Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerosols".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2022) | Viewed by 40551

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mathematics and Physics Department "E. De Giorgi", University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: aerosol optical properties; bioaerosol; aerosol radiative forcing; lidar; remote sensing; aerosol chemical characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Primary biological airborne particles (or bioaerosols) comprising both living and dead microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, virus, pollen, and microbial fragments, are currently of growing interest in the scientific community. They are a ubiquitous component of the atmosphere that plays a relevant role in their transport and dispersal across the planet. Due to their small size, bioaerosols have a relatively long atmospheric residence time, and therefore, they can be transported over long distances. Many studies have highlighted that biological airborne particles may be suspended as individual cells, but they can be also attached to other particles, such as soil, or found as agglomerate of many cells. Therefore, the abundance and speciation of bioaerosols is of great interest due to their potential impact on human health, agriculture, biogeochemical cycles, and atmospheric processes, even for their role as cloud condensation nuclei. The great importance of investigating the impact of meteorological parameters, atmospheric pollutants, seasonal variations, and PM chemical species on the bioaerosol community is also justified by the need to improve the risk assessment models related to their aerial dispersion, in addition to promoting biosurveillance technologies which are useful to national strategies for preventing the dispersion mainly of pathogenic biological agents.

This Special Issue mainly aims to review the existing state of knowledge on the bioaerosol relationships with meteorological parameters, particulate matter chemical components, and sources identifying the potential factors responsible for the bioaerosol community structure and its seasonal variations. Both chamber and real-world studies characterizing bioaerosols are welcome. Studies on bioaerosol instrumentation for its detection and monitoring focusing on specific innovative methods are particularly encouraged, as well as ones related to pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant species.

Dr. Salvatore Romano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atmospheric bioaerosols
  • particulate matter chemical composition
  • meteorological parameters
  • bioaerosol detection and monitoring
  • bioaerosol seasonal variations
  • aerial dispersion of pathogenic species
  • antibiotic-resistant species

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

5 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport
by Salvatore Romano
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030590 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
The characterization and the main properties of biogenic airborne particles (or bioaerosols) comprising both living and dead microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, pollen, and microbial fragments) are currently of increasing interest in the scientific community [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 3403 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Fluorescence of Biological Particles Exposed to Environmental Conditions in the National Capitol Region
by Joshua L. Santarpia, Don R. Collins, Shanna A. Ratnesar-Shumate, Crystal C. Glen, Andres L. Sanchez, Carlos G. Antonietti, Jilliane Taylor, Nathan F. Taylor, Christopher A. Bare, Sean M. Kinahan, Danielle N. Rivera, Elizabeth Corson, Steven C. Hill, Chatt C. Williamson, Mark Coleman and Yong-Le Pan
Atmosphere 2022, 13(9), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091358 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
A variety of methods have been used to study atmospheric bioaerosols. A common technique employed for the detection and measurement of bioaerosols is the measurement of the autofluorescence of biological particles when excited by ultraviolet light. We examined the changes in the fluorescence [...] Read more.
A variety of methods have been used to study atmospheric bioaerosols. A common technique employed for the detection and measurement of bioaerosols is the measurement of the autofluorescence of biological particles when excited by ultraviolet light. We examined the changes in the fluorescence spectra of bioaerosols when exposed to ambient outdoor conditions for periods of several hours. The bioaerosols in this study were contained in a Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) chamber that employed two rotating drums constructed with an exterior FEP Teflon film to allow sunlight to penetrate and an inner ePTFE membrane to allow ambient trace gasses to permeate the drums. The bioaerosols were periodically measured with a TSI UV-APS (excited at 355 nm) and a single-particle fluorescence spectrometer (excited at 351 and 263 nm). The data indicate changes in both fluorescence spectral profile and intensity from Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki spores and MS2 bacteriophage particles during the experiments. The changes observed in these particles appear to be due to a combination of the environmental conditions rather than attributable to any single factor. The results of this study indicate that bioaerosols are significantly altered by atmospheric aging processes and that these changes may affect measurements by ultra-violet light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) or other spectroscopic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7719 KiB  
Article
Airborne Prokaryotic, Fungal and Eukaryotic Communities of an Urban Environment in the UK
by Hokyung Song, Nicholas Marsden, Jonathan R. Lloyd, Clare H. Robinson, Christopher Boothman, Ian Crawford, Martin Gallagher, Hugh Coe, Grant Allen and Michael Flynn
Atmosphere 2022, 13(8), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13081212 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Bioaerosols often contain human pathogens and allergens affecting public health. However, relatively little attention has been given to bioaerosols compared with non-biological aerosols. In this study, we aimed to identify bioaerosol compositions in Manchester, UK by applying high throughput sequencing methods and to [...] Read more.
Bioaerosols often contain human pathogens and allergens affecting public health. However, relatively little attention has been given to bioaerosols compared with non-biological aerosols. In this study, we aimed to identify bioaerosol compositions in Manchester, UK by applying high throughput sequencing methods and to find potential sources. Samples were collected at Manchester Air Quality Super Site at the Firs Environmental Research Station in November 2019 and in February 2020. Total DNA has been extracted and sequenced targeting the 16S rRNA gene of prokaryotes, ITS region of fungal DNA and 18S rRNA gene of eukaryotes. We found marine environment-associated bacteria and archaea were relatively more abundant in the February 2020 samples compared with the November 2019 samples, consistent with the North West marine origin based on wind back-trajectory analysis. In contrast, an OTU belonging to Methylobacterium, which includes many species resistant to heavy metals, was relatively more abundant in November 2019 when there were higher metal concentrations. Fungal taxa that fruit all year were relatively more abundant in the February 2020 samples while autumn fruiting species generally had higher relative abundance in the November 2019 samples. There were higher relative abundances of land plants and algae in the February 2020 samples based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing. One of the OTUs belonging to the coniferous yew genus Taxus was more abundant in the February 2020 samples agreeing with the usual pollen season of yews in the UK which is from mid-January until late April. The result from this study suggests a potential application of bioaerosol profiling for tracing the source of atmospheric particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2030 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Bioaerosol Chamber to Determine Survival Rates of Airborne Staphylococci
by Marcus Clauß, Stefan Linke, Christin Tautz and Sarah Bromann
Atmosphere 2022, 13(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13060869 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
Large amounts of microorganisms are emitted from animal houses into the environment via exhaust air. To assess the potential risks, the spread of microorganisms can be simulated with computer models. Such modeling usually does not take into account die-off rates, since there are [...] Read more.
Large amounts of microorganisms are emitted from animal houses into the environment via exhaust air. To assess the potential risks, the spread of microorganisms can be simulated with computer models. Such modeling usually does not take into account die-off rates, since there are hardly any reliable data so far on how long microorganisms can survive in outdoor air. Previous studies were conducted almost exclusively in closed chambers and usually only took into account the influence of individual environmental factors such as temperature or humidity. Therefore, a novel bioaerosol chamber was developed to quantify the survival rates of Staphylococci specific to livestock under outdoor air conditions. For evaluation, the survival rates of Staphylococcus xylosus were determined as a function of temperature, relative humidity, ozone concentration, and global radiation. Survival rates decreased with increasing temperature, decreasing relative humidity, increasing global radiation intensity, and increasing ozone concentration. At 12 min in the airborne state, die-off rates of more than 90% were observed, especially at high global radiation levels > 400 W/m2. The novel bioaerosol chamber enabled the investigation of the survival rates of airborne microorganisms over a certain period of time in a quasi-closed system and yet under real outdoor air conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3499 KiB  
Article
Diversity and Source of Airborne Microbial Communities at Differential Polluted Sites of Rome
by Paola Pollegioni, Claudia Mattioni, Martina Ristorini, Donatella Occhiuto, Silvia Canepari, Maria V. Korneykova and Olga Gavrichkova
Atmosphere 2022, 13(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020224 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3154
Abstract
Biogenic fraction of airborne PM10 which includes bacteria, viruses, fungi and pollens, has been proposed as one of the potential causes of the PM10 toxicity. The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the microbial community variations associated to [...] Read more.
Biogenic fraction of airborne PM10 which includes bacteria, viruses, fungi and pollens, has been proposed as one of the potential causes of the PM10 toxicity. The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the microbial community variations associated to PM10, and their main local sources in the surrounding environment in three urban sites of Rome, characterized by differential pollution rate: green area, residential area and polluted area close to the traffic roads. We combined high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, with detailed chemical analysis of particulate matter sampled from air, paved road surfaces and leaf surfaces of Quercus ilex. Our results demonstrated that bacterial and fungal airborne communities were characterized by the highest alpha-diversity and grouped separately from epiphytic and road dust communities. The reconstruction of source-sink relationships revealed that the resuspension/deposition of road dust from traffic might contribute to the maximum magnitude of microbial exchanges. The relative abundance of extremotolerant microbes was found to be enhanced in epiphytic communities and was associated to a progressively increase of pollution levels as well as opportunistic human pathogenicity in fungal communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1517 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Sources, Diversity, and Variability of Bacterial Aerosols in Athens, Greece: A Pilot Study
by Angelina Metaxatos, Sydonia Manibusan and Gediminas Mainelis
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010045 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
We characterized the composition, diversity, and potential bacterial aerosol sources in Athens’ urban air by DNA barcoding (analysis of 16S rRNA genes) during three seasons in 2019. Air samples were collected using the recently developed Rutgers Electrostatic Passive Sampler (REPS). It is the [...] Read more.
We characterized the composition, diversity, and potential bacterial aerosol sources in Athens’ urban air by DNA barcoding (analysis of 16S rRNA genes) during three seasons in 2019. Air samples were collected using the recently developed Rutgers Electrostatic Passive Sampler (REPS). It is the first field application of REPS to study bacterial aerosol diversity. REPS samplers captured a sufficient amount of biological material to demonstrate the diversity of airborne bacteria and their variability over time. Overall, in the air of Athens, we detected 793 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were fully classified into the six distinct taxonomic categories (Phylum, Class, Order, etc.). These OTUs belonged to Phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Fusobacteria. We found a complex community of bacterial aerosols with several opportunistic or potential pathogens in Athens’ urban air. Referring to the available literature, we discuss the likely sources of observed airborne bacteria, including soil, plants, animals, and humans. Our results on bacterial diversity are comparable to earlier studies, even though the sampling sites are different or geographically distant. However, the exact functional and ecological role of bioaerosols and, even more importantly, their impact on public health and the ecosystem requires further air monitoring and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3513 KiB  
Article
Dynamic of Particulate Matter for Quotidian Aerosol Sources in Indoor Air
by Mostafa Yuness Abdelfatah Mostafa, Hyam Nazmy Bader Khalaf and Michael V. Zhukovsky
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121682 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2837
Abstract
A correlation between the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) and the occurrence of health-related problems or diseases has been confirmed by several studies. However, little is known about indoor PM concentrations, their associated risks or their impact on health. In this work, [...] Read more.
A correlation between the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) and the occurrence of health-related problems or diseases has been confirmed by several studies. However, little is known about indoor PM concentrations, their associated risks or their impact on health. In this work, the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 produced by different indoor aerosol sources (candles, cooking, electronic cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, mosquito coils and incense) are studied. The purpose is to quantify the emission characteristics of different indoor particle sources. The mass concentration, the numerical concentration, and the size distribution of PM from various sources were determined in an examination room 65 m3 in volume. Sub-micrometer particles and approximations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were measured simultaneously using a diffusion aerosol spectrometer (DAS). The ultrafine particle concentration for the studied indoor aerosol sources was approximately 7 × 104 particles/cm3 (incense, mosquito coils and electronic cigarettes), 1.2 × 105 particles/cm3 for candles and cooking and 2.7 × 105 particles/cm3 for tobacco cigarettes. The results indicate that electronic cigarettes can raise indoor PM2.5 levels more than 100 times. PM1 concentrations can be nearly 55 and 30 times higher than the background level during electronic cigarette usage and tobacco cigarette burning, respectively. It is necessary to study the evaluation of indoor PM, assess the toxic potential of internal molecules and develop and test strategies to ensure the improvement of indoor air quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2924 KiB  
Article
Bioaerosol Emission from Biofilters: Impact of Bed Material Type and Waste Gas Origin
by Katarzyna Affek, Agnieszka Tabernacka, Monika Załęska-Radziwiłł, Nina Doskocz and Adam Muszyński
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121574 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Three semi-technical scale biofilters were applied to treat waste gases at different industrial sites in Poland: a mechanical–biological treatment plant of municipal solid waste, a wastewater treatment plant and a food industry plant. Two types of materials were used as beds in the [...] Read more.
Three semi-technical scale biofilters were applied to treat waste gases at different industrial sites in Poland: a mechanical–biological treatment plant of municipal solid waste, a wastewater treatment plant and a food industry plant. Two types of materials were used as beds in the biofilters: stumpwood chips and pine bark, and stumpwood chips, pine bark and compost from green waste. Both bed materials supported the microbial growth and high numbers (106–108 cfu/g dry mass (DM)) of culturable bacteria, and fungi in beds were observed. There was no correlation between the number of microorganisms (cfu/g DM) and the respiratory activity in the biofilter beds. However, microbial respiration activity corresponded with microbial abundance expressed as microbial equivalents (ME), which was calculated based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) determination. The biofilters either reduced or increased bioaerosol emissions from industrial plants, depending on the microbial content in the waste gases. A high microbial content in the waste gases made the effect of microbial emission from the biofilter bed negligible. The type of biofilter bed and number of microorganisms in the bed also influenced the final bioaerosol emission, but these factors were relevant for biofilters that treated waste gases with low microbial concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3222 KiB  
Communication
Viability of Bacillus subtilis Cells in Airborne Bioaerosols on Face Masks
by Eun-Hee Lee, Yunsoo Chang and Seung-Woo Lee
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111496 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a general health crisis and has irreversible impacts on human societies. Globally, all people are at risk of being exposed to the novel coronavirus through transmission of airborne bioaerosols. Public health actions, such as wearing a [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a general health crisis and has irreversible impacts on human societies. Globally, all people are at risk of being exposed to the novel coronavirus through transmission of airborne bioaerosols. Public health actions, such as wearing a mask, are highly recommended to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases. The appropriate use of masks is necessary for effectively preventing the transmission of airborne bioaerosols. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests washing fabric masks or throwing away disposable masks after they are used. However, people often use masks more than once without washing or disposing them. The prolonged use of a single mask might—as a result of the user habitually touching the mask—promote the spread of pathogens from airborne bioaerosols that have accumulated on the mask. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate how long the living components of bioaerosols can be viable on the masks. Here, we evaluated the viability of airborne Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in bioaerosols filtered on woven and anti-droplet (non-woven) face masks. As a simulation of being simultaneously exposed to sand dust and bioaerosols, the viability rates of bioaerosols that had accumulated on masks were also tested against fine dust and airborne droplets containing bacteria. The bioaerosols survived on the masks immediately after the masks were used to filter the bioaerosols, and the bacteria significantly proliferated after one day of storage. Thereafter, the number of viable cells in the filtered bioaerosols gradually decreased over time, and the viability of B. subtilis in bioaerosols on the masks varied, depending on the mask material used (woven or non-woven). Despite the reduction in viability, bioaerosols containing living components were still found in both woven and anti-droplet masks even after six days of storage and it took nine days not to have found them on masks. The number of viable cells in bioaerosols on masks significantly decreased upon exposure of the masks to fine dust. The results of this study should provide useful information on how to appropriately use masks to increase their duration of effectiveness against bioaerosols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

27 pages, 4547 KiB  
Article
Microscopic Fungi in Big Cities: Biodiversity, Source, and Relation to Pollution by Potentially Toxic Metals
by Maria V. Korneykova, Anastasia S. Soshina, Andrey I. Novikov, Kristina V. Ivashchenko, Olesya I. Sazonova, Marina V. Slukovskaya, Anna A. Shirokaya, Viacheslav I. Vasenev, Anna A. Vetrova and Olga Gavrichkova
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111471 - 7 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3151
Abstract
For the first time, a mycological analysis of outdoor urban environment (air, leaves, sealed surfaces) was carried in the cities of subarctic (Murmansk) and temperate (Moscow) climatic zones. The chemical composition of dust deposited on leaves of dominant tree species was taken as [...] Read more.
For the first time, a mycological analysis of outdoor urban environment (air, leaves, sealed surfaces) was carried in the cities of subarctic (Murmansk) and temperate (Moscow) climatic zones. The chemical composition of dust deposited on leaves of dominant tree species was taken as an indicator of the air quality. Assessment of the complex impact of factors (climate zone, type of substrate, anthropogenic load) on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of mycobiome was performed. Compared to Moscow, Murmansk was characterized by an increased number and concentrations of pollutants in the deposited dust. The number of culturable airborne fungi in Murmansk was substantially lower than in Moscow. Half of the species belonged to the opportunistic in both cities. Most dangerous opportunistic fungi were absent in the air of recreational zones but present on leaves surface and in road dust in all assessed zones of the cities. Dust chemical composition affected the diversity of fungi species. While the relationship of biological parameters with concentration of potentially toxic metals was generally negative, Cd increased the fraction of opportunistic fungi in road dust. The study revealed an importance of substrate in determining the sensitivity of outdoor mycobiome to pollution and highlighted its biological characteristics sensitive to climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 218 KiB  
Article
Biological Ice Nucleators in Snow Samples from Greece
by Dimitrios G. Georgakopoulos
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111461 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
The formation of precipitation in clouds is initiated by inorganic and organic/biological ice nuclei. Certain species of bacteria and fungi are known to act as efficient biological ice nuclei at temperatures between −10 and 0 °C. Biological ice nuclei have been found and [...] Read more.
The formation of precipitation in clouds is initiated by inorganic and organic/biological ice nuclei. Certain species of bacteria and fungi are known to act as efficient biological ice nuclei at temperatures between −10 and 0 °C. Biological ice nuclei have been found and characterized in precipitation samples (snow, rain, and hail). We investigated the presence of warm temperature biological ice nuclei in 17 fresh snow samples from Greece and isolated and partially characterized ice nucleation active bacteria from these. All snow samples contained particles or other material active as ice nuclei at −9 °C in concentrations ranging from 3 to 943 nuclei/L. The numbers of this class of ice nuclei were reduced or eliminated after incubating snowmelt concentrates at 100 °C for 15 min and by treatment with lysozyme, a bacterial cell wall-degrading enzyme. These findings indicate the presence of microbial ice nuclei in snow samples from Greece. We also isolated ice nucleation active bacteria from some of the samples. These bacteria belong to genus Pseudomonas and are common on plants and soil. This is the first report on biological ice nuclei in precipitation samples from Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
18 pages, 5691 KiB  
Article
Meteorological Variables That Affect the Beginning of Flowering of the Winter Oilseed Rape in the Czech Republic
by Lenka Hájková, Martin Možný, Veronika Oušková, Lenka Bartošová, Petra Dížková and Zdeněk Žalud
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111444 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of the most cultivated oilseeds in the Czech Republic and belongs among major pollen allergens. Pollen allergies have an extensive clinical impact worldwide, and as well as in the Czech Republic. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of the most cultivated oilseeds in the Czech Republic and belongs among major pollen allergens. Pollen allergies have an extensive clinical impact worldwide, and as well as in the Czech Republic. In this paper, meteorological variables such as mean air temperature, maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation total and number of rainy days in the period 1991–2012 were studied using the PhenoClim phenological model to find the best predictor of the beginning of flowering of the Brassica napus in the Czech Republic. In addition, temporal and spatial evaluations of the beginning of flowering of the Brassica napus were examined at individual stations in different climatic zones within the same period. In total, three phenological stations at altitudes from 270 m asl to 533 m asl located in warm (W2), medium warm (MW7) or cold (C7) climatic zones were used for detailed evaluation. Based on the observation results at selected stations, the beginning of flowering of the Brassica napus advanced progressively in timing (nearly −15 days) in the 1991–2012 period. The base temperature and temperature sums were calculated for the beginning of flowering of the winter oilseed rape using the PhenoClim computer tool. As the most accurate predictor for the beginning of flowering of the Brassica napus, the mean air temperature was determined. The optimal start day for calculation was 30th January, the threshold (base temperature) was 6.0 °C and the temperature sum was 157.0 °C. The RMSE value was 4.77 and the MBE value was −3.00. The simulated data had a good correlation with the real observed data (the correlation coefficients were within the range from 0.56 to 0.76), and the PhenoClim model results indicate using them in the forecast modeling of the beginning of flowering of the Brassica napus in the Czech Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
Control of Airborne Microorganisms by Essential Oils Released by VaxiPod
by Ekaterina Mirskaya and Igor E. Agranovski
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111418 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
Currently, due to the global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, new procedures and devices for effective disinfection of indoor air are of obvious interest. Various studies demonstrated quite broad ranges of the efficiency of essential oils in the control [...] Read more.
Currently, due to the global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, new procedures and devices for effective disinfection of indoor air are of obvious interest. Various studies demonstrated quite broad ranges of the efficiency of essential oils in the control of biological aerosols. This project reports the results of investigation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils natural for Australia (tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon myrtle) distributed by newly developed VaxiPod device for various scenarios, including bacterial, viral and fungal inactivation on various surfaces and in aerosol form. It was found that the device was capable of operating continuously over 24-h periods, providing sufficient aerosol concentration to efficiently inactivate microorganisms both on the surface and in airborne form. Twenty-four to forty-eight hours were required to achieve inactivation above 90% of most of the tested microbes on solid surfaces (stainless steel discs and agar plates), whilst similar efficiency of inactivation on fibrous filter surface as well as in aerosol form was achieved over 30–60 min of the process run. The results look very promising for further development of bioaerosol inactivating procedures and technologies for air quality control applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 16148 KiB  
Article
Air Pollution Affecting Pollen Concentrations through Radiative Feedback in the Atmosphere
by Carsten A. Skjøth, Alexander Kurganskiy, Maria Grundström, Małgorzata Werner and Beverley Adams-Groom
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111376 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
Episodes with high air pollution and large amounts of aeroallergens expose sensitive individuals to a health damaging cocktail of atmospheric particles. Particulate matter (PM) affects the radiative balance and atmospheric dynamics, hence affecting concentrations of pollutants. The aim of the study is to [...] Read more.
Episodes with high air pollution and large amounts of aeroallergens expose sensitive individuals to a health damaging cocktail of atmospheric particles. Particulate matter (PM) affects the radiative balance and atmospheric dynamics, hence affecting concentrations of pollutants. The aim of the study is to estimate feedback between meteorology and particles on concentrations of aeroallergens using an extended version of the atmospheric model WRF-Chem. The extension, originally designed for PM and dust, concerns common aeroallergens. We study a birch pollen episode coinciding with an air pollution event containing Saharan dust (late March to early April 2014), using the model results, pollen records from Southern UK and vertical profiles of meteorological observations. During the episode, increased concentrations of birch pollen were calculated over the European continent, causing plumes transported towards the UK. The arrival of these plumes matched well with observations. The lowest parts of the atmospheric boundary layer demonstrate a vertical profile that favours long distance transport, while the pollen record shows pollen types that typically flower at another time. The model calculations show that feedback between meteorology and particles changes pollen concentrations by ±30% and in some cases up to 100%. The atmospheric conditions favoured meteorological feedback mechanisms that changed long distance transport of air pollution and aeroallergens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 13299 KiB  
Article
Ice Nucleation Activity of Alpine Bioaerosol Emitted in Vicinity of a Birch Forest
by Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Anna T. Kunert, David G. Schmale III, Karin Whitmore, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky and Hinrich Grothe
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060779 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
In alpine environments, many plants, bacteria, and fungi contain ice nuclei (IN) that control freezing events, providing survival benefits. Once airborne, IN could trigger ice nucleation in cloud droplets, influencing the radiation budget and the hydrological cycle. To estimate the atmospheric relevance of [...] Read more.
In alpine environments, many plants, bacteria, and fungi contain ice nuclei (IN) that control freezing events, providing survival benefits. Once airborne, IN could trigger ice nucleation in cloud droplets, influencing the radiation budget and the hydrological cycle. To estimate the atmospheric relevance of alpine IN, investigations near emission sources are inevitable. In this study, we collected 14 aerosol samples over three days in August 2019 at a single site in the Austrian Alps, close to a forest of silver birches, which are known to release IN from their surface. Samples were taken during and after rainfall, as possible trigger of aerosol emission by an impactor and impinger at the ground level. In addition, we collected aerosol samples above the canopy using a rotary wing drone. Samples were analyzed for ice nucleation activity, and bioaerosols were characterized based on morphology and auto-fluorescence using microscopic techniques. We found high concentrations of IN below the canopy, with a freezing behavior similar to birch extracts. Sampled particles showed auto-fluorescent characteristics and the morphology strongly suggested the presence of cellular material. Moreover, some particles appeared to be coated with an organic film. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of aerosol emission sources in alpine vegetation with a focus on birches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2383 KiB  
Article
Potential Human and Plant Pathogenic Species in Airborne PM10 Samples and Relationships with Chemical Components and Meteorological Parameters
by Salvatore Romano, Mattia Fragola, Pietro Alifano, Maria Rita Perrone and Adelfia Talà
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050654 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3071
Abstract
A preliminary local database of potential (opportunistic) airborne human and plant pathogenic and non-pathogenic species detected in PM10 samples collected in winter and spring is provided, in addition to their seasonal dependence and relationships with meteorological parameters and PM10 chemical species. The PM10 [...] Read more.
A preliminary local database of potential (opportunistic) airborne human and plant pathogenic and non-pathogenic species detected in PM10 samples collected in winter and spring is provided, in addition to their seasonal dependence and relationships with meteorological parameters and PM10 chemical species. The PM10 samples, collected at a Central Mediterranean coastal site, were analyzed by the 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding approach, and Spearman correlation coefficients and redundancy discriminant analysis tri-plots were used to investigate the main relationships. The screening of 1187 detected species allowed for the detection of 76 and 27 potential (opportunistic) human and plant pathogens, respectively. The bacterial structure of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species varied from winter to spring and, consequently, the inter-species relationships among potential human pathogens, plant pathogens, and non-pathogenic species varied from winter to spring. Few non-pathogenic species and even fewer potential human pathogens were significantly correlated with meteorological parameters, according to the Spearman correlation coefficients. Conversely, several potential plant pathogens were strongly and positively correlated with temperature and wind speed and direction both in winter and in spring. The number of strong relationships between presumptive (human and plant) pathogens and non-pathogens, and meteorological parameters slightly increased from winter to spring. The sample chemical composition also varied from winter to spring. Some potential human and plant pathogens were correlated with chemicals mainly associated with marine aerosol and/or with soil dust, likely because terrestrial and aquatic environments were the main habitats of the detected bacterial species. The carrier role on the species seasonal variability was also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop