Special Issue "Interaction of Air Pollution with Snow and Seasonality Effects"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (4 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Yevgen Nazarenko
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
Interests: emerging nanoscale air pollutants; air pollutants in northern environments; health and environmental effects of air pollution; indoor air pollutants; regulation of nanotechnology; nanosafety; industrial hygiene and occupational exposure to air pollutants and nanomaterial aerosols
Prof. Dr. Parisa A. Ariya
Website
Guest Editor
The James McGill chair in Atmospheric and Interfacial Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Canada, H3A 0B8
Interests: analytical/environmental chemical; physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I invite you to contribute to this Special Issue of Atmosphere focused on the interaction of air pollutants with snow and the seasonality of outdoor and indoor air pollution where winter-specific environmental factors are studied. Air pollution has been shown to cause numerous adverse environmental and health effects. Recent studies have found links not only with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease but also neurological disorders and carcinogenesis.

Between the time when air pollutants are released and when exposure occurs, air pollutants in gaseous and particulate forms can undergo various physical and chemical transformations. A large body of research has been dedicated to investigating these transformations. The studies focus on the multiple aspects of the question: from gas-phase atmospheric chemistry to aerosol dynamics. The interaction of air pollutants with environmental surfaces such as vegetation, soil, exposed rock, water surfaces, and snow is an important determiner of air pollutants’ fate. The interactions of air pollutants with snow lead to temporary or permanent removal of air pollutants from the atmosphere and the introduction of pollutants into the air. The same processes can also alter the chemical nature and distribution of air pollutants across the gas and particulate phases within a range of aerosol particle sizes.

Interactions with environmental surfaces may change the abundance and distribution of air pollutants significantly. These changes may, in turn, alter environmental and health effects caused by the resulting mix of air pollutants in ways that are still poorly understood.

Among the various types of environmental surfaces, snow and ice crystal surfaces have historically attracted comparatively less research attention, in part due to the difficulties of conducting both laboratory and field studies at subfreezing temperatures. Nevertheless, during the last few years, snow and ice research has intensified thanks to newly developed experimental and field approaches, and rapidly increasing research activity in the seasonally or permanently colder regions of the world, including Canada, China, and Scandinavia. It is now clear that snow plays an important role in the fate of air pollutants, from exhaust-derived contaminants to microplastics.

This Special Issue focuses on all aspects of the interaction of air pollution with snow and the effects of seasonality on outdoor and indoor air pollution. We invite you to consider submitting articles reporting on field and laboratory-based observational and modeling studies, environmental monitoring, exposure and epidemiological research, and work that is either regionally or globally relevant. Both outdoor and indoor air effects are of interest, as well as urban, rural, industrial, remote, and other locations. Other aspects of air pollution interactions with snow not listed above are very welcome.

Dr. Yevgen Nazarenko
Prof. Dr. Parisa A. Ariya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Snow;
  • Snow pollution;
  • Snow contamination;
  • Snow-borne;
  • Ice contaminants;
  • Ice pollutants;
  • Snow interactions;
  • Ice interactions;
  • Seasonality;
  • Indoor air.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Variation of Black Carbon Aerosol in China Based on Revised Aethalometer Monitoring Data
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070684 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
Black carbon (BC) aerosol, as a typical optical absorption aerosol, is of great significance to the study of climate and radiation. The China Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET), established by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), contains 35 BC-monitored stations, which have been collecting data [...] Read more.
Black carbon (BC) aerosol, as a typical optical absorption aerosol, is of great significance to the study of climate and radiation. The China Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET), established by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), contains 35 BC-monitored stations, which have been collecting data using commercial Aethalometer instruments (AEs) since 2006. Element carbon (EC) data measured from the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method was used to correct the BC monitoring data from the AEs, which are affected by various sampling and analytical artifacts. The average difference before and after the revision was about 17.3% (±11.5%). Furthermore, we analyzed the variations of BC in China from 2006 to 2017 using a revised dataset. The ten-year averaged concentration of BC would have been applicable for climate analysis, and can be a comparison sample in future research. The concentrations of BC across the stations in China showed a general downward trend, with occasional fluctuations, and the concentrations at urban sites decreased more significantly. The average concentrations of BC in urban sites are higher than rural and remote sites. The 10-year averaged concentration of BC ranges from 11.13 μg m−3 in Gucheng to 0.19 μg m−3 in Shangri-La, showing a strong spatial variation; the proportion of BC aerosol in PM2.5 is generally less than 20%. The BC showed obvious seasonal and diurnal variation; and the highest concentration occurred in winter, with more dramatic diurnal variation, followed by autumn and spring. There was a significant increase in concentration between local time 7:00–9:00 and 18:00–0:00. The distribution and trend of BC concentration in China showed a consistency with emissions of BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Air Pollution with Snow and Seasonality Effects)
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Open AccessArticle
Black Carbon: The Concentration and Sources Study at the Nam Co Lake, the Tibetan Plateau from 2015 to 2016
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060624 - 12 Jun 2020
Abstract
We measured black carbon (BC) with a seven-wavelength aethalometer (AE-31) at the Nam Co Lake (NCL), the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from May 2015 to April 2016. The daily average concentration of BC was 145 ± 85 ng m−3, [...] Read more.
We measured black carbon (BC) with a seven-wavelength aethalometer (AE-31) at the Nam Co Lake (NCL), the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from May 2015 to April 2016. The daily average concentration of BC was 145 ± 85 ng m−3, increasing by 50% since 2006. The seasonal variation of BC shows higher concentrations in spring and summer and lower concentrations in autumn and winter, dominated by the adjacent sources and meteorological conditions. The diurnal variation of BC showed that its concentrations peaked at 9:00–16:00 (UTC + 8), significantly related to local human activities (e.g., animal-manure burning and nearby traffic due to the tourism industry). The concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis showed that the long-distance transport of BC from South Asia could also be a potential contributor to BC at the NCL, as well as the biomass burning by the surrounding residents. The analyses of the absorption coefficient and absorption Ångström exponent show the consistency of sourcing the BC at the NCL. We suggest here that urgent measures should be taken to protect the atmospheric environment at the NCL, considering the fast-increasing concentrations of BC as an indicator of fuel combustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Air Pollution with Snow and Seasonality Effects)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Year Measurements of Equivalent Black Carbon, Optical Properties, and Sources in the Urumqi River Valley, Tien Shan, China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050478 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
Equivalent black carbon (EBC) was measured with a seven-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-31) in the Urumqi River Valley, eastern Tien Shan, China. This is the first high-resolution, online measurement of EBC conducted in the eastern Tien Shan allowing analysis of the seasonal and hourly variations [...] Read more.
Equivalent black carbon (EBC) was measured with a seven-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-31) in the Urumqi River Valley, eastern Tien Shan, China. This is the first high-resolution, online measurement of EBC conducted in the eastern Tien Shan allowing analysis of the seasonal and hourly variations of the light absorption properties of EBC. Results showed that the highest concentrations of EBC were in autumn, followed by those in summer. The hourly variations of EBC showed two plateaus during 8:00–9:00 h local time (LT) and 16:00–19:00 h LT, respectively. The contribution of biomass burning to EBC in winter and spring was higher than in summer and autumn. The planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) showed an inverse relationship with EBC concentrations, suggesting that the reduction of the PBLH leads to enhanced EBC. The aerosol optical depths (AOD) over the Urumqi River Valley, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and back trajectory analysis, showed that the pollution from Central Asia was more likely to affect the atmosphere of Tien Shan in summer and autumn. This suggests that long-distance transported pollutants from Central Asia could also be potential contributors to EBC concentrations in the Urumqi River Valley, the same as local anthropogenic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Air Pollution with Snow and Seasonality Effects)
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Open AccessArticle
Snowpack as Indicators of Atmospheric Pollution: The Valday Upland
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050462 - 03 May 2020
Abstract
Snowpack is a unique indicator in assessing both local and transboundary contaminants. We considered the features of the snow chemical composition of the Valday Upland, Russia, as a location without a direct influence of smelters (conditional background) in 2016–2019. We identified the influence [...] Read more.
Snowpack is a unique indicator in assessing both local and transboundary contaminants. We considered the features of the snow chemical composition of the Valday Upland, Russia, as a location without a direct influence of smelters (conditional background) in 2016–2019. We identified the influence of a number of geochemical (landscape), biological (trees of the forest zone, vegetation), and anthropogenic factors (technogenic elements—lead, nickel) on the formation of snow composition. We found increases in the content of metals of technogenic origin in city snowfall in the snowpack: cadmium, lead, and nickel in comparison with snowfall in the forest. Methods of sequential and parallel membrane filtration (in situ) were used along with ion-exchange separation to determine metal speciation (labile, unlabile, inorganic speciation with low molecular weight, connection with organic ligands) and explain their migration ability. We found that forest snow samples contain metal compounds (Cu, Pb, and Ni) with different molecular weights due to the different contributions of organic substances. According to the results of filtration, the predominant speciation of metals in the urban snow samples is suspension emission (especially more 8 mkm). The buffer abilities of snowfall in the forest (in various landscapes) and in the city of Valday were assessed. Based on statistical analysis, a significant difference in the chemical composition of snow in the forest and in the city, as well as taking into account the landscape, was shown. Snow on an open landscape on a hill is most susceptible to airborne pollution (sulfates, copper, nickel), city snow is most affected by local pollutants (turbidity, lead). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Air Pollution with Snow and Seasonality Effects)
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