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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Trends and Perspectives in Immunosensors for Determination of Currently-Used Pesticides: The Case of Glyphosate, Organophosphates, and Neonicotinoids

1
Posgrado en Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570, Mexico
2
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Fi), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010020
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensor)
Pesticides, due to their intensive use and their peculiar chemical features, can persist in the environment and enter the trophic chain, thus representing an environmental risk for the ecosystems and human health. Although there are several robust and reliable standard analytical techniques for their monitoring, the high frequency of contamination caused by pesticides requires methods for massive monitoring campaigns that are capable of rapidly detecting these compounds in many samples of different origin. Immunosensors represent a potential tool for simple, rapid, and sensitive monitoring of pesticides. Antibodies coupled to electrochemical or optical transducers have resulted in effective detection devices. In this review, the new trends in immunosensor development and the application of immunosensors for the detection of pesticides of environmental concern—such as glyphosate, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids—are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunosensor; pesticides; glyphosate; organophosphates; carbamates; neonicotinoids immunosensor; pesticides; glyphosate; organophosphates; carbamates; neonicotinoids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reynoso, E.C.; Torres, E.; Bettazzi, F.; Palchetti, I. Trends and Perspectives in Immunosensors for Determination of Currently-Used Pesticides: The Case of Glyphosate, Organophosphates, and Neonicotinoids. Biosensors 2019, 9, 20.

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