Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors on Climate and Environment (2nd Edition)

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 18 October 2024 | Viewed by 5552

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Interests: atmospheric physics; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric environment; atmospheric sounding; climate and environment effects
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Guest Editor
Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Kanazawa 920-1192, Kakumamachi, Japan
Interests: air pollution; public health; PM 2.5; environmental science and technology; analytical chemistry
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Guest Editor
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Interests: climate modeling; emission modeling; atmospheric environment and health; numerical weather prediction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a follow-up of the first Special Issue entitled "Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors on Climate and Environment" (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/special_issues/Natural_Anthropogenic_Effects) published in Atmosphere in 2022.

This Special Issue will focus on the natural and anthropogenic activities that affect the climate and environment of any region around the globe. The climate and environment of any region may be affected by natural/anthropogenic activities at any place, for example, the emissions from a volcanic eruption may affect the climate and environment of another region through the occurrence of aerosol transportation under general circulation, the dust and aerosol from a desert may be transported to another region and cause health impacts, and the emissions from fossil fuels may affect the surrounding region, etc. The pollution of urban areas, the pollution from brick kilns and other activities in rural areas, and coastal or marine pollution may be transported to their surroundings and result in severe negative impacts on the climate and environment. The change in climate due to natural and anthropogenic activities may bring changes to the environment that, in turn, may provide a suitable environment for the growth and development of different water- and vectorborne diseases, such as dengue and chikungunya, etc. Carbon emissions, as is well known, are associated with the greenhouse effect, while also being very important for the climate and environment. The changing climate due to anthropogenic activities may bring changes in temperature, precipitation, and wind circulation, which may in turn cause a change in the biodiversity of any region. Atmospheric and water thermal extremes may also bring storms and cyclones, which may cause disasters in any region. This Special Issue will take a broader view and welcomes articles that introduce new methods and techniques in environmental and climate modeling and simulation, numerical predictions, and thermal extremes, etc., for demonstrating the impacts of natural and anthropogenic activities on the climate and environment. We will also welcome articles that use significant and novel methods and present new solutions to problems that arise from natural and anthropogenic activities.

Dr. Bin Chen
Prof. Dr. Ning Tang
Dr. Bushra Khalid
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • effect of anthropogenic emissions on climate and environment
  • effect of natural activities/emissions on climate and environment
  • carbon emission and carbon neutrality
  • changes in general circulation and its impacts on the climate and environment
  • urban climate and environment
  • rural climate and environment
  • coastal and marine climate and environment
  • mountainous climate and environment
  • numerical and statistical modeling
  • thermal extremes and its impact on the climate and environment
  • sea level rise
  • water extremes

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 13239 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning to Characterize Biogenic Isoprene Emissions and Atmospheric Formaldehyde with Their Environmental Drivers in the Marine Boundary Layer
by Tianyu Wang, Shanshan Wang, Ruibin Xue, Yibing Tan, Sanbao Zhang, Chuanqi Gu and Bin Zhou
Atmosphere 2024, 15(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15060679 - 31 May 2024
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Abstract
Oceanic biogenic emissions exert a significant impact on the atmospheric environment within the marine boundary layer (MBL). This study employs the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning method and clustering method combined with satellite observations and model simulations to discuss the effects of [...] Read more.
Oceanic biogenic emissions exert a significant impact on the atmospheric environment within the marine boundary layer (MBL). This study employs the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning method and clustering method combined with satellite observations and model simulations to discuss the effects of marine biogenic emissions on MBL formaldehyde (HCHO). The study reveals that HCHO columnar concentrations peaked in summer with 8.25 × 1015 molec/cm2, but the sea–air exchange processes controlled under the wind and sea surface temperature (SST) made marine biogenic emissions represented by isoprene reach their highest levels in winter with 95.93 nmol/m2/day. Analysis was conducted separately for factors influencing marine biogenic emissions and affecting MBL HCHO. It was found that phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) and biological degradation had a significant impact on marine biogenic emissions, with ratio range of 0.07~15.87 and 1.02~5.42 respectively. Machine learning methods were employed to simulate the conversion process of marine biogenic emissions to HCHO in MBL. Based on the SHAP values of the learning model, the importance results indicate that the factors influencing MBL HCHO mainly included NO2, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH). Specifically, the influence of NO2 on atmospheric HCHO was 1.3 times that of T and 1.6 times that of RH. Wind speed affected HCHO by influencing both marine biogenic emission and the atmospheric physical conditions. Increased marine biogenic emissions in air masses heavily influenced by human activities can reduce HCHO levels to some extent. However, in areas less affected by human activities, marine biogenic emissions can lead to higher levels of HCHO pollution. This research explores the impact of marine biogenic emissions on the HCHO status of the MBL under different atmospheric chemical conditions, offering significant insights into understanding chemical processes in marine atmospheres. Full article
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24 pages, 4308 KiB  
Article
Emissions and Atmospheric Dry and Wet Deposition of Trace Metals from Natural and Anthropogenic Sources in Mainland China
by Shenglan Jiang, Xuyang Dong, Zimin Han, Junri Zhao and Yan Zhang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15040402 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Trace metals from natural and anthropogenic sources impact the atmospheric environment and enter the soil through dry and wet atmospheric deposition, ultimately affecting human health. In this study, we established an emission inventory of Pb, As, Cr, and Cd in East Asia (80° [...] Read more.
Trace metals from natural and anthropogenic sources impact the atmospheric environment and enter the soil through dry and wet atmospheric deposition, ultimately affecting human health. In this study, we established an emission inventory of Pb, As, Cr, and Cd in East Asia (80° E–140° E, 15° N–50° N) for the year 2017, including dust and anthropogenic sources from both land and marine. We modified the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to provide gridded data on concentrations, as well as dry and wet atmospheric deposition fluxes of metals, with a focus on mainland China. The emissions of Pb, As, Cr, and Cd in East Asia were 19,253, 3415, 3332, and 9379 tons, respectively, in 2017, with 55%, 69%, 25%, and 58% distributed in the fine mode. The spatial distribution of atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition of trace metals was similar to that of emissions, while the spatial distribution of precipitation-related wet deposition was further east and greater in the south than in the north. In mainland China, the average bulk-deposition fluxes of Pb, As, Cr, and Cd were 1036.5, 170.3, 465.9, and 185.0 μg·m−2·year−1, respectively. Our study provides gridded data on trace metals in mainland China, which can be used for assessing air quality, human exposure risks, and metal inputs to soils. Full article
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13 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Characteristic Variation of Particulate Matter-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) during Asian Dust Events, Based on Observations at a Japanese Background Site, Wajima, from 2010 to 2021
by Pengchu Bai, Yan Wang, Hao Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Lulu Zhang, Atsushi Matsuki, Seiya Nagao, Bin Chen and Ning Tang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(10), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14101519 - 30 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particles (TSPs) were observed at the Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. [...] Read more.
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particles (TSPs) were observed at the Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high events (transported at higher altitudes, approximately 4000 m) and AD-low events (transported at lower altitudes, approximately 2500 m). The TSP concentrations increased sharply in the AD events and were higher in the AD-high events (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m3) than in the AD-low events (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m3). AD did not have a significant effect on the ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs (ΣPAHs = fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno [1,2,3-cd]pyrene) concentrations in non-AD periods, AD-high events, and AD-low events were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, and 436 ± 265 pg/m3, respectively. The PAH compositions were also consistent. As a result, the TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitudes from the desert region while the PAH concentration was impacted by the air mass at lower altitudes, which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated with the inhalation lifetime cancer risk, which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, indicating a potential carcinogenic risk at the KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon periods. Full article
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17 pages, 11706 KiB  
Article
Simulations of a Heavy Snowfall Event in Xinjiang via the WRF Model Coupled with Different Land Surface Parameterization Schemes
by Guannan Ai, Shuzhou Wang and Hai Zhi
Atmosphere 2023, 14(9), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14091376 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Frequent heavy snowfall in Xinjiang plays an important role in the land water cycle. In this study, 18 groups of simulation experiments are conducted on the heavy snowfall event in Xinjiang during 9–13 December of 2015 using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) [...] Read more.
Frequent heavy snowfall in Xinjiang plays an important role in the land water cycle. In this study, 18 groups of simulation experiments are conducted on the heavy snowfall event in Xinjiang during 9–13 December of 2015 using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In these experiments, the combination of six land surface parameterization schemes (the Noah scheme, Noah-MP scheme, RUC scheme, CLM4 scheme, PX scheme, and TD scheme) with three microphysical parameterization schemes (the WSM6 scheme, Thompson scheme, and Lin scheme) are adopted, where the observed snowfall data are used for performance evaluation. Results show that the simulated snowfall intensity and snowfall range in different areas are very sensitive to the selection of the land surface scheme. The snowfall in southern Xinjiang is overestimated by almost all six schemes, where the Noah-MP scheme performs more reasonably than the others. The Noah scheme shows its advantage in northwestern Xinjiang. The three different microphysical schemes vary significantly in producing snowfall amount. The WSM6 scheme produced the largest snowfall amount, and the Lin scheme resulted in the smallest snowfall amount. In addition, the accumulated snowfall amounts above 10 mm are generally underestimated by all six land surface schemes, while the accumulated snowfall amounts below 10 mm are overestimated by most of the schemes. The Noah-MP scheme performs the best in the simulation of the snowfall amount in the whole region. However, the Noah scheme shows an advantage in areas with a large snowfall amount. Full article
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14 pages, 2053 KiB  
Article
Main Emission Sources and Health Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Three Typical Sites in Hanoi
by Hao Zhang, Chau-Thuy Pham, Bin Chen, Xuan Zhang, Yan Wang, Pengchu Bai, Lulu Zhang, Seiya Nagao, Akira Toriba, Trung-Dung Nghiem and Ning Tang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(5), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14050782 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) were first systematically studied in downtown (XT), suburban (GL) and rural (DA) sites in winter and summer in Hanoi, Vietnam, from 2019 to 2022. The mean concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs ranged from 0.76 [...] Read more.
Particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) were first systematically studied in downtown (XT), suburban (GL) and rural (DA) sites in winter and summer in Hanoi, Vietnam, from 2019 to 2022. The mean concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs ranged from 0.76 ng m−3 to 50.2 ng m−3 and 6.07 pg m−3 to 1.95 ng m−3, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs in winter were higher than in summer, except for NPAHs in XT. We found the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/benzo[ghi]perylene (BgPe) ratio could effectively identify biomass burning in this study, in which a higher [BaP]/[BgPe] value indicates a greater effect of biomass burning on PAHs and NPAHs. The results indicated that atmospheric PAHs and NPAHs were mainly affected by motor vehicles (especially the unique motorcycles in Southeast Asia) in the summer in Hanoi. In winter, all sites were affected by the burning of rice straw to varying degrees, especially DA. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) in Hanoi was first determined through ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. The results showed that residents in Hanoi faced high health risks, while females experienced higher health risks than males. The ingestion and dermal pathways indicated higher exposure risks than the usually considered inhalation pathway. Full article
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