Special Issue "Emerging Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cellular Signaling"

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (6 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hideyuki J. Majima

Guest Editor
Department of Oncology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan
Interests: mitochondria; oxidative stress; cell signaling; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial RNA; lipid peroxidation; hair; neuron; aging
Prof. Dr. Ken Itoh

Guest Editor
Department of Stress Response Science, Center for Advanced Medical Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifucho, Hirosaki 036-8562, Japan
Interests: Nrf2; ATF4; mito-nuclear communication; mitochondrial antioxidant; Keap1; anti-aging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Majima et al. were the first to report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from mitochondria promote apoptosis (Majima et al., J Biol. Chem. 1998), while Itoh et al. described the function of the Nrf2-Keap1 intercellular signal for the first time (Itoh et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997, Itoh et al., Genes Dev. 1999). A recent study has described that ROS generated from mitochondria initiate cellular transduction in cytosol (Indo et al. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2017). In this Special Issue, the further role of ROS and the subsequent intracellular signals, protein, and molecules’ transport-change will be clarified. The aim of this Special Issue is the establishment of cellular signaling and metabolism change based on mitochondrial ROS augmentation. Thus, the Special Issue explores the physiological and pathological new function of mitochondrial ROS.

Prof. Dr. Hideyuki J. Majima
Prof. Dr. Ken Itoh
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • mitochondrial ROS
  • cellular signaling
  • mito-nuclear communication
  • mitochondrial antioxidant
  • aging

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
High Levels of ROS Impair Lysosomal Acidity and Autophagy Flux in Glucose-Deprived Fibroblasts by Activating ATM and Erk Pathways
Biomolecules 2020, 10(5), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10050761 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
Under glucose deprivation, cells heavily mobilize oxidative phosphorylation to maintain energy homeostasis. This leads to the generation of high levels of ATP, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), from mitochondria. In nutrient starvation, autophagy is activated, likely to facilitate resource recycling, but [...] Read more.
Under glucose deprivation, cells heavily mobilize oxidative phosphorylation to maintain energy homeostasis. This leads to the generation of high levels of ATP, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), from mitochondria. In nutrient starvation, autophagy is activated, likely to facilitate resource recycling, but recent studies suggest that autophagy flux is inhibited in cells undergoing glucose deprivation. In this study, we analyzed the status of autophagic flux in glucose-deprived human fibroblasts. Although lysosomes increased in quantity due in part to an increase of biogenesis, a large population of them suffered low acidity in the glucose-deprived cells. Autophagosomes also accumulated due to poor autolysis in these cells. A treatment of antioxidants not only restored lysosomal acidity but also released the flux blockade. The inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) serine/threonine kinase, which is activated by ROS, also attenuated the impairment of lysosomal acidity and autophagic flux, suggesting an effect of ROS that might be mediated through ATM activation. In addition, the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) increased upon glucose deprivation, but this was also compromised by a treatment of antioxidants. Furthermore, the Erk inhibitor treatment also alleviated the failure in lysosomal acidity and autophagic flux. These together indicate that, upon glucose deprivation, cells undergo a failure of autophagy flux through an impairment of lysosomal acidity and that a high-level ROS-induced activation of Erk and ATM is involved in this impairment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Dynamics Regulation in Skin Fibroblasts from Mitochondrial Disease Patients
Biomolecules 2020, 10(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030450 - 13 Mar 2020
Abstract
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly fuse, divide, and move, and their function is regulated and maintained by their morphologic changes. Mitochondrial disease (MD) comprises a group of disorders involving mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether changes in mitochondrial morphology [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly fuse, divide, and move, and their function is regulated and maintained by their morphologic changes. Mitochondrial disease (MD) comprises a group of disorders involving mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether changes in mitochondrial morphology are related to MD. In this study, we examined mitochondrial morphology in fibroblasts from patients with MD (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and Leigh syndrome). We observed that MD fibroblasts exhibited significant mitochondrial fragmentation by upregulation of Drp1, which is responsible for mitochondrial fission. Interestingly, the inhibition of mitochondrial fragmentation by Drp1 knockdown enhanced cellular toxicity and led to cell death in MD fibroblasts. These results suggest that mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in the attenuation of mitochondrial damage in MD fibroblasts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Maytenus disticha Extract and an Isolated β-Dihydroagarofuran Induce Mitochondrial Depolarization and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Increasing Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species
Biomolecules 2020, 10(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030377 - 29 Feb 2020
Abstract
Maytenus disticha (Hook F.), belonging to the Celastraceae family, is an evergreen shrub, native of the central southern mountains of Chile. Previous studies demonstrated that the total extract of M. disticha (MD) has an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity along with growth regulatory and insecticidal [...] Read more.
Maytenus disticha (Hook F.), belonging to the Celastraceae family, is an evergreen shrub, native of the central southern mountains of Chile. Previous studies demonstrated that the total extract of M. disticha (MD) has an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity along with growth regulatory and insecticidal activities. β-Dihydroagarofurans sesquiterpenes are the most active components in the plant. However, its activity in cancer has not been analyzed yet. Here, we demonstrate that MD has a cytotoxic activity on breast (MCF-7), lung (PC9), and prostate (C4-2B) human cancer cells with an IC50 (µg/mL) of 40, 4.7, and 5 µg/mL, respectively, an increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and inducing a mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The β-dihydroagarofuran-type sesquiterpene (MD-6), dihydromyricetin (MD-9), and dihydromyricetin-3-O-β-glucoside (MD-10) were isolated as the major compounds from MD extracts. From these compounds, only MD-6 showed cytotoxic activity on MCF-7, PC9, and C4-2B with an IC50 of 31.02, 17.58, and 42.19 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the MD-6 increases cell ROS generation, and MD and MD-6 induce a mitochondrial superoxide generation and apoptosis on MCF-7, PC9, and C4-2B, which suggests that the cytotoxic effect of MD is mediated in part by the β-dihydroagarofuran-type that induces apoptosis by a mitochondrial dysfunction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mitigation of Glucolipotoxicity-Induced Apoptosis, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Metabolic Stress by N-Acetyl Cysteine in Pancreatic β-Cells
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020239 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
Glucolipotoxicity caused by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are the common features of diabetes-induced complications. Metabolic adaptation, particularly in energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; and increased inflammatory and oxidative stress responses are considered to be the main characteristics of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, due to [...] Read more.
Glucolipotoxicity caused by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are the common features of diabetes-induced complications. Metabolic adaptation, particularly in energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; and increased inflammatory and oxidative stress responses are considered to be the main characteristics of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, due to various fluctuating endogenous and exogenous stimuli, the precise role of these factors under in vivo conditions is not clearly understood. In the present study, we used pancreatic β-cells, Rin-5F, to elucidate the molecular and metabolic changes in glucolipotoxicity. Cells treated with high glucose (25 mM) and high palmitic acid (up to 0.3 mM) for 24 h exhibited increased caspase/poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP)-dependent apoptosis followed by DNA fragmentation, alterations in mitochondrial membrane permeability, and bioenergetics, accompanied by alterations in glycolytic and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Our results also demonstrated alterations in the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent apoptotic and autophagy markers. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cells with 10 mM N-acetyl cysteine attenuated the deleterious effects of high glucose and high palmitic acid with improved cellular functions and survival. These results suggest that the presence of high energy metabolites enhance mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by suppressing autophagy and adapting energy metabolism, mediated, at least in part, via enhanced oxidative DNA damage and mTOR/AMPK-dependent cell signaling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
E6 Oncoproteins from High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Induce Mitochondrial Metabolism in a Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model
Biomolecules 2019, 9(8), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9080351 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells that are positive for human papillomavirus (HPV+) favor mitochondrial metabolism rather than glucose metabolism. However, the involvement of mitochondrial metabolism in HNSCC HPV+ cells is still unknown. The aim of this work was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells that are positive for human papillomavirus (HPV+) favor mitochondrial metabolism rather than glucose metabolism. However, the involvement of mitochondrial metabolism in HNSCC HPV+ cells is still unknown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of E6 oncoproteins from HPV16 and HPV18 in the mitochondrial metabolism in an HNSCC model. We found that E6 from both viral types abates the phosphorylation of protein kinase B-serine 473 (pAkt), which is associated with a shift in mitochondrial metabolism. E6 oncoproteins increased the levels of protein subunits of mitochondrial complexes (I to IV), as well as the ATP synthase and the protein levels of the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC). Although E6 proteins increased the basal and leak respiration, the ATP-linked respiration was not affected, which resulted in mitochondrial decoupling. This increase in leak respiration was associated to the induction of oxidative stress (OS) in cells expressing E6, as it was observed by the fall in the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) rate and the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), carbonylated proteins, and DNA damage. Taken together, our results suggest that E6 oncoproteins from HPV16 and HPV18 are inducers of mitochondrial metabolism. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Regulation of Nrf2 by Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Physiology and Pathology
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020320 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic respiration and signaling molecules that control various cellular functions. Nrf2 governs the gene expression of endogenous antioxidant synthesis and ROS-eliminating enzymes in response to various electrophilic compounds that inactivate the negative regulator Keap1. Accumulating evidence [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic respiration and signaling molecules that control various cellular functions. Nrf2 governs the gene expression of endogenous antioxidant synthesis and ROS-eliminating enzymes in response to various electrophilic compounds that inactivate the negative regulator Keap1. Accumulating evidence has shown that mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) activate Nrf2, often mediated by certain protein kinases, and induce the expression of antioxidant genes and genes involved in mitochondrial quality/quantity control. Mild physiological stress, such as caloric restriction and exercise, elicits beneficial effects through a process known as “mitohormesis”. Exercise induces NOX4 expression in the heart, which activates Nrf2 and increases endurance capacity. Mice transiently depleted of SOD2 or overexpressing skeletal muscle-specific UCP1 exhibit Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. ATF4 activation may induce a transcriptional program that enhances NADPH synthesis in the mitochondria and might cooperate with the Nrf2 antioxidant system. In response to severe oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces Klf9 expression, which represses mtROS-eliminating enzymes to enhance cell death. Nrf2 is inactivated in certain pathological conditions, such as diabetes, but Keap1 down-regulation or mtROS elimination rescues Nrf2 expression and improves the pathology. These reports aid us in understanding the roles of Nrf2 in pathophysiological alterations involving mtROS. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Redox Signaling from Mitochondria: Signal Propagation and Its Targets
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010093 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Progress in mass spectroscopy of posttranslational oxidative modifications has enabled researchers to experimentally verify the concept of redox signaling. We focus here on redox signaling originating from mitochondria under physiological situations, discussing mechanisms of transient redox burst in mitochondria, as well as the [...] Read more.
Progress in mass spectroscopy of posttranslational oxidative modifications has enabled researchers to experimentally verify the concept of redox signaling. We focus here on redox signaling originating from mitochondria under physiological situations, discussing mechanisms of transient redox burst in mitochondria, as well as the possible ways to transfer such redox signals to specific extramitochondrial targets. A role of peroxiredoxins is described which enables redox relay to other targets. Examples of mitochondrial redox signaling are discussed: initiation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) responses; retrograde redox signaling to PGC1α during exercise in skeletal muscle; redox signaling in innate immune cells; redox stimulation of insulin secretion, and other physiological situations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pathological Roles of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiac Microvascular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010085 - 05 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Mitochondria are key regulators of cell fate through controlling ATP generation and releasing pro-apoptotic factors. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the coronary microcirculation has manifestations ranging in severity from reversible edema to interstitial hemorrhage. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are key regulators of cell fate through controlling ATP generation and releasing pro-apoptotic factors. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the coronary microcirculation has manifestations ranging in severity from reversible edema to interstitial hemorrhage. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cardiac microvascular I/R injury including edema, impaired vasomotion, coronary microembolization, and capillary destruction. In contrast to their role in cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. It is clear that abnormal mitochondrial signatures, including mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion, and mitophagy, play a substantial role in endothelial cell function. While the pathogenic role of each of these mitochondrial alterations in the endothelial cells I/R injury remains complex, profiling of mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics in endothelial cell dysfunction may offer promising potential targets in the search for novel diagnostics and therapeutics in cardiac microvascular I/R injury. The objective of this review is to discuss the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress on cardiac microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission and fusion, are critically discussed to understand their roles in endothelial cell survival. Finally, mitophagy, as a degradative mechanism for damaged mitochondria, is summarized to figure out its contribution to the progression of microvascular I/R injury. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Strategies for Regulating Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010083 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
There have been many reports on the relationship between mitochondrial oxidative stress and various types of diseases. This review covers mitochondrial targeting photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy as a therapeutic strategy for inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. We also discuss other mitochondrial targeting phototherapeutic [...] Read more.
There have been many reports on the relationship between mitochondrial oxidative stress and various types of diseases. This review covers mitochondrial targeting photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy as a therapeutic strategy for inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. We also discuss other mitochondrial targeting phototherapeutic methods. In addition, we discuss anti-oxidant therapy by a mitochondrial drug delivery system (DDS) as a therapeutic strategy for suppressing oxidative stress. We also describe cell therapy for reducing oxidative stress in mitochondria. Finally, we discuss the possibilities and problems associated with clinical applications of mitochondrial DDS to regulate mitochondrial oxidative stress. Full article
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