Special Issue "SPIG2018"

A special issue of Atoms (ISSN 2218-2004).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Goran Poparić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
(Co-Chair of the Scientific Committee)
Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: atomic collision processes; physics of atoms and molecules; computer physics
Prof. Dr. Bratislav Obradović
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
(Co-Chair of the Scientific Committee)
Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade,P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: physics of ionised gasses; plasma physics; quantum optics
Dr. Duško Borka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
(Co-Chair of the Loc. Org. Committee)
Research Professor, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P. O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: astrophysics and gravitation; particle interaction with solids
Dr. Milan Rajković
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
(Co-Chair of the Loc. Org. Committee)
Research Professor, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P. O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: mathematical physics; dynamics of fluids; nonlinear dynamics systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue covers a wide range of topics from fundamental studies to applications of ionized gases. It is dedicated to 4 focusing points: 1. ATOMIC COLLISION PROCESSES (electron and photon interactions with atomic particles, heavy particle collisions, swarms and transport phenomena); 2. PARTICLE AND LASER BEAM INTERACTION WITH SOLIDS (atomic collisions in solids, sputtering and deposition, laser and plasma interaction with surfaces); 3. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMAS (plasma spectroscopy and other diagnostic methods, gas discharges, plasma applications and devices) and 4. GENERAL PLASMAS (fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas and collective phenomena). This Special Issue of Atoms will highlight the need for continuing research on the ionized gases physics in different range of topics from fundamental studies to applications and will review present investigation. 

Prof. Dr. Goran Poparić
Prof. Dr. Bratislav Obradović
Dr. Duško Borka
Dr. Milan Rajković
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atoms is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atomic collisions
  • sputtering
  • deposition
  • surfaces
  • spectra
  • spectroscopy
  • gas discharges
  • laboratory plasma
  • lasers
  • plasma in industry
  • plasma applications
  • fusion plasma
  • astrophysical plasma
  • collective phenomena
  • stars
  • extragalactic objects

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Electron-Induced Chemistry in the Condensed Phase
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010033 - 04 Mar 2019
Abstract
Electron–molecule interactions have been studied for a long time. Most of these studies have in the past been limited to the gas phase. In the condensed-phase processes that have recently attracted attention from academia as well as industry, a theoretical understanding is mostly [...] Read more.
Electron–molecule interactions have been studied for a long time. Most of these studies have in the past been limited to the gas phase. In the condensed-phase processes that have recently attracted attention from academia as well as industry, a theoretical understanding is mostly based on electron–molecule interaction data from these gas phase experiments. When transferring this knowledge to condensed-phase problems, where number densities are much higher and multi-body interactions are common, care must be taken to critically interpret data, in the light of this chemical environment. The paper presented here highlights three typical challenges, namely the shift of ionization energies, the difference in absolute cross-sections and branching ratios, and the occurrence of multi-body processes that can stabilize otherwise unstable intermediates. Examples from recent research in astrochemistry, where radiation driven chemistry is imminently important are used to illustrate these challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cavity-Enhanced Photodetachment of H as a Means to Produce Energetic Neutral Beams for Plasma Heating
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010032 - 01 Mar 2019
Abstract
Neutral beam injection, for plasma heating, will supposedly be achieved, in ITER, by collisional detachment of a pre-accelerated D beam. Collisional detachment, however, makes use of a D 2 -filled neutralisation chamber, which has severe drawbacks, including the necessity to set the [...] Read more.
Neutral beam injection, for plasma heating, will supposedly be achieved, in ITER, by collisional detachment of a pre-accelerated D beam. Collisional detachment, however, makes use of a D 2 -filled neutralisation chamber, which has severe drawbacks, including the necessity to set the D -ion source at −1 MV. Photodetachment, in contradistinction, would have several advantages as a neutralisation method, including the absence of gas injection, and the possibility to set the ion source close to the earth potential. Photodetachment, however, requires a very high laser flux. The presented work has consisted in implementing an optical cavity, with a finesse greater than 3000, to make such a high illumination possible with a state-of-the-art CW (continuous-wave) laser. A 1.2 keV 1 H -beam (only 20 times slower than the 1 MeV 2 D ion beams to be prepared for ITER) was photodetached with more-than-50% efficiency, with only 24 W of CW laser input. This experimental demonstration paves the way for developing real-size photoneutralizers, based on the implementation of refolded optical cavities around the ion beams of neutral beam injectors. Depending on whether the specifications of the laser power or the cavity finesse will be more difficult to achieve in real scale, different architectures can be considered, with greater or smaller numbers of optical refoldings or (inclusively) optical cavities in succession, on the beam to be neutralised. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Time Scales of Optical Variability of AGN and the Shape of Their Optical Emission Line Profiles
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010026 - 14 Feb 2019
Abstract
The mechanism of the optical variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still very puzzling. It is now widely accepted that the optical variability of AGN is stochastic, producing red noise-like light curves. In case they were to be periodic or quasi-periodic, one [...] Read more.
The mechanism of the optical variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still very puzzling. It is now widely accepted that the optical variability of AGN is stochastic, producing red noise-like light curves. In case they were to be periodic or quasi-periodic, one should expect that the time scales of optical AGN variability should relate to orbiting time scales of regions inside the accretion disks with temperatures mainly emitting the light in this wavelength range. Knowing the reverberation scales and masses of AGN, expected orbiting time scales are in the order of decades. Unfortunately, most of monitored AGN light curves are not long enough to investigate such time scales of periodicity. Here we investigate the AGN optical variability time scales and their possible connections with the broad emission line shapes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing the Techniques for Solving the Inverse Problem in Photoacoustics
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010024 - 12 Feb 2019
Abstract
In this work, theoretically/mathematically simulated models are derived for the photoacoustic (PA) frequency response of both volume and surface optically-absorbing samples in a minimum volume PA cell. In the derivation process, the thermal memory influence of both the sample and the air of [...] Read more.
In this work, theoretically/mathematically simulated models are derived for the photoacoustic (PA) frequency response of both volume and surface optically-absorbing samples in a minimum volume PA cell. In the derivation process, the thermal memory influence of both the sample and the air of the gas column are accounted for, as well as the influence of the measurement chain. Within the analysis of the TMS model, the influence of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the sample was investigated. This analysis revealed that some of the processes, characterized by certain sample properties, exert their dominance only in limited modulation frequency ranges, which are shown to be dependent upon the choice of the sample material and its thickness. Based on the described analysis, two methods are developed for TMS model parameter determination, i.e., sample properties which dominantly influence the PA response in the measurement range: a self-consistent procedure for solving the exponential problems of mathematical physics, and a well-trained three-layer perceptron with back propagation, based upon theory of neural networks. The results of the application of both inverse problem solving methods are compared and discussed. The first method is shown to have the advantage in the number of properties which are determined, while the second one is advantageous in gaining high accuracy in the determination of thermal diffusivity, explicitly. Finally, the execution of inverse PA problem is implemented on experimental measurements performed on macromolecule samples, the results are discussed, and the most important conclusions are derived and presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spectral Modeling of Hydrogen Radiation Emission in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010023 - 12 Feb 2019
Abstract
Modeling of the spectral line and continuum radiation emitted by hydrogen isotopes in peripheral regions of magnetic fusion is presented through profiles of the Zeeman-Doppler broadened Hα/Dα line and those of the Stark broadened high-n Balmer lines extending beyond the series limit for [...] Read more.
Modeling of the spectral line and continuum radiation emitted by hydrogen isotopes in peripheral regions of magnetic fusion is presented through profiles of the Zeeman-Doppler broadened Hα/Dα line and those of the Stark broadened high-n Balmer lines extending beyond the series limit for recombining plasmas. The Hα/Dα line profiles should be modelled while accounting for several populations of neutrals to mimic real situations and analyze experimental data for isotopic ratio determination. On the other side, high-n Balmer lines of hydrogen are used for plasma electron density and temperature diagnostics. Moreover, modelling whole spectra including the continuum radiation contributes to the development of synthetic diagnostics for future magnetic fusion devices for which they can give predictive results through coupling to numerical simulation tools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quasars: From the Physics of Line Formation to Cosmology
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010018 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Quasars accreting matter at very high rates (known as extreme Population A (xA) or super-Eddington accreting massive black holes) provide a new class of distance indicators covering cosmic epochs from the present-day Universe up to less than 1 Gyr from the Big Bang. [...] Read more.
Quasars accreting matter at very high rates (known as extreme Population A (xA) or super-Eddington accreting massive black holes) provide a new class of distance indicators covering cosmic epochs from the present-day Universe up to less than 1 Gyr from the Big Bang. The very high accretion rate makes it possible that massive black holes hosted in xA quasars can radiate at a stable, extreme luminosity-to-mass ratio. This in turn translates into stable physical and dynamical conditions of the mildly ionized gas in the quasar low-ionization line emitting region. In this contribution, we analyze the main optical and UV spectral properties of extreme Population A quasars that make them easily identifiable in large spectroscopic surveys at low- ( z 1 ) and intermediate-z (2 z 2.6), and the physical conditions that are derived for the formation of their emission lines. Ultimately, the analysis supports the possibility of identifying a virial broadening estimator from low-ionization line widths, and the conceptual validity of the redshift-independent luminosity estimates based on virial broadening for a known luminosity-to-mass ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Rainbows in Positron Transmission through Carbon Nanotubes
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010016 - 28 Jan 2019
Abstract
Here we report the results of the theoretical investigation of the transmission of channeled positrons through various short chiral single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The main question answered by this study is “What are the manifestations of the rainbow effect in the channeling [...] Read more.
Here we report the results of the theoretical investigation of the transmission of channeled positrons through various short chiral single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The main question answered by this study is “What are the manifestations of the rainbow effect in the channeling of quantum particles that happens during the channeling of classical particles?” To answer this question, the corresponding classical and quantum problems were solved in parallel, critically examined, and compared with each other. Positron energies were taken to be 1 MeV when the quantum approach was necessary. The continuum positron-nanotube potential was constructed from the thermally averaged Molière’s positron-carbon potential. In the classical approach, a positron beam is considered as an ensemble of noninteracting particles. In the quantum approach, it is considered as an ensemble of noninteracting wave packages. Distributions of transmitted positrons were constructed from the numerical solutions of Newton’s equation and the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the transmission of 1-MeV positrons through 200-nm long SWCNT (14; 4), in addition to the central maximum, the quantum angular distribution has a prominent peak pair (close to the classical rainbows) and two smaller peaks pairs. We have shown that even though the semiclassical approximation is not strictly applicable it is useful for explanation of the observed behavior. In vicinity of the most prominent peak, i.e., the primary rainbow peak, rays interfere constructively. On one of its sides, rays become complex, which explains the exponential decay of the probability density in that region. On the other side, the ray interference alternates between constructive and destructive, thus generating two observed supernumerary rainbow peaks. The developed model was then applied for the explanation of the angular distributions of 1-MeV positrons transmitting through 200 nm long (7, 3), (8, 5), (9, 7), (14, 4), (16, 5) and (17, 7) SWCNTs. It has been shown that this explains most but not all rainbow patterns. Therefore, a new method for the identification and classification of quantum rainbows was developed relying only on the morphological properties of the positron wave function amplitude and the phase function families. This led to a detailed explanation of the way the quantum rainbows are generated. All wave packets wrinkle due to their internal focusing in a mutually coordinated way and are concentrated near the position of the corresponding classical rainbow. This explanation is general and applicable to the investigations of quantum effects occurring in various other atomic collision processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Runaway Electron Current Estimation in COMPASS Tokamak
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010012 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Runaway electrons present a potential threat to the safe operation of future nuclear fusion large facilities based on the tokamak principle (e.g., ITER). The article presents an implementation of runaway electron current estimations at COMPASS tokamak. The method uses a theoretical method developed [...] Read more.
Runaway electrons present a potential threat to the safe operation of future nuclear fusion large facilities based on the tokamak principle (e.g., ITER). The article presents an implementation of runaway electron current estimations at COMPASS tokamak. The method uses a theoretical method developed by Fujita et al., with the difference in using experimental measurements from EFIT and Thomson scattering. The procedure was explained on the COMPASS discharge number 7298, which has a significant runaway electron population. Here, it was found that at least 4 kA of the plasma current is driven by the runaway electrons. Next, the method aws used on the set of plasma discharges with the variable electron plasma density. The difference in the plasma current was explained by runaway electrons, and their current was estimated using the aforementioned method. The experimental results are compared with the theory and simulation. The comparison presented some disagreements, showing the possible direction for the code development. Additional application on runaway electron energy limit is also addressed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
BEAMDB and MOLD—Databases at the Serbian Virtual Observatory for Collisional and Radiative Processes
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010011 - 14 Jan 2019
Abstract
In this contribution we present a progress report on two atomic and molecular databases, BEAMDB and MolD, which are web services at the Serbian virtual observatory (SerVO) and nodes within the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC). The Belgrade Electron/Atom (Molecule) DataBase [...] Read more.
In this contribution we present a progress report on two atomic and molecular databases, BEAMDB and MolD, which are web services at the Serbian virtual observatory (SerVO) and nodes within the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC). The Belgrade Electron/Atom (Molecule) DataBase (BEAMDB) provides collisional data for electron interactions with atoms and molecules. The Photodissociation (MolD) database contains photo-dissociation cross sections for individual rovibrational states of diatomic molecular ions and rate coefficients for the chemi-ionisation/recombination processes. We also present a progress report on the major upgrade of these databases and plans for the future. As an example of how the data from the BEAMDB may be used, a review of electron scattering from methane is described. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Study of Ar I and Ne I Spectral Line Shapes in the Cathode Sheath Region of an Abnormal Glow Discharge
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010009 - 09 Jan 2019
Abstract
The cathode sheath (CS) region is the most important part of abnormal glow discharge (GD), where various processes relevant for the operation and application occur. The most important parameter of the CS is the distribution of electric field strength E which is of [...] Read more.
The cathode sheath (CS) region is the most important part of abnormal glow discharge (GD), where various processes relevant for the operation and application occur. The most important parameter of the CS is the distribution of electric field strength E which is of crucial importance for charged particles acceleration, their trajectories, kinetic energies, and collisions with other particles and cathode sputtering. All these processes are relevant for the operation of GD as well as for numerous applications in the field of spectroscopic analysis, plasma etching, thin film deposition, and depth profiling of cathode material. Thus, the importance of non-perturbing technique for E distribution measurement in the CS region was recognized long time ago. Within this article, a simple technique based on standard optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and typical laboratory equipment has been used for E mapping in the CS region of an abnormal glow discharge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Stark Halfwidths of Spectral Lines of Ionized Oxygen and Silicon Emitted from T-tube Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010008 - 09 Jan 2019
Abstract
The analysis of experimental Stark halfwidths of spectral lines of singly ionized oxygen and silicon and double ionized silicon is presented in this work. The considered spectral lines were emitted from plasma generated in an electromagnetically driven T-tube, with an electron temperature of [...] Read more.
The analysis of experimental Stark halfwidths of spectral lines of singly ionized oxygen and silicon and double ionized silicon is presented in this work. The considered spectral lines were emitted from plasma generated in an electromagnetically driven T-tube, with an electron temperature of 15,000 K and electron density of 1.45 × 1023 m−3. The obtained Stark halfwidths were compared to experimental values given by other authors. In addition, all experimental values were compared to theoretical values. These data are useful for diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas as well as verifying theoretical models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Laser-Induced Plasma Measurements Using Nd:YAG Laser and Streak Camera: Timing Considerations
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010006 - 02 Jan 2019
Abstract
We describe a streak camera system that is capable of both spatial and spectral measurements of laser-induced plasma. The system is based on a Hamamatsu C4334 streak camera and SpectraPro 2300i spectrograph. To improve the analysis of laser-induced plasma development, it is necessary [...] Read more.
We describe a streak camera system that is capable of both spatial and spectral measurements of laser-induced plasma. The system is based on a Hamamatsu C4334 streak camera and SpectraPro 2300i spectrograph. To improve the analysis of laser-induced plasma development, it is necessary to determine the timing of laser excitation in regard to the time scale on streak images. We present several methods to determine the laser signal timing on streak images—one uses the fast photodiode, and other techniques are based on the inclusion of the laser pulse directly on the streak image. A Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, Quantel, Brilliant B) was employed as the excitation source. The problem of synchronization of the streak camera with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is also analyzed. A simple modification of the spectrograph enables easy switching between the spectral and spatial measurement modes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermochemical Non-Equilibrium in Thermal Plasmas
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010005 - 01 Jan 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we analyze the departure from equilibrium in two specific types of thermal plasmas. The first type deals with the plasma produced during the atmospheric entry of a spatial vehicle in the upper layers of an atmosphere, specifically the one of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we analyze the departure from equilibrium in two specific types of thermal plasmas. The first type deals with the plasma produced during the atmospheric entry of a spatial vehicle in the upper layers of an atmosphere, specifically the one of Mars. The second type concerns the plasma produced during the laser-matter interaction above the breakdown threshold on a metallic sample. We successively describe the situation and give the way along which modeling tools are elaborated by avoiding any assumption on the thermochemical equilibrium. The key of the approach is to consider the excited states of the different species as independent species. Therefore, they obey to conservation equations involving collisional-radiative contributions related to the other excited states. These contributions are in part due to the influence of electrons and heavy particles having a different translation temperature. This ‘state-to-state’ approach then enables the verification of the excitation equilibrium by analyzing Boltzmann plots. This approach leads finally to a thorough analysis of the progressive coupling until the equilibrium asymptotically observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fundamental Plane of Elliptical Galaxies in f(R) Gravity: The Role of Luminosity
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010004 - 31 Dec 2018
Abstract
The global properties of elliptical galaxies are connected through the so-called fundamental plane of ellipticals, which is an empirical relation between their parameters: effective radius, central velocity dispersion and mean surface brightness within the effective radius. We investigated the relation between the parameters [...] Read more.
The global properties of elliptical galaxies are connected through the so-called fundamental plane of ellipticals, which is an empirical relation between their parameters: effective radius, central velocity dispersion and mean surface brightness within the effective radius. We investigated the relation between the parameters of the fundamental plane equation and the parameters of modified gravity potential f ( R ) . With that aim, we compared theoretical predictions for circular velocity in f ( R ) gravity with the corresponding values from a large sample of observed elliptical galaxies. Besides, we consistently reproduced the values of coefficients of the fundamental plane equation as deduced from observations, showing that the photometric quantities like mean surface brightness are related to gravitational parameters. We show that this type of modified gravity, especially its power-law version— R n , is able to reproduce the stellar dynamics in elliptical galaxies. In addition, it is shown that R n gravity fits the observations very well, without the need for a dark matter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Secondary Electron Emission and Electron Reflection on a Capacitively Coupled Oxygen Discharge
Atoms 2018, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms6040065 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The one-dimensional object-oriented particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code oopd1 is applied to explore the role of secondary electron emission and electron reflection on the properties of the capacitively-coupled oxygen discharge. At low pressure (10 mTorr), drift-ambipolar heating of the electrons dominates within the [...] Read more.
The one-dimensional object-oriented particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code oopd1 is applied to explore the role of secondary electron emission and electron reflection on the properties of the capacitively-coupled oxygen discharge. At low pressure (10 mTorr), drift-ambipolar heating of the electrons dominates within the plasma bulk, while at higher pressure (50 mTorr), stochastic electron heating in the sheath region dominates. Electron reflection has negligible influence on the electron energy probability function and only a slight influence on the electron heating profile and electron density. Including ion-induced secondary electron emission in the discharge model introduces a high energy tail to the electron energy probability function, enhances the electron density, lowers the electronegativity, and increases the effective electron temperature in the plasma bulk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Atomic and Molecular Processes in a Strong Bicircular Laser Field
Atoms 2018, 6(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms6040061 - 08 Nov 2018
Abstract
With the development of intense femtosecond laser sources it has become possible to study atomic and molecular processes on their own subfemtosecond time scale. Table-top setups are available that generate intense coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray regime which have various [...] Read more.
With the development of intense femtosecond laser sources it has become possible to study atomic and molecular processes on their own subfemtosecond time scale. Table-top setups are available that generate intense coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray regime which have various applications in strong-field physics and attoscience. More recently, the emphasis is moving from the generation of linearly polarized pulses using a linearly polarized driving field to the generation of more complicated elliptically polarized polychromatic ultrashort pulses. The transverse electromagnetic field oscillates in a plane perpendicular to its propagation direction. Therefore, the two dimensions of field polarization plane are available for manipulation and tailoring of these ultrashort pulses. We present a field that allows such a tailoring, the so-called bicircular field. This field is the superposition of two circularly polarized fields with different frequencies that rotate in the same plane in opposite directions. We present results for two processes in a bicircular field: High-order harmonic generation and above-threshold ionization. For a wide range of laser field intensities, we compare high-order harmonic spectra generated by bicircular fields with the spectra generated by a linearly polarized laser field. We also investigate a possibility of introducing spin into attoscience with spin-polarized electrons produced in high-order above-threshold ionization by a bicircular field. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Interrelationship between Lab, Space, Astrophysical, Magnetic Fusion, and Inertial Fusion Plasma Experiments
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010035 - 11 Mar 2019
Abstract
The objectives of this review are to articulate geospace, heliospheric, and astrophysical plasma physics issues that are addressable by laboratory experiments, to convey the wide range of laboratory experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance, and to illustrate how lab experiments on the centimeter [...] Read more.
The objectives of this review are to articulate geospace, heliospheric, and astrophysical plasma physics issues that are addressable by laboratory experiments, to convey the wide range of laboratory experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance, and to illustrate how lab experiments on the centimeter or meter scale can develop, through the intermediary of a computer simulation, physically credible scaling of physical processes taking place in a distant part of the universe over enormous length scales. The space physics motivation of laboratory investigations and the scaling of laboratory plasma parameters to space plasma conditions, having expanded to magnetic fusion and inertial fusion experiments, are discussed. Examples demonstrating how laboratory experiments develop physical insight, validate or invalidate theoretical models, discover unexpected behavior, and establish observational signatures for the space community are presented. The various device configurations found in space-related laboratory investigations are outlined. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dynamic Instability of Rydberg Atomic Complexes
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010022 - 08 Feb 2019
Abstract
Atoms and molecules in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique characteristics due to the strong dependence of their properties on the values of principal quantum numbers. The paper discusses the results of an investigation of collisional Rydberg complexes specific features, [...] Read more.
Atoms and molecules in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique characteristics due to the strong dependence of their properties on the values of principal quantum numbers. The paper discusses the results of an investigation of collisional Rydberg complexes specific features, resulting in the development of dynamic chaos and the accompanying diffusion autoionization processes. It is shown (experiment and theory) that, in subthermal low energies, the global chaotic regime that evolved in quasimolecular systems leads to significant changes in the Rydberg gases radiation/ionization kinetics. The effect of Förster resonance on the width of the fluorescence spectra and stochastic ionization processes in Rydberg systems is also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Equivalent Circuit Approach for the Electrical Diagnostics of Dielectric Barrier Discharges: The Classical Theory and Recent Developments
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010014 - 23 Jan 2019
Abstract
Measurements of current and voltage are the basic diagnostics for electrical discharges. However, in the case of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), the measured current and voltage waveforms are influenced by the discharge reactor geometry, and thus, interpretation of measured quantities is required to [...] Read more.
Measurements of current and voltage are the basic diagnostics for electrical discharges. However, in the case of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), the measured current and voltage waveforms are influenced by the discharge reactor geometry, and thus, interpretation of measured quantities is required to determine the discharge properties. This contribution presents the main stages of the development of electrical diagnostics of DBDs, which are based on lumped electrical elements. The compilation and revision of the contributions to the equivalent circuit approach are targeted to indicate: (1) the interconnection between the stage of development, (2) its applicability, and (3) the current state-of-the-art of this approach. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Nitrogen Admixture on Plasma Characteristics in a dc Argon Glow Discharge and in Afterglow
Atoms 2019, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7010013 - 19 Jan 2019
Abstract
The present paper is based on the materials of the Invited Lecture presented at 29th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (28 August 2018–1 September 2018, Belgrade, Serbia). In the paper, the effect of nitrogen admixture on various [...] Read more.
The present paper is based on the materials of the Invited Lecture presented at 29th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (28 August 2018–1 September 2018, Belgrade, Serbia). In the paper, the effect of nitrogen admixture on various characteristics of a dc glow discharge in argon (the volt-ampere characteristic, rate of plasma decay in the afterglow, discharge constriction condition, and formation of a partially constricted discharge) is considered. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Advanced Helical Plasma Research towards a Steady-State Fusion Reactor by Deuterium Experiments in Large Helical Device
Atoms 2018, 6(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms6040069 - 08 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Large Helical Device (LHD) is one of the world’s largest superconducting helical system fusion-experiment devices. Since the start of experiments in 1998, it has expanded its parameter regime. It has also demonstrated world-leading steady-state operation. Based on this progress, the LHD has [...] Read more.
The Large Helical Device (LHD) is one of the world’s largest superconducting helical system fusion-experiment devices. Since the start of experiments in 1998, it has expanded its parameter regime. It has also demonstrated world-leading steady-state operation. Based on this progress, the LHD has moved on to the advanced research phase, that is, deuterium experiment, which started in March 2017. During the first deuterium experiment campaign, an ion temperature of 10 keV was achieved. This was a milestone in helical systems research: demonstrating one of the conditions for fusion. All of this progress and increased understanding have provided the basis for designing an LHD-type steady-state helical fusion reactor. Moreover, LHD plasmas have been utilized not only for fusion research, but also for diagnostics development and applications in wide-ranging plasma research. A few examples of such contributions of LHD plasmas (spectroscopic study and the development of a new type of interferometer) are introduced in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018) Printed Edition available
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