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Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010027

Saliva, a Magic Biofluid Available for Multilevel Assessment and a Mirror of General Health—A Systematic Review

1
Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Oral Health and Dental Office Management, Faculty of Dentistry, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
DMD, Rezident doctor in Periodontology, Clinical County Hospital, 540136 Târgu Mureș, Romania
3
Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, 400349 Cluj, Romania
4
Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 400349 Cluj, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Ilea Aranka, Andrei Vlad and Feurdean Claudia Nicoleta have equal contribution as first authors of this article.
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
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PDF [981 KB, uploaded 21 February 2019]
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Abstract

Background: Saliva has been recently proposed as an alternative to classic biofluid analyses due to both availability and reliability regarding the evaluation of various biomarkers. Biosensors have been designed for the assessment of a wide spectrum of compounds, aiding in the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of pathologies and treatment efficiency. This literature review aims to present the development in the biosensors research and their utility using salivary assessment. Methods: a comprehensive literature search has been conducted in the PubMed database, using the keywords “saliva” and “sensor”. A two-step paper selection algorithm was devised and applied. Results: The 49 papers selected for the present review focused on assessing the salivary biomarkers used in general diseases, oral pathologies, and pharmacology. The biosensors proved to be reliable tools for measuring the salivary levels of biochemical metabolic compounds such as glucose, proteinases and proteins, heavy metals and various chemical compounds, microorganisms, oncology markers, drugs, and neurotransmitters. Conclusions: Saliva is a biofluid with a significant clinical applicability for the evaluation and monitoring of a patient’s general health. Biosensors designed for assessing a wide range of salivary biomarkers are emerging as promising diagnostic or screening tools for improving the patients’ quality of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: saliva; biofluid; biosensor; analytes; systematic review saliva; biofluid; biosensor; analytes; systematic review
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ilea, A.; Andrei, V.; Feurdean, C.N.; Băbțan, A.-M.; Petrescu, N.B.; Câmpian, R.S.; Boșca, A.B.; Ciui, B.; Tertiș, M.; Săndulescu, R.; Cristea, C. Saliva, a Magic Biofluid Available for Multilevel Assessment and a Mirror of General Health—A Systematic Review. Biosensors 2019, 9, 27.

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