under optimal conditions, the increment of differential pulse voltammetry signal increased linearly with the logarithm of tau381 concentration in the range from 1.0 pM to 100 pM, and limit of detection was 0.70 pM. The aptasensor reliability was evaluated by determining its selectivity, reproducibility, stability, detection limit, and recovery. Performance analysis of the tau381 aptasensor in 10 patients’ serum samples showed that the aptasensor could screen patients with and without Alzheimer′s disease. The proposed aptasensor has potential for use in clinically diagnosing Alzheimer′s disease in the early stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessArticle
An Exfoliated Graphite-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor on a Dendrimer/Carbon Nanodot Platform for the Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cancer Biomarker
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010039 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
An electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using a nanocomposite of polypropylene imine dendrimer (PPI) and carbon nanodots (CNDTs) on an exfoliated graphite electrode (EG) is reported. The carbon nanodots were prepared by pyrolysis of oats. The nanocomposites (PPI and [...] Read more.
An electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using a nanocomposite of polypropylene imine dendrimer (PPI) and carbon nanodots (CNDTs) on an exfoliated graphite electrode (EG) is reported. The carbon nanodots were prepared by pyrolysis of oats. The nanocomposites (PPI and CNDTs) were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proposed immunosensor was prepared on an exfoliated graphite electrode sequentially by drop coating CNDTs, the electrodeposition of G2-PPI (generation 2 poly (propylene imine) dendrimer), the immobilization of anti-CEA on the modified electrode for 80 min at 35 °C, and dropping of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to minimize non-specific binding sites. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize each stage of the fabrication of the immunosensor. The proposed immunosensor detected CEA within a concentration range of 0.005 to 300 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.00145 ng/mL by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The immunosensor displayed good stability and was also selective in the presence of some interference species such as ascorbic acid, glucose, alpha-fetoprotein, prostate-specific antigen and human immunoglobulin. Furthermore, the fabricated immunosensor was applied in the quantification of CEA in a human serum sample, indicating its potential for real sample analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Determination of β-Lactoglobulin Employing a Polystyrene Bead-Modified Carbon Nanotube Ink
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040109 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this article, we introduce the use of a carboxy-functionalized waterborne carbon nanotube ink for the fabrication of an amperometric biosensor aimed at the quantification of β-lactoglobulin. Detection of this protein from cow’s milk was performed by a sandwich immunoassay onto printed carbon [...] Read more.
In this article, we introduce the use of a carboxy-functionalized waterborne carbon nanotube ink for the fabrication of an amperometric biosensor aimed at the quantification of β-lactoglobulin. Detection of this protein from cow’s milk was performed by a sandwich immunoassay onto printed carbon nanotube electrodes. The electrodes were printed using a carbon nanotube ink modified with polystyrene beads containing a high amount of carboxylic groups for protein immobilization. This strategy showed enhanced sensing performance compared to the use of oxidative treatments for the functionalization of electrodes. These electrodes showed an excellent electrochemical behavior, and proteins could be immobilized on their surface via the carbodiimide reaction. These antibody-immobilized carbon nanotube electrodes allowed for the detection of β-lactoglobulin in sub-ppm concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Electrochemical Immunosensors in Clinical Analysis
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030086 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
An immunosensor is a kind of affinity biosensor based on interactions between an antigen and specific antigen immobilized on a transducer surface. Immunosensors possess high selectivity and sensitivity due to the specific binding between antibody and corresponding antigen, making them a suitable platform [...] Read more.
An immunosensor is a kind of affinity biosensor based on interactions between an antigen and specific antigen immobilized on a transducer surface. Immunosensors possess high selectivity and sensitivity due to the specific binding between antibody and corresponding antigen, making them a suitable platform for several applications especially in the medical and bioanalysis fields. Electrochemical immunosensors rely on the measurements of an electrical signal recorded by an electrochemical transducer and can be classed as amperometric, potentiometric, conductometric, or impedimetric depending on the signal type. Among the immunosensors, electrochemical immunosensors have been more perfected due to their simplicity and, especially their ability to be portable, and for in situ or automated detection. This review addresses the potential of immunosensors destined for application in clinical analysis, especially cancer biomarker diagnosis. The emphasis is on the approaches used to fabricate electrochemical immunosensors. A general overview of recent applications of the developed electrochemical immunosensors in the clinical approach is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Immunosensors for Antibiotic Detection
Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9020061 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Antibiotics are an important class of drugs destined for treatment of bacterial diseases. Misuses and overuses of antibiotics observed over the last decade have led to global problems of bacterial resistance against antibiotics (ABR). One of the crucial actions taken towards limiting the [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are an important class of drugs destined for treatment of bacterial diseases. Misuses and overuses of antibiotics observed over the last decade have led to global problems of bacterial resistance against antibiotics (ABR). One of the crucial actions taken towards limiting the spread of antibiotics and controlling this dangerous phenomenon is the sensitive and accurate determination of antibiotics residues in body fluids, food products, and animals, as well as monitoring their presence in the environment. Immunosensors, a group of biosensors, can be considered an attractive tool because of their simplicity, rapid action, low-cost analysis, and especially, the unique selectivity arising from harnessing the antigen–antibody interaction that is the basis of immunosensor functioning. Herein, we present the recent achievements in the field of electrochemical immunosensors designed to determination of antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Biosensors as Potential Diagnostic Devices for Autoimmune Diseases
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010038 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An important class of biosensors is immunosensors, affinity biosensors that are based on the specific interaction between antibodies and antigens. They are classified in four classes based on the type of employed transducer: electrochemical, optical, microgravimetric, and thermometric and depending on the type [...] Read more.
An important class of biosensors is immunosensors, affinity biosensors that are based on the specific interaction between antibodies and antigens. They are classified in four classes based on the type of employed transducer: electrochemical, optical, microgravimetric, and thermometric and depending on the type of recognition elements, antibodies, aptamers, microRNAs and recently peptides are integrating parts. Those analytical devices are able to detect peptides, antibodies and proteins in various sample matrices, without many steps of sample pretreatment. Their high sensitivity, low cost and the easy integration in point of care devices assuring portability are attracting features that justify the increasing interest in their development. The use of nanomaterials, simultaneous multianalyte detection and integration on platforms to form point-of-care devices are promising tools that can be used in clinical analysis for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring in several pathologies. Taking into account the growing incidence of autoimmune disease and the importance of early diagnosis, electrochemical biosensors could represent a viable alternative to currently used diagnosis methods. Some relevant examples of electrochemical assays for autoimmune disease diagnosis developed in the last several years based on antigens, antibodies and peptides as receptors were gathered and will be discussed further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessReview
Saliva, a Magic Biofluid Available for Multilevel Assessment and a Mirror of General Health—A Systematic Review
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010027 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Background: Saliva has been recently proposed as an alternative to classic biofluid analyses due to both availability and reliability regarding the evaluation of various biomarkers. Biosensors have been designed for the assessment of a wide spectrum of compounds, aiding in the screening, diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Background: Saliva has been recently proposed as an alternative to classic biofluid analyses due to both availability and reliability regarding the evaluation of various biomarkers. Biosensors have been designed for the assessment of a wide spectrum of compounds, aiding in the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of pathologies and treatment efficiency. This literature review aims to present the development in the biosensors research and their utility using salivary assessment. Methods: a comprehensive literature search has been conducted in the PubMed database, using the keywords “saliva” and “sensor”. A two-step paper selection algorithm was devised and applied. Results: The 49 papers selected for the present review focused on assessing the salivary biomarkers used in general diseases, oral pathologies, and pharmacology. The biosensors proved to be reliable tools for measuring the salivary levels of biochemical metabolic compounds such as glucose, proteinases and proteins, heavy metals and various chemical compounds, microorganisms, oncology markers, drugs, and neurotransmitters. Conclusions: Saliva is a biofluid with a significant clinical applicability for the evaluation and monitoring of a patient’s general health. Biosensors designed for assessing a wide range of salivary biomarkers are emerging as promising diagnostic or screening tools for improving the patients’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Trends and Perspectives in Immunosensors for Determination of Currently-Used Pesticides: The Case of Glyphosate, Organophosphates, and Neonicotinoids
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010020 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Pesticides, due to their intensive use and their peculiar chemical features, can persist in the environment and enter the trophic chain, thus representing an environmental risk for the ecosystems and human health. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for [...] Read more.
Pesticides, due to their intensive use and their peculiar chemical features, can persist in the environment and enter the trophic chain, thus representing an environmental risk for the ecosystems and human health. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for their monitoring, the high frequency of contamination caused by pesticides requires methods for massive monitoring campaigns that are capable of rapidly detecting these compounds in many samples of different origin. Immunosensors represent a potential tool for simple, rapid, and sensitive monitoring of pesticides. Antibodies coupled to electrochemical or optical transducers have resulted in effective detection devices. In this review, the new trends in immunosensor development and the application of immunosensors for the detection of pesticides of environmental concern—such as glyphosate, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids—are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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