Special Issue "Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Emma Kendrick
Website
Guest Editor
WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
Interests: novel battery materials and technologies; Na-ion; Li-ion; Mg-ion; cell manufacturing; cell design; composite electrode formulation; electrochemical test methods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) may offer key benefits over other commercial battery technologies such as lithium-ion batteries and lead-acid batteries in cost, safety, and performance. Due to the highly abundant sodium source (seawater), the materials are not geographically limited in terms of supply, and thanks to improved safety implications for transport due to novel cell designs, NIBs offer potential alternative energy storage solutions to lithium-ion batteries for applications where cost and safety are key drivers.

NIB technology is still in its infancy, and despite recent advances, significant knowledge gaps still exist. Sodium-ion cell chemistries require research into materials, electrochemical testing methods, materials processing for electrodes, novel electrolyte systems, and a greater knowledge of the failure mechanisms for safety and performance. This special issue “Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices” will focus on aspects of advancements in sodium-ion technology.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • - Novel sodium-ion materials, positive, negative, and electrolytes;
  • - Electrode design;
  • - Electrochemical test method;
  • - NIB cell design;
  • - Safety failure analysis;
  • - Performance lifetime and degradation studies.
Prof. Dr. Emma Kendrick
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sodium-ion batteries
  • NIB
  • SIB
  • electrode
  • electrolyte
  • cathode
  • anode
  • cell design
  • safety
  • failure mechanism
  • degradation.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Performance and Thermal Stability of Iron Oxyfluoride (FeOF) for Sodium-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2018, 4(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4040068 - 07 Dec 2018
Abstract
Self-synthesized rutile iron oxyfluoride (FeOF) was studied as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries. The highly crystalline FeOF provided an initial discharge capacity of 246 mAh g−1 in a voltage range of 1.0–4.0 V, followed by 88% of capacity retention after 20 [...] Read more.
Self-synthesized rutile iron oxyfluoride (FeOF) was studied as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries. The highly crystalline FeOF provided an initial discharge capacity of 246 mAh g−1 in a voltage range of 1.0–4.0 V, followed by 88% of capacity retention after 20 cycles. This discharge-charge reaction of FeOF between 0.8 and 4.0 V are advanced by the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox reaction. That is, no conversion reaction was involved in the application of FeOF as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries because of the low potential of Na-insertion. In addition, the structure change of FeOF from rutile to cubic during Na ion insertion, which was similar to that in Li-ion batteries. No remarkable HF release was detected even up to 700 °C, indicating a low toxic risk of the FeOF cathode. The thermal properties of sodiated and desodiated FeOF electrodes in the associated electrolyte were investigated by DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) up to 500 °C. Sodiated FeOF electrodes showed larger exothermic heat generation than desodiated ones, especially at a temperature higher than 380 °C. Finally, the thermal stability of FeOF cathodes in the associated Li- and Na-ion battery electrolytes was quantitatively compared with variations of the electrode/electrolyte ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Water-Based Binder on the Electrochemical Performance of P2-Na0.67Mn0.6Fe0.25Co0.15O2 Electrodes in Na-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2018, 4(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4040066 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Aqueous binders are highly recommended in battery production for (i) reducing the costs and, (ii) increasing the safety due to the absence of an organic solvent. Unfortunately, the impact of water during the electrode formulation on sodiated phases is still unclear and deserves [...] Read more.
Aqueous binders are highly recommended in battery production for (i) reducing the costs and, (ii) increasing the safety due to the absence of an organic solvent. Unfortunately, the impact of water during the electrode formulation on sodiated phases is still unclear and deserves investigation. In this work, we used carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) binder to prepare electrodes of a high energy density P2-layered oxide material, Na0.67Mn0.6Fe0.25Co0.15O2 (NaMFC). We investigated the effects of water-based electrode preparation on the electrochemical performance, by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and neutron diffraction. The water leads to degradation of the material limiting the reversible specific charge at 90 mAh·g−1 instead of 120 mAh·g−1 obtained with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as binder. The protons exchanged in the structure, occurring during electrode preparation, are assumed to disrupt the Na ions extraction mechanism limiting the specific charge of such a material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Al- and Y-Substituted NaSICON Solid Solution Na3+2xAlxYxZr2−2xSi2PO12
Batteries 2018, 4(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4030033 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Because of an increasing interest in NaSICON materials as electrolyte materials in all-solid state sodium batteries, their thermal expansion was investigated in this study. The thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the Al and Y-substituted NaSICON compositions Na3+2xAlxYx [...] Read more.
Because of an increasing interest in NaSICON materials as electrolyte materials in all-solid state sodium batteries, their thermal expansion was investigated in this study. The thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the Al and Y-substituted NaSICON compositions Na3+2xAlxYxZr2−2xSi2PO12 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 was obtained by dilatometry and compared to the CTE derived from the lattice parameters using high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The difference in CTE obtained from techniques, the influence of sodium content and central metal cation on CTE, as well as other observations such as phase changes are described and rationalized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of La3+ Modification on the Electrochemical Performance of Na3V2(PO4)2F3
Batteries 2018, 4(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4030032 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
La3+ modification of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 was performed by the direct mechanochemically assisted solid-state synthesis of the Na3V2−xLax(PO4)2F3 compositions, and by the LaPO4 [...] Read more.
La3+ modification of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 was performed by the direct mechanochemically assisted solid-state synthesis of the Na3V2−xLax(PO4)2F3 compositions, and by the LaPO4 coating of the as-prepared Na3V2(PO4)2F3 via the precipitation method. It has been shown that no noticeable substitution of the V3+ ions by the La3+ ions occurs in the Na3V2(PO4)2F3 structure under the synthesis conditions; meanwhile, the introduction of the La3+ ions into the reagent mixture leads to the formation of the LaPO4 phase, and accordingly, an increase in the NaF/VPO4 ratio. The latter results in the formation of the Na3PO4 and Na3VF6 surface impurity phases, which possess high ionic and electronic conductivity, respectively, and significantly enhances the electrical conductivity and the cycling performance of the composite cathode material both in Na and Li cells, while simple surface modification of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 by LaPO4 via precipitation does not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
The Electrochemical Sodiation of Sb Investigated by Operando X-ray Absorption and 121Sb Mössbauer Spectroscopy: What Does One Really Learn?
Batteries 2018, 4(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4020025 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
In this study, we want to highlight the assets and restrictions of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy for investigating the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction of antimony electrode materials vs. Na. For this, operando XAS was carried out during the first [...] Read more.
In this study, we want to highlight the assets and restrictions of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy for investigating the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction of antimony electrode materials vs. Na. For this, operando XAS was carried out during the first one and a half cycles, and the whole set of measured data was analysed using a statistical-chemometric approach, while low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements were carried out ex situ on selected samples stopped at different points of the electrochemical reaction. Complementary ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental findings. Both techniques show that, upon the first sodiation, most Sb reacts with Na to form disordered Na 3 Sb. This step is accompanied by the formation of amorphous Sb as an intermediate. Upon inversion of the current Na 3 Sb is desodiated and an amorphous Sb phase, distinct from the pristine bulk Sb state, is gradually formed. However, both XAS and Mössbauer spectroscopy were unable to spot the formation of intermediate Na x Sb phases, which were evinced in previous works by operando Pair Distribution Function analyses. The results shown here clearly assign such failure to the intrinsic inability of both techniques to identify these intermediates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Materials and Devices)
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