Special Issue "Air-Sea Coupling"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Huiting Mao Website E-Mail
Department of Chemistry, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
Interests: tropospheric chemistry; atmospheric mercury; air quality; ozone and carbon monoxide; long range transport; regional budgets of trace gases; air quality modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air-sea coupling is one of the most important processes that can affect weather, climate, and atmospheric chemical composition. Air-sea exchange of heat, water vapor, and momentum can affect sea surface temperature and upper temperature stratification and can affect atmospheric boundary layer stability. The ocean plays an important role in global budgets of numerous atmospheric trace compounds as a source and sink, and the reverse could also be true. Our understanding of air-sea coupling remains lacking or nebulous in many areas due in large part to incomplete fundamental knowledge, the scarcity of measurements, and poor representation in models, such as the effects of air-sea coupling on tropospheric cyclones, oceanic uptake and storage of carbon dioxide, and the role of air-sea interaction in climate dynamics, variability of atmospheric compounds and aerosols, ocean physics, and biogeochemistry. This Special Issue is aimed at addressing the most outstanding science questions/issues in these areas in hope to capture the most up-to-date advancement of air-sea coupling science.

Dr. Huiting Mao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • air-sea coupling

  • air-sea interaction

  • feedback

  • climate dynamics

  • climate change

  • climate

  • ocean physics

  • ocean dynamics

  • biogeochemistry

  • atmospheric chemical composition

  • variability

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on the Effect of Air–Sea–Land Interaction on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Area
Atmosphere 2018, 9(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9020051 - 05 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
We have performed large-eddy simulations (LES) to study the effect of complex land topography on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in coastal areas. The areas under investigation are located at three beaches in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The sharp-interface immersed boundary method is [...] Read more.
We have performed large-eddy simulations (LES) to study the effect of complex land topography on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in coastal areas. The areas under investigation are located at three beaches in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The sharp-interface immersed boundary method is employed to resolve the land topography down to grid scale. We have considered real-time and what-if cases. In the real-time cases, measurement data and realistic land topographies are directly incorporated. In the what-if cases, the effects of different scenarios of wind speed, wind direction, and terrain pattern on the momentum flux at the beach are studied. The LES results are compared with simulations using the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) and field measurement data. We find that the land topography imposes a critical influence on the ABL in the coastal area. The momentum fluxes obtained from our LES agree with measurement data. Our results indicate the importance of capturing the effects of land topographies in simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air-Sea Coupling)
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Open AccessArticle
Indian Summer Monsoon and El Niño Southern Oscillation in CMIP5 Models: A Few Areas of Agreement and Disagreement
Atmosphere 2017, 8(8), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8080154 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Using the CMIP5 model outputs, a few characteristics of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall and Niño 3.4 temperature are analysed during June–July–August–September (JJAS). Focusing on specified regions around central-northeast India, some general characteristic features of ISM precipitation are studied, which are shown to [...] Read more.
Using the CMIP5 model outputs, a few characteristics of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall and Niño 3.4 temperature are analysed during June–July–August–September (JJAS). Focusing on specified regions around central-northeast India, some general characteristic features of ISM precipitation are studied, which are shown to be varying among models. The trend of decreasing rainfall in that region as noticed in observations suggests an inconsistency among models. The ENSO also shows variation, and its phasing indicates disagreement. Unlike other models, FGOALS-g2 is identified as not suggesting any trend in Niño 3.4 temperature and needs attention for model evaluation purposes. ISM and ENSO correlation in either historical or the RCP 8.5 scenario confirm a negative signature, agreeing with the usual ISM, ENSO connection. Precipitation over the globe shows a rising trend in an ensemble of CMIP5 model outputs for the RCP 8.5 scenario, though no consensus is reached for the Indian region. Precipitation time series around the Indian subcontinent vary widely among models. Analyses with various future scenarios indicate that the Indian subcontinent shows much larger uncertainty, in terms of precipitation, compared to that from the whole world. This study identifies a few areas where CMIP 5 models are in agreement or disagreement with each other. Such an analysis could be useful for understanding various processes in CMIP 5 models that involve ISM precipitation and can lead to improving the representation of processes in models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air-Sea Coupling)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variability and Factors Influencing the Air-Sea N2O Flux in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and Chukchi Abyssal Plain
Atmosphere 2017, 8(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8040065 - 24 Mar 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
The concentrations of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) in the upper 300 m of the Subarctic and Arctic Oceans determined during the 5th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition were studied. The surface water samples revealed that the study area [...] Read more.
The concentrations of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) in the upper 300 m of the Subarctic and Arctic Oceans determined during the 5th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition were studied. The surface water samples revealed that the study area could be divided into three regions according to the distribution of dissolved N2O in the surface water, namely, the Aleutian Basin (52° N–60° N), continental shelf (60° N–73° N) and Canadian Basin (north of 73° N), with N2O in the surface water in equilibrium, oversaturated and undersaturated relative to the atmosphere, respectively. The influences of physical and chemical processes, such as eddy diffusion and sedimentary emissions, beneath the surface layer are discussed. The results of a flux evaluation show that the Aleutian Basin may be a weak N2O source of approximately 0.46 ± 0.1 μmol·m−2·d−1, and the continental shelf acts as a strong N2O source of approximately 8.2 ± 1.4 μmol·m−2·d−1. By contrast, the Chukchi Abyssal Plain (CAP) of the Canadian Basin is at least a temporal N2O sink with a strength of approximately −10.2 ± 1.4 μmol·m−2·d−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air-Sea Coupling)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
On the Increasing Importance of Air-Sea Exchanges in a Thawing Arctic: A Review
Atmosphere 2018, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9020041 - 26 Jan 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Forty years ago, climate scientists predicted the Arctic to be one of Earth’s most sensitive climate regions and thus extremely vulnerable to increased CO2. The rapid and unprecedented changes observed in the Arctic confirm this prediction. Especially significant, observed sea ice [...] Read more.
Forty years ago, climate scientists predicted the Arctic to be one of Earth’s most sensitive climate regions and thus extremely vulnerable to increased CO2. The rapid and unprecedented changes observed in the Arctic confirm this prediction. Especially significant, observed sea ice loss is altering the exchange of mass, energy, and momentum between the Arctic Ocean and atmosphere. As an important component of air–sea exchange, surface turbulent fluxes are controlled by vertical gradients of temperature and humidity between the surface and atmosphere, wind speed, and surface roughness, indicating that they respond to other forcing mechanisms such as atmospheric advection, ocean mixing, and radiative flux changes. The exchange of energy between the atmosphere and surface via surface turbulent fluxes in turn feeds back on the Arctic surface energy budget, sea ice, clouds, boundary layer temperature and humidity, and atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Understanding and attributing variability and trends in surface turbulent fluxes is important because they influence the magnitude of Arctic climate change, sea ice cover variability, and the atmospheric circulation response to increased CO2. This paper reviews current knowledge of Arctic Ocean surface turbulent fluxes and their effects on climate. We conclude that Arctic Ocean surface turbulent fluxes are having an increasingly consequential influence on Arctic climate variability in response to strong regional trends in the air-surface temperature contrast related to the changing character of the Arctic sea ice cover. Arctic Ocean surface turbulent energy exchanges are not smooth and steady but rather irregular and episodic, and consideration of the episodic nature of surface turbulent fluxes is essential for improving Arctic climate projections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air-Sea Coupling)
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