Agricultural Pollutants in the Atmosphere

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021) | Viewed by 14652

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Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry for Energy, Environment and Health, University of Strasbourg/CNRS (ICPEES UMR 7515), Rue Becquerel 25, CEDEX 3, 67087 Strasbourg, France
Interests: air quality; passive sampling; organic pollutants; aerosols; biomonitoring
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue of Atmosphere, the different aspects of pollution by agricultural activities should be addressed. These aspects include pesticides and ammoniac and other nitrogen compounds and particles.

For pesticides, levels, trends and behaviour in the air including monitoring (including indoor air), seasonal and temporal variabilities, processes (drift, volatilisation, atmospheric reactivity, etc.) can be considered.

For ammoniac and nitrogen compounds (i.e., N2O) and particles (i.e., NH4NO2), the impact on the formation of particles and on climate are welcome.

All aspects on modelling, sampling strategies and methodologies, survey and human (i.e., residents, disease occurrence) and environmental exposure (i.e., biodiversity) and effects can also be considered. Biomonitoring aspects for exposure assessment in relation to air pollution can also be considered (i.e., hair analysis in residents, for example).

Long-time monitoring surveys and the link between air quality in urban areas and agricultural particles formation can be presented, particularly in regards to the importance of agricultural particles on global pollution by particles in urban areas with respect to traffic and domestic heating particles emissions.

Prof. Dr. Maurice Millet
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • pesticides
  • ammoniac
  • particles
  • atmosphere
  • monitoring

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
Passive Sampling as a Tool to Assess Atmospheric Pesticide Contamination Related to Vineyard Land Use
by Stéphan Martin, Marie-Hélène Dévier, Justine Cruz, Geoffroy Duporté, Emmanuelle Barron, Juliette Gaillard, Karyn Le Menach, Patrick Pardon, Sylvie Augagneur, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Éric Villenave and Hélène Budzinski
Atmosphere 2022, 13(4), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13040504 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
The massive use of pesticides in agriculture has led to widespread contamination of the environment, particularly the atmospheric compartment. Thirty-six pesticides, most used in viticulture, were monitored in ambient air using polyurethane foams as passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Spatiotemporal data were collected from [...] Read more.
The massive use of pesticides in agriculture has led to widespread contamination of the environment, particularly the atmospheric compartment. Thirty-six pesticides, most used in viticulture, were monitored in ambient air using polyurethane foams as passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Spatiotemporal data were collected from the samplers for 10 months (February–December 2013), using two different sampling times (1 and 2 months) at two different sites in a chateau vineyard in Gironde (France). A high-volume active air sampler was also deployed in June. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) (PUFs from both passive and active) or microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) (filters from active sampling). Extracts were analyzed by both gas and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 23 airborne pesticides were detected at least once. Concentrations in PUF exposed one month ranged from below the limits of quantification (LOQs) to 23,481 ng PUF−1. The highest concentrations were for folpet, boscalid, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and metalaxyl-m—23,481, 17,615, 3931, and 3324 ng PUF−1. Clear seasonal trends were observed for most of the pesticides detected, the highest levels (in the ng m−3 range or the µg PUF−1 range) being measured during their application period. Impregnation levels at both sites were heterogeneous, but the same pesticides were involved. Sampling rates (Rs) were also estimated using a high-volume active air sampler and varied significantly from one pesticide to another. These results provide preliminary information on the seasonality of pesticide concentrations in vineyard areas and evidence for the effectiveness of PUF-PAS to monitor pesticides in ambient air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Pollutants in the Atmosphere)
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13 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Telematics Data of Combine Harvesters and Evaluation of Potential to Reduce Environmental Pollution
by Dainius Savickas, Dainius Steponavičius and Rolandas Domeika
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060674 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2625
Abstract
The combine harvester (CH) is one of the most important machines with the most powerful engine used in the agricultural sector. It consumes significant amounts of diesel fuel and harms ambient air by releasing emissions. This study examines the telematics data of CHs [...] Read more.
The combine harvester (CH) is one of the most important machines with the most powerful engine used in the agricultural sector. It consumes significant amounts of diesel fuel and harms ambient air by releasing emissions. This study examines the telematics data of CHs (models with axial threshing apparatus) collected between 2017 and 2020. The time spent in various operating modes of CH, the fuel consumption, and the negative impact on the ambient air (expressed in global warming potential–(GWP)) were calculated. Field tests using the same CH model were also performed to confirm the collected telematics data’s values. Possibilities to minimize fuel consumption and air pollution by selecting the correct use of technological operations are evaluated. Telematics data analysis results showed that the CH spends ~18% and ~13% of the time in the idle and transport modes, respectively. It was also found that ~12% of diesel fuel was consumed outside the direct harvesting mode, amounting to 4.7 t year−1 of GWP per machine. Dual telematics/field studies showed that the optimal use of the CH in idle and transport modes could reduce the amount of pollutants released into the environment in terms of GWP by 1.3 t year−1 for one machine. Field tests have also shown that the GWP per ton of wheat harvest highly depended on the CH driving speed during harvesting. The optimum speed was determined as 4 km h−1, and the wheat grain and straw feed rate was determined as 24 kg s−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Pollutants in the Atmosphere)
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14 pages, 1177 KiB  
Article
Pesticide Inhalation Exposure of Applicators and Bystanders Using Conventional and Innovative Cropping Systems in the Valencian Region, Spain
by Esther Fuentes, Antonio López, María Ibáñez, Vicent Yusà, Amalia Muñoz, Teresa Vera, Esther Borrás, Héctor Calvete-Sogo and Clara Coscollà
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050631 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
This paper provides scientific results from a European LIFE project carried out in the Valencian region of Spain during the 2017 to 2018 time frame. In 2018, more than 60,000 tons of pesticides were commercialized in Spain, with approximately 15% destined for Valencian [...] Read more.
This paper provides scientific results from a European LIFE project carried out in the Valencian region of Spain during the 2017 to 2018 time frame. In 2018, more than 60,000 tons of pesticides were commercialized in Spain, with approximately 15% destined for Valencian crops. In order to improve the air quality in the agricultural areas of this region, an innovative cropping system based on irrigation was developed and compared to conventional treatments based on hand-spray and turbo application. After applying conventional treatments to five types of crops (citrus, persimmon, nectarine, watermelon, and other stone fruits), a total of 13 active substances were detected in the air. The same active substances were applied to crops using the novel irrigation system, and no pesticide was detected in the air. Moreover, applicator and bystander populations in the region were assessed for their risk of inhalation exposure to pesticides, and no risk was found when either of the techniques, the innovative and the conventional agricultural one, were applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Pollutants in the Atmosphere)
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14 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Methodological Aspects for the Implementation of the Air Pesticide Control and Surveillance Network (PESTNet) of the Valencian Region (Spain)
by Antonio López, Pablo Ruiz, Vicent Yusà and Clara Coscollà
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050542 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
A large amount of pesticide, applied mainly during agricultural practice, is released into the atmosphere, decreasing air quality and potentially causing public health problems. The Valencian region, after Andalusia, is the Spanish region with the highest consumption of pesticides owing to its large [...] Read more.
A large amount of pesticide, applied mainly during agricultural practice, is released into the atmosphere, decreasing air quality and potentially causing public health problems. The Valencian region, after Andalusia, is the Spanish region with the highest consumption of pesticides owing to its large areas of agricultural land and the existence of crops that require intensive use of pesticides. In this work, we describe the sampling and analytical tools developed in the last decade and their transference to the Regional Department for Environment, where the main objective of the research was the creation and implementation of an Air pesticide control and surveillance network (PESTNet) in the Valencian region in Spain. To be able to confirm that the established strategies were appropriate, a pilot scheme comprising three different sampling stations (two rural and one urban) was developed and implemented in 2020. The results showed that as many as 30 pesticides were detected in the three sampling stations, with the frequency detection ranging from 6% (beta-endosulfan, chlorpropham, endosulfan-sulfate, kresoxim-m, prochloraz) to 100% (azoxystrobin, chlorpyrifos-m, metalaxyl-M). On the other hand, the concentrations of the pesticides found oscillated between 14.4 (boscalid) and 4373.0 pg m−3 (chlorpyrifos-m). Moreover, a risk assessment was carried out, and no risks were observed for the studied population (infants, children, and adults) in the evaluated stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Pollutants in the Atmosphere)
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Review

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16 pages, 1993 KiB  
Review
The Research Progress of the Influence of Agricultural Activities on Atmospheric Environment in Recent Ten Years: A Review
by Pengxiang Ge, Mindong Chen, Yan Cui and Dongyang Nie
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050635 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
In recent years, the industrial emission of air pollution has been reduced via a series of measures. However, with the rapid development of modern agriculture, air pollution caused by agricultural activities is becoming more and more serious. Agricultural activities can generate a large [...] Read more.
In recent years, the industrial emission of air pollution has been reduced via a series of measures. However, with the rapid development of modern agriculture, air pollution caused by agricultural activities is becoming more and more serious. Agricultural activities can generate a large amount of air pollutants, such as ammonia, methane, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and persistent organic pollutants, the sources of which mainly include farmland fertilization, livestock breeding, pesticide use, agricultural residue burning, agricultural machinery, and agricultural irrigation. Greenhouse gases emitted by agricultural activities can affect regional climate change, while atmospheric particulates and persistent organic pollutants can even seriously harm the health of surrounding residents. With the increasing threat of agricultural air pollution, more and more relevant studies have been carried out, as well as some recommendations for reducing emissions. The emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases can be significantly reduced by adopting reasonable fertilization methods, scientific soil management, and advanced manure treatment systems. Regarding pesticide use and agricultural residues burning, emission reduction are more dependent on the restriction and support of government regulations, such as banning certain pesticides, prohibiting open burning of straw, and supporting the recycling and reuse of residues. This review, summarizing the relevant research in the past decade, discusses the current situation, health effects, and emission reduction measures of agricultural air pollutants from different sources, in order to provide some help for follow-up research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Pollutants in the Atmosphere)
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