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Article

Microscopic Fungi in Big Cities: Biodiversity, Source, and Relation to Pollution by Potentially Toxic Metals

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Agrarian Technological Institute, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 117198 Moscow, Russia
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Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems—Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 184209 Apatity, Russia
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I.V. Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 184209 Apatity, Russia
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Federal Research Center “Pushchino Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, 142290 Pushchino, Russia
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Federal Research Center “Pushchino Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, 142290 Pushchino, Russia
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Laboratory of Nature-Inspired Technologies and Environmental Safety of the Arctic Region, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 184209 Apatity, Russia
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Soil Geography and Landscape Group, Wageningen University, 6707 Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Institute of Research on Terrestrial Ecosystems, National Research Council, 05010 Porano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salvatore Romano
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111471
Received: 10 October 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 3 November 2021 / Published: 7 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioaerosols: Composition, Meteorological Impact, and Transport)
For the first time, a mycological analysis of outdoor urban environment (air, leaves, sealed surfaces) was carried in the cities of subarctic (Murmansk) and temperate (Moscow) climatic zones. The chemical composition of dust deposited on leaves of dominant tree species was taken as an indicator of the air quality. Assessment of the complex impact of factors (climate zone, type of substrate, anthropogenic load) on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of mycobiome was performed. Compared to Moscow, Murmansk was characterized by an increased number and concentrations of pollutants in the deposited dust. The number of culturable airborne fungi in Murmansk was substantially lower than in Moscow. Half of the species belonged to the opportunistic in both cities. Most dangerous opportunistic fungi were absent in the air of recreational zones but present on leaves surface and in road dust in all assessed zones of the cities. Dust chemical composition affected the diversity of fungi species. While the relationship of biological parameters with concentration of potentially toxic metals was generally negative, Cd increased the fraction of opportunistic fungi in road dust. The study revealed an importance of substrate in determining the sensitivity of outdoor mycobiome to pollution and highlighted its biological characteristics sensitive to climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: airborne microorganisms; particulate matter; phylloplane; species diversity; opportunistic fungi; functional zones; urban ecosystems; climatic zones airborne microorganisms; particulate matter; phylloplane; species diversity; opportunistic fungi; functional zones; urban ecosystems; climatic zones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Korneykova, M.V.; Soshina, A.S.; Novikov, A.I.; Ivashchenko, K.V.; Sazonova, O.I.; Slukovskaya, M.V.; Shirokaya, A.A.; Vasenev, V.I.; Vetrova, A.A.; Gavrichkova, O. Microscopic Fungi in Big Cities: Biodiversity, Source, and Relation to Pollution by Potentially Toxic Metals. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1471. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111471

AMA Style

Korneykova MV, Soshina AS, Novikov AI, Ivashchenko KV, Sazonova OI, Slukovskaya MV, Shirokaya AA, Vasenev VI, Vetrova AA, Gavrichkova O. Microscopic Fungi in Big Cities: Biodiversity, Source, and Relation to Pollution by Potentially Toxic Metals. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(11):1471. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111471

Chicago/Turabian Style

Korneykova, Maria V., Anastasia S. Soshina, Andrey I. Novikov, Kristina V. Ivashchenko, Olesya I. Sazonova, Marina V. Slukovskaya, Anna A. Shirokaya, Viacheslav I. Vasenev, Anna A. Vetrova, and Olga Gavrichkova. 2021. "Microscopic Fungi in Big Cities: Biodiversity, Source, and Relation to Pollution by Potentially Toxic Metals" Atmosphere 12, no. 11: 1471. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111471

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