Special Issue "Predictable Restorative Dentistry"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nissan Joseph
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: fixed prosthodontics; implant dentistry; aesthetic dentistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the beginning, restorative dentistry was uncertain and short. Over time, the restorative dentist was able to predict, by watching the fate of her restorations, whether they were able to withstand long-term oral function. With time, different restorative dentists put their individual experiences to collective use. If certain treatment alternatives and modalities became more predictable, others modified their treatment approach and the probability of success of the entire dental community increased. Being part of a successful group of practitioners offered professional protection and contributed significantly to practice growth. With years, professional organizations arose and the need for predictability became even more complex. People joined these organizations to make their practice more predictable. Leaders of global organizations have focused on increasing predictability for their members. This gave rise to the vast number of professional journals we have today, and is the foundation of present-day evidence-based dentistry. The present Issue will focus on techniques, materials, technology, and multidisciplinary approaches that allow is to increase the predictability of restorative dentistry. Ultimately, long-term stable results are the main goal of restorative dentistry today. We hope that the present Issue will help to increase the longevity of dental restorations.

Prof. Dr. Nissan Joseph
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • implant restorations
  • bone augmentation
  • impression technique
  • congenitally missing teeth
  • minimally invasive procedures
  • esthetic restorations
  • dental materials
  • predictable endodontics

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effect of Different Socket Types on Implant Therapy While Using Flapless Ridge Preservation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11030970 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 393
Abstract
This retrospective study compared the effects of different extraction sockets when using flapless ridge preservation during dental implant therapy. The extraction sockets were divided into four groups: Class I, intact soft tissue wall and bone walls; Class II, intact soft tissue wall with [...] Read more.
This retrospective study compared the effects of different extraction sockets when using flapless ridge preservation during dental implant therapy. The extraction sockets were divided into four groups: Class I, intact soft tissue wall and bone walls; Class II, intact soft tissue wall with the destruction of at least one bone wall; Class III, the recession of all soft tissue walls by ≤5 mm; and Class IV, the recession of at least one soft tissue wall by >5 mm. We compared clinical parameters of dental implant therapy using flapless ridge preservation among these groups. Seventy patients with 92 dental implants, including 53 maxillary and 39 mandibular implants, involving flapless ridge preservation were enrolled. The implant survival rate was not affected by socket morphology. Total treatment time from extraction to final prosthesis placement was significantly longer in Class II and III than in Class I, among the maxillary sockets. However, there was no significant difference in the total treatment time among the different groups in the mandible. Therefore, implant survival rates did not differ according to socket morphology; however, total treatment time was significantly affected by socket morphology in the maxilla and was longer in socket classes associated with periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Alveolar Preservation with Albumin and Gentamycin-Coated Allograft after Third Molar Tooth Removal: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020586 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Alveolar preservation can minimize bone resorption after tooth removal and additional topical antibiotics might also be considered. The goal of this study was to observe alveolar preservation with albumin and gentamycin-coated allograft compared to unfilled control sockets after mandibular third molar removal. Twenty-two [...] Read more.
Alveolar preservation can minimize bone resorption after tooth removal and additional topical antibiotics might also be considered. The goal of this study was to observe alveolar preservation with albumin and gentamycin-coated allograft compared to unfilled control sockets after mandibular third molar removal. Twenty-two patients were involved, 11 in the control group and 11 in the test group. CBCT analysis and micromorphometric analysis were performed. After one year, graft integration was observed with remaining graft particles. Micromorphometric analysis showed increased density and lower trabeculae formation in the grafted group. The buccal height reduction of the alveolar ridge was significantly lower when alveolar preservation was applied (control: 2.54 ± 2.01 mm, graft: 1.37 ± 1.04 mm, p < 0.05). Horizontal bone loss prevention was not significant. At the distal site of the second molar, the marginal bone level (MBL) was significantly lower in the control group. At the control group, five pockets persisted from the eight initial and all healed in the graft group. Alveolar preservation improves bone formation, helps to preserve the buccal bone crest, and minimizes MBL loss and pocket formation on the adjacent teeth. Thus, it needs to be also considered after third molar surgical removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Postextraction Ridge Width Alterations Following Socket Seal Surgery—A Retrospective Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010324 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Background and objectives: Preservation of alveolar ridge contour following tooth extraction is important to allow for restoration with prosthetics and implants. Socket seal surgery was introduced more than two decades ago for preservation of the form, volume and bone quality of the postextraction [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Preservation of alveolar ridge contour following tooth extraction is important to allow for restoration with prosthetics and implants. Socket seal surgery was introduced more than two decades ago for preservation of the form, volume and bone quality of the postextraction ridge. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the changes in alveolar ridge contour following socket seal surgery and to evaluate the survival of the soft tissue grafts sealing the extraction site. Materials and Methods: Digital images of the extraction sites treated with the socket seal surgery were obtained immediately after extraction and after a healing time of 6 months to measure the changes in the alveolar width. In addition, the sites were photographed 1 week postsurgery to evaluate the vitality of the soft tissue grafts. Results: The overall mean loss of buccal width following socket seal surgery was 5.3% (SD = 13.4%). The mean change in width at the incisor area (1.5% ± 13.1) was significantly lesser than those in the canine area (−17.0% ± 2.1, p < 0.01) or premolar area (−10.5% ± 11.2, p < 0.01). One-week post-surgery 69% of the grafts were vital, and 31% were partially vital. Complete necrosis of the grafts did not occur. Conclusions: Our results suggest that socket seal surgery has a beneficial effect on alveolar dimensional changes 6 months following tooth extraction and that the teeth that benefit mostly from socket seal surgery are incisors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Variables Affecting Peri-Implant Radiographic Bone Loss-8-23 Years Follow-Up
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8591; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238591 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 347
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with long-term peri-implant bone-loss and to create a statistical model explaining bone-loss. The dental records in a private periodontal practice were screened for implant-patients with a minimal follow-up period of 8 years with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with long-term peri-implant bone-loss and to create a statistical model explaining bone-loss. The dental records in a private periodontal practice were screened for implant-patients with a minimal follow-up period of 8 years with periapical radiographs at implant-placement (T0) and last follow-up (Tf). Collected data included demographics, general health, medications, periodontal parameters, implant parameters, bone augmentation procedures, restoration and antagonist data, number of supportive periodontal appointments (SPT), and radiographic bone-loss between T0 and Tf. Bivariate and Mixed Logistic Regression analyses were performed. “Goodness-of-fit” of the model was elaborated with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) analyses. Thirty-seven patients receiving 142 implants were included. Mean clinical follow-up period was 11.7 ± 3.7 years (range 8–23). Most implants 64.4% were SPT-maintained more than twice a year. Patients with osteoporosis and smokers were prone to increased radiographic peri-implant bone-loss. External-hex implants placed without guided bone regeneration (GBR) and implants 10–12 mm long and diameter of 3.7–4 mm showed less peri-implant bone-loss. The model’s Area Under the Curve (AUC) was 76.9% (Standard Error 4.6%, CI 67.8%–86%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Influence of Lateral Sinus Floor Elevation Procedures on the Pulpal and Periapical Status of Adjacent Vital Teeth
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7185; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207185 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pulpal and periapical status of vital teeth within the area of a lateral sinus floor elevation (LSFE). The files of patients treated by LSFE between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The radiographic [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pulpal and periapical status of vital teeth within the area of a lateral sinus floor elevation (LSFE). The files of patients treated by LSFE between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The radiographic bone measurements and the periapical status of the teeth adjacent to the LSFE area were evaluated preoperatively and 6 months following the surgery by CBCT. The pulpal status of the adjacent teeth was clinically evaluated using thermal pulp vitality testing. Vital teeth within the sinus floor elevation area were the main inclusion criteria for this study. A total of 158 LSFE procedures were evaluated; 18 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 20 adjacent teeth were vital. There were no cases of periapical pathology or loss of pulp vitality. There was a statistically significant difference in the ridge height between the baseline and 6 months postoperatively and in the distance from the apex to the sinus floor between pre- and 6 months postoperatively (p < 0.01).The pulpal and periapical status of vital teeth was not affected following LSFE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Changing Preference of One- Vs. Two-Stage Implant Placement in Partially Edentulous Individuals: An 18-Year Retrospective Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7060; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207060 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
The purpose of the present long-term retrospective study was to assess the changing preference of one- vs. two-stage implant placement in partially edentulous individuals. The clinical outcome measures were one- vs. two-stage implant placement, implant survival, and gingival index. The radiological outcome measure [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present long-term retrospective study was to assess the changing preference of one- vs. two-stage implant placement in partially edentulous individuals. The clinical outcome measures were one- vs. two-stage implant placement, implant survival, and gingival index. The radiological outcome measure was crestal bone loss. Other recorded information included gender, age, implant characteristics (brand, type, length, diameter) and implant location (maxilla/mandible). A total of 393 implants in 111 patients were included. The results revealed that there were no significant demographic differences between the one- and two-stage implant placement groups. There was a preference for one-stage surgery when wide diameter implants were used and when the number of implants per patient was ≤3. The mandible was the major implant site in the one-stage surgery group. Crestal bone loss and gingival index were similar for the two groups in both the short and long term. It can be concluded that lack of any long-term differences in implant survival, crestal bone loss and gingival health around implants after one- or two-stage implant placement promoted a significant change over 18 years, increasing to 50% the prevalence of one-stage surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
The Invasion of Bacterial Biofilms into the Dentinal Tubules of Extracted Teeth Retrofilled with Fluorescently Labeled Retrograde Filling Materials
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6996; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196996 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the invasion of bacteria into the dentinal tubules of retrofilled extracted human teeth, and the influence of different fluorescently labeled retrograde filling materials on the bacterial invasion and viability, by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the invasion of bacteria into the dentinal tubules of retrofilled extracted human teeth, and the influence of different fluorescently labeled retrograde filling materials on the bacterial invasion and viability, by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The root apices of extracted teeth were cut, prepared, and filled retrogradely using either intermediate restorative material (IRM), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), or Biodentine. The roots were filled with Enterococcus faecalis bacteria from their coronal part for 21 days. Then, 3-mm-long apical segments were cut to get root axial slices, and the bacteria were fluorescently stained and evaluated by CLSM. Bacterial penetration into the dentinal tubules favored the bucco-lingual directions. The filling materials penetrated up to 957 µm into the tubuli, and the bacteria, up to 1480 µm (means: 130 and 167 μm, respectively). Biodentine fillings penetrated less and the associated bacteria penetrated deeper into the tubuli compared to MTA or IRM (p = 0.004). Deeper filling penetration was associated with shallower penetration of both dead and live, or live alone, bacteria (p = 0.015). In conclusion, the current study enables better understanding of the microbiological–pathological course after endodontic surgical procedures. It was found that even with retrograde fillings, bacteria invade deep into the dental tubules, where deeper filling penetration prevents deeper penetration of the bacteria and adversely affects the viability of the bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Enhanced Bactericidal Efficacy of NaOCl at pH 12 Followed by Acidified NaOCl at pH 6.5 on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6096; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176096 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the bactericidal efficacy of sequential use of NaOCl pH 12 followed by acidified NaOCl pH 6.5, and compare it to that of either of these NaOCl solutions alone. E. faecalis biofilm was grown on standardized dentine specimens for [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the bactericidal efficacy of sequential use of NaOCl pH 12 followed by acidified NaOCl pH 6.5, and compare it to that of either of these NaOCl solutions alone. E. faecalis biofilm was grown on standardized dentine specimens for four weeks. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups: (A) 4 min exposure to 0.9% saline solution (control); (B) 4 min exposure to 4% NaOCl pH 12; (C) 4 min exposure to 4% NaOCl pH 6.5; and (D) 2 min exposure to 4% NaOCl pH 12 followed by 2 min exposure to 4% NaOCl pH 6.5. The bactericidal activity was evaluated after the 4 min of contact time using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The volume ratio of red fluorescence to green and red fluorescence indicated the proportion of dead cells in the biofilm. The percent of dead cells in the saline solution group was significantly lower than those in the other groups. There was no significant difference between NaOCl pH 12 compared to NaOCl pH 6.5. The sequential use of NaOCl pH 12 followed by pH 6.5 significantly increased the percent of dead cells compared to both the samples exposed to either NaOCl pH 12 or pH 6.5. These results show that sequential irrigation protocol had a stronger bactericidal effect than the commonly used NaOCl pH 12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
Apical Debris Extrusion by Adaptive Root Canal Instrumentation in Oval Canals: Full-Sequence SAF System vs. the XP-Endo Shaper Plus Sequence
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5684; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165684 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Apical extrusion of debris (AED) by the full sequence of the self-adjusting file (SAF) system was compared with that of the XP-endo shaper plus sequence. Sixty permanent mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30) for root canal instrumentation: [...] Read more.
Apical extrusion of debris (AED) by the full sequence of the self-adjusting file (SAF) system was compared with that of the XP-endo shaper plus sequence. Sixty permanent mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 30) for root canal instrumentation: Group A: Stage 1—pre-SAF OS, pre-SAF 1 and pre-SAF 2 files, followed by Stage 2—1.5 mm SAF; and Group B: Stage 1— hand K-file 15/0.02, followed by Stage 2—XP-endo shaper and Stage 3—XP-endo finisher. The AED produced during instrumentation at each stage was collected in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The weights of AED by the two methods were compared using t tests with significance level set at 5%. Group A produced significantly less total AED than Group B (p < 0.001), with no significant difference in debris extrusion between the two stages (p = 0.3014). Conversely, in Group B, a significant difference was noted between Stage 1 and Stages 2 and 3 (p < 0.01), with no significant difference between Stages 2 and 3 (p = 0.488). Both sequences resulted in measurable amounts of AED. Each phase, in either procedure, made its own contribution to the extrusion of debris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
The Effect of Undersized Drilling on the Coronal Surface Roughness of Microthreaded Implants: An In Vitro Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5231; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155231 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 397
Abstract
This in-vitro study assessed the effect of an underdrilling implant placement protocol on the insertion torque, implant surface temperature and surface roughness (Sa) topography of the cervical microthreads of implants. Three groups of 25 implants (3.75 mm × 10 mm) were placed in [...] Read more.
This in-vitro study assessed the effect of an underdrilling implant placement protocol on the insertion torque, implant surface temperature and surface roughness (Sa) topography of the cervical microthreads of implants. Three groups of 25 implants (3.75 mm × 10 mm) were placed in osteotomies prepared in an artificial bone disc with final diameters of 3.65 mm according to the manufacturer’s instructions and in osteotomies prepared in accordance with an underdrilling protocol with final drill diameters of 3.2 and 2.8 mm (groups D3.65, D3.2, D2.8, respectively). Implants were inserted at a constant rate of 30 rpm. The surface temperature of the implants was measured with a thermal camera and temperature amplitude (Temp-Amp) was calculated by subtracting the room temperature from the measured implant surface temperature. Upon implant retrieval, coronal surface topography was assessed using a Nanofocus µsurf explorer and compared to a set of 25 new implants (control group). The differences between groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). Significantly higher insertion torque, surface temperature values and significantly smaller average Sa values were measured in the implants inserted in undersized preparations. The highest temperature, insertion torque and Temp-Amp values and the largest decrease in Sa were measured in the D2.8 group. The lowest values were measured in the D3.65 group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
In Vitro Preliminary Evaluation of Bacterial Attachment on Grooved and Smooth Healing Abutments
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4426; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134426 - 27 Jun 2020
Viewed by 574
Abstract
This in vitro preliminary study investigated the attachment of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis on titanium alloy healing abutments, which differed in their surface macro-morphology: one was groove-marked while the other was completely smooth. Altogether, twenty implant-healing abutments, ten of each macro-morphology, were [...] Read more.
This in vitro preliminary study investigated the attachment of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis on titanium alloy healing abutments, which differed in their surface macro-morphology: one was groove-marked while the other was completely smooth. Altogether, twenty implant-healing abutments, ten of each macro-morphology, were evaluated with a single type of bacterial strain. Accordingly, four groups of five abutments each were created. The sterilized healing abutments with the cultured bacteria were placed under anaerobic conditions for 48 h at 37 °C. Afterwards, the abutments were examined with a scanning electron microscope, at a 2500x magnification. Attached bacteria were quantified in the four vertical quarters within the grooved abutments and in the two most coronal millimeters of the smooth abutments. The results were analyzed by applying two-way ANOVA, with square root transformation for a normal distribution. The bacterial attachment of both strains was statistically significantly larger in the grooved abutment areas than on the smooth surfaces (p ≤ 0.0001), twenty times so for Porphyromonas gingivalis and a hundred times so for Fusobacterium nucleatum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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Article
The Influence of Resin Infiltration Pretreatment on Orthodontic Bonding to Demineralized Human Enamel
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103619 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Prior research reveal that low-viscosity resin is able to significantly penetrate initial caries lesions, which leads to their stabilization. The objective of the present report is to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesives to demineralized enamel [...] Read more.
Prior research reveal that low-viscosity resin is able to significantly penetrate initial caries lesions, which leads to their stabilization. The objective of the present report is to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesives to demineralized enamel treated with a low-viscosity resin infiltrant. It also aims to compare the achieved bond strengths to those achieved in relation to sound enamel (SE). A total of 48 newly extracted third molars were collected, distributed in four groups (n=12), covered with a nail varnish, with 4 x 4 mm of uncoated area, immersed in Buskes demineralizing solution (14 days, 37 °C) or remained untreated. Group I: SE + Transbond XT; Group II: demineralized enamel (DE) + ICON + Transbond XT; Group III: DE + ICON + Scotchbond Universal; Group IV: DE + ICON + Assure PLUS. SBS was quantified in megapascals (MPa) and statistically analyzed (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05). The mode of failure was assessed microscopically (10 x magnification). The highest SBS detected was in Group IV, and the difference was statistically significant (F = 14.37; p = 0.000). Treatment with a resin infiltrant on DE does not impair the shear bond strength when compared to SE, although it does produce a significantly higher strength when combined with Assure PLUS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)

Other

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Systematic Review
Sinus Floor Augmentation—Associated Surgical Ciliated Cysts: Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041903 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize the demographic and clinical features of underreported surgical ciliated cysts developing after sinus floor augmentation, based on a series of cases from our files and a systematic review of the literature. A series of five cases (four patients) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize the demographic and clinical features of underreported surgical ciliated cysts developing after sinus floor augmentation, based on a series of cases from our files and a systematic review of the literature. A series of five cases (four patients) of microscopically confirmed surgical ciliated cysts following sinus floor augmentation procedures from our files are described. A systematic literature search (1991–2020) with strict clinical-, radiological- and microscopic-based exclusion and inclusion criteria was performed to detect additional similar cases. The systematic review revealed only five cases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Altogether, surgical ciliated cysts associated with sinus floor augmentation have been rarely reported in the literature, and have not been characterized either demographically or clinically. Graft materials were diverse, implants were placed simultaneously, or up to two years post-augmentation. The associated surgical ciliated cysts developed between 0.5 and 10 years post-augmentation. Although limited in its extent, this study is the first series to characterize possible underreported sequelae of surgical ciliated cysts associated with sinus floor augmentation. It emphasizes the need for long post-operative follow-up and confirmation of lesion by microscopic examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictable Restorative Dentistry)
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