Special Issue "Dynamics and Chemistry of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere and Its Response to External Forcing—Observations and Models"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Upper Atmosphere".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 7 September 2022 | Viewed by 2735

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Stefan Bender
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: atmospheric physics; space physics; trace-gas retrieval; inverse methods; uncertainty quantification; statistics; empirical modelling
Dr. Yvan Orsolini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Norway & Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: middle atmosphere dynamics, chemistry and remote sensing; impact of snow and sea ice on subseasonal-to-seasonal forecasting
Dr. Kristell Pérot
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers Technical University, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
Interests: middle atmospheric chemistry and physics; limb sounding observations; trace gas retrieval; empirical modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the IPCC has recognized processes in the middle and upper atmosphere above the stratopause (~50 km) as important for future climate projections. This region of the Earth's atmosphere maintains a balance between external forcings (e.g., solar radiation and particle precipitation) and the forcing emanating from the lower atmosphere in the form of planetary waves, tides and gravity waves. Quantifying how these forcings drive the general circulation of the atmosphere and control the chemical balance and its temporal and spatial variability is crucial to understanding how composition, momentum, and energy couple vertically and horizontally in the atmosphere and ionosphere. Still, many of these processes have been only quantified poorly, leading to large uncertainties in their variability. In particular, the middle and upper atmosphere’s response to external forcings, both direct and indirect, and to internal dynamical events such as sudden stratospheric warmings, is not yet completely resolved and continues to be the subject of active research.

We invite studies of the middle and upper atmosphere, both observational and related to the modelling of its dynamics and chemistry. We welcome studies of the response to external forcings such as (but not limited to) energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and solar UV variability during the solar cycle. Results comparing the solar forcing importance relative to other external forcings arising from natural variability (such as volcanic forcing) or to anthropogenic forcing are also welcome. Furthermore, we also invite contributions related to the inter-comparison of coupled climate model responses to solar forcing, as well as to the response of the coupled stratosphere–troposphere–ocean system to solar forcing

This Special Issue invites both observation-based (ground-based or satellite) and modelling contributions that concern the chemistry and dynamics of the middle and upper atmosphere with respect to:

  • the treatment of EPP in chemistry-climate models
  • the coupled climate system response to EPP and UV forcing
  • the response to stratospheric warming events
  • natural variability induced by gravity waves and tides

Dr. Stefan Bender
Dr. Yvan Orsolini
Dr. Kristell Pérot
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mesosphere
  • thermosphere
  • solar-terrestrial physics
  • solar activity
  • external forcing
  • particle precipitation
  • whole-atmosphere models
  • sudden stratospheric warming
  • middle-atmosphere dynamics
  • atmospheric tides
  • atmospheric gravity waves
  • planetary waves

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Auroral Ionosphere Model with PC Index as an Input
Atmosphere 2022, 13(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030402 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Auroral Ionosphere Model (AIM-E) is designed to calculate chemical content in the high-latitude E region ionosphere and takes into account both the solar EUV radiation and the electron precipitation of magnetospheric origin. The latter is extremely important for auroral ionosphere chemistry especially in [...] Read more.
Auroral Ionosphere Model (AIM-E) is designed to calculate chemical content in the high-latitude E region ionosphere and takes into account both the solar EUV radiation and the electron precipitation of magnetospheric origin. The latter is extremely important for auroral ionosphere chemistry especially in disturbed conditions. In order to maximize the AIM-E timing accuracy when simulating highly variable periods in the course of geomagnetic storms and substorms, we suggest to parameterize the OVATION-Prime empirical precipitation model with the ground-based Polar Cap (PC) index. This gives an advantage to: (1) perform ionospheric simulation with actual input, since PC index reflects the geoeffective solar wind conditions; (2) promptly assess the current geomagnetic situation, since PC index is available in real-time with 1 min resolution. The simulation results of AIM-E with OVATION-Prime (PC) demonstrate a good agreement with the ground-based incoherent scatter radar data (EISCAT UHF, Tromso) and with the vertical sounding data in the Arctic zone during events of intense particle precipitation. The model reproduces well the electron content calculated in vertical column (90–140 km) and critical frequency of sporadic E layer (fOEs) formed by precipitating electrons. The AIM-E (PC) model can be applied to monitor the sporadic E layer in real-time and in the entire high-latitude ionosphere, including the auroral and subauroral zones, which is important for predicting the conditions of radio wave propagation. Full article
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Article
Impacts of UV Irradiance and Medium-Energy Electron Precipitation on the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 11-Year Solar Cycle
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081029 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Observational studies suggest that part of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability may be attributed to the spectral ultra-violet (UV) irradiance variations associated to the 11-year solar cycle. The observed maximum surface pressure response in the North Atlantic occurs 2–4 years after solar [...] Read more.
Observational studies suggest that part of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability may be attributed to the spectral ultra-violet (UV) irradiance variations associated to the 11-year solar cycle. The observed maximum surface pressure response in the North Atlantic occurs 2–4 years after solar maximum, and some model studies have identified that atmosphere–ocean feedbacks explain the multi-year lag. Alternatively, medium-to-high energy electron (MEE) precipitation, which peaks in the declining phase of the solar cycle, has been suggested as a potential cause of this lag. We use a coupled (ocean–atmosphere) climate prediction model and a state-of-the-art MEE forcing to explore the respective roles of irradiance and MEE precipitation on the NAO variability. Three decadal ensemble experiments were conducted over solar cycle 23 in an idealized setting. We found a weak ensemble-mean positive NAO response to the irradiance. The simulated signal-to-noise ratio remained very small, indicating the predominance of internal NAO variability. The lack of multi-annual lag in the NAO response was likely due to lagged solar signals imprinted in temperatures below the oceanic mixed-layer re-emerging equatorward of the oceanic frontal zones, which anchor ocean–atmosphere feedbacks. While there is a clear, yet weak, signature from UV irradiance in the atmosphere and upper ocean over the North Atlantic, enhanced MEE precipitation on the other hand does not lead to any systematic changes in the stratospheric circulation, despite its marked chemical signatures. Full article
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