Ionospheric Sounding for Identification of Pre-seismic Activity

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Upper Atmosphere".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 June 2024 | Viewed by 3487

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: electromagnetic wave propagation; VLF/ELF EM wave in the ionosphere

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: remote sensing
Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: electromagnetic wave propagation; seismic ionospheric coupling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research over the last few decades has shown that the seismogenic process influences the ionosphere through a number of coupling mechanisms, resulting in ionospheric disruption. Ionospheric disturbances, such as electron density anomalies, could arise in the D/E, F, and topside layers. For seismic ionospheric anomalies at various altitudes, various detection technologies, such as ionosonde for the critical frequency of the F2 layer, the GPS-TEC, and so on, can be used.

In recent years, a large number of near-Earth spacecraft, such as CSES, GOES, Cluster, THEMIS, the Van Allen Probes, MMS, Arase, and Swarm, have been used in conjunction with ground-based observatories, such as the MAGDAS, SuperMAG, and INTERMAGNET networks, to study the ionospheric anomalies caused by seismic activity.

The goal of this Special Issue is to compile the most recent advances in understanding ionospheric anomalies during earthquake preparation and occurrence processes. This Special Issue includes, but is not limited to, the following features:.

  • Ground and ionospheric observations based on ground receivers, ionosonde or low-Earth-orbit satellites and the study of their relationships with earthquakes.
  • Infrared or hyperspectral parameter observations and analyses related to pre-seismic activites.
  • Integrated observations from multi-spheres for the study of lithosphere–atomosphere–ionosphere coulping (LAIC) in regard to earthquakes.
  • Models and observations of low-frequency (ULF/ELF/VLF) electromagnetic wave

Dr. Shufan Zhao
Dr. Xuhui Shen
Dr. Li Liao
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ionospheric sounding
  • pre-seismic activities
  • LAIC model
  • infrared or hyperspectral observations
  • integrated observations for earthquakes

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 9168 KiB  
Article
Quasi-Synchronous Variations in the OLR of NOAA and Ionospheric Ne of CSES of Three Earthquakes in Xinjiang, January 2020
by Chen Yu, Jing Cui, Wanchun Zhang, Weiyu Ma, Jing Ren, Bo Su and Jianping Huang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(12), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14121828 - 15 Dec 2023
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Abstract
The successive tidal force (TF) at the epicenter of the Jiashi M6.6 earthquake in Xinjiang, China, was calculated for the period from 13 December 2019 to 10 February 2020. With periodic changes in tide-generating forces, the variations in the electron density (Ne) data [...] Read more.
The successive tidal force (TF) at the epicenter of the Jiashi M6.6 earthquake in Xinjiang, China, was calculated for the period from 13 December 2019 to 10 February 2020. With periodic changes in tide-generating forces, the variations in the electron density (Ne) data recorded by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data provided by NOAA on a large scale at N25°–N55°, E65°–E135° were studied. The results show that (1) in the four cycles during which the TF changes from trough to peak, the earthquake occurred during one peak time when the OLR changed around the epicenter via calm–rise processions and in other similar TF phases, and neither an increase in the OLR nor earthquake occurred. (2) With a change in the TF, the spatiotemporal evolution of the OLR from seismogenic processes to its occurrence was as follows: microenhancement–enhancement–microattenuation–enhancement–calmness; this is consistent with the evolution of outward infrared radiation when rocks break under stress loading: microrupture–rupture–locking–accelerated rupture–rupture. (3) Ne increased significantly during the seismogenic period and was basically consistent with OLR enhancement. The results indicate that as the TF increases, the Earth’s stress accumulates at a critical point, and the OLR increases and transfers upward. The theoretical hypothesis underlying the conducted study is that the accumulated electrons on the surface cause negatively charged electrons in the atmosphere to move upward, resulting in an increase in ionospheric Ne near the epicenter, which reveals the homology of seismic stress variations in the spatial coupling process. The quasi-synchronous change process of these three factors suggests that the TF changed the process of the stress accumulation–imbalance in the interior structure of this earthquake and has the effect of triggering the earthquake, and the spatiotemporal variations in the OLR and ionospheric Ne could be indirect reflections of in situ stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionospheric Sounding for Identification of Pre-seismic Activity)
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12 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Northwest Cape Transmitter (19.8 kHz) Radio Signals Using Data Collected by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite
by Honggeng Cai, Shufan Zhao, Li Liao, Xuhui Shen and Hengxin Lu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(12), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14121816 - 13 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves radiated from ground-based transmitters are crucial for long-distance communication and underwater navigation. These waves can reflect between the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere for Earth–ionosphere waveguide propagation. Additionally, they can penetrate not only the ionosphere but also the [...] Read more.
Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves radiated from ground-based transmitters are crucial for long-distance communication and underwater navigation. These waves can reflect between the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere for Earth–ionosphere waveguide propagation. Additionally, they can penetrate not only the ionosphere but also the magnetosphere, where they interact with high-energy particles in the radiation belt. Therefore, studying the spatial and temporal distribution of VLF radio signals holds significant importance. Such research enables us to understand the propagation characteristics of VLF signals, their interaction with radiation belt particles, and their response to space weather and lithospheric activity events. In this paper, we investigate the seasonal variations in the intensity of the Northwest Cape (NWC) transmitter (19.8 kHz) radio signals at satellite altitude and the displacement of the electric field’s peak center. Our analysis is based on the nightly China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) data from 2019 to 2021. The results reveal the following: (1) There is no significant seasonal variation in the electric field strength within a small area (2.5° radius) around the NWC transmitter. However, a clear seasonal variation in the electric field strength is observed within a larger area (15° radius), with higher strength during winter compared with summer. (2) The power spectral density of the electric field remains constant within the peak central area (approximately 1~2° radius), but it decays with distance outside this region, showing a north–south asymmetry. Moreover, the decay rate of the radiation electric field is slower in the northern direction than in the southern direction. (3) The center of the electric field moves northward from summer to winter and southward from winter to summer. (4) In winter, VLF waves radiated by the NWC transmitter may predominantly propagate by being ducted toward the conjugate hemisphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionospheric Sounding for Identification of Pre-seismic Activity)
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20 pages, 15187 KiB  
Article
Study on VLF Electric Field Anomalies Caused by Seismic Activity on the Western Coast of the Pacific Rim
by Zhong Li, Zhaoyang Chen, Jianping Huang, Xingsu Li, Ying Han, Xuming Yang and Zongyu Li
Atmosphere 2023, 14(11), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14111676 - 13 Nov 2023
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Abstract
In order to explore the correlation between earthquakes and ionospheric very low-frequency (VLF) electric field disturbances, this article uses VLF data observed by the China Earthquake Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) to analyze very low-frequency signals before and after earthquakes from January 2019 to March [...] Read more.
In order to explore the correlation between earthquakes and ionospheric very low-frequency (VLF) electric field disturbances, this article uses VLF data observed by the China Earthquake Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) to analyze very low-frequency signals before and after earthquakes from January 2019 to March 2023 in terms of the amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio of electric field power spectrum disturbances. Taking 73 earthquakes with a magnitude of 6.0 or higher occurring in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt as an example, comprehensive research on the VLF electric field disturbance phenomenon caused by strong earthquakes is conducted, considering both the earthquake location and source mechanism. The research results indicate the following: (1) there is a strong correlation between earthquakes with a magnitude of 6.0 or above and abnormal disturbances in the VLF electric field, which often occur within 20 days before the earthquake and within 800 km from the epicenter. (2) From the perspective of earthquake-prone areas, the VLF electric field anomalies observed before earthquakes in the Ryukyu Islands of the Taiwan region exhibit small and concentrated field fluctuations, while the Taiwan Philippines region exhibits larger field fluctuations and more dispersed fluctuations. The discovery of this correlation between seismic ionospheric phenomena and seismic activity provides a new and effective approach to earthquake monitoring, which can be used for earthquake prediction, early warning, and disaster prevention and reduction work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionospheric Sounding for Identification of Pre-seismic Activity)
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