Special Issue "World of Biosensing"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marina Nisnevitch
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Materials, Ariel University, Ariel 4070000, Israel
Interests: enzymatic biosensors for water- and airborne organic pollutants; cytotoxins for eradication of bacteria
Dr. Galina Gayda
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Biotechnology, Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv 79005, Ukraine
Interests: enzyme- and cell-based electrochemical biosensors for analysis of food and environmental samples

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is hard to imagine how humans managed to cope with multiple everyday problems in the past without biosensors—devices based on selective biorecognition enabling sensitive monitoring and measurement of target compounds by converting biological responses into electric or optical signals. Electrochemical biosensors based on amperometric, potentiometric, and impedance measurement, optical biosensors using surface plasmon resonance, optical fibers and piezoelectric biosensors based on microcantilevers are currently employed for detecting these signals.

Tissues, cells, organelles, biomolecules, and their complexes are used as biorecognition elements in biosensors for highly-selective analysis of practically important analytes, including organic and inorganic compounds, toxins, and microorganisms. The target analyte is usually either a substrate or an inhibitor of cell metabolism.

Enzyme biosensors are the most widely used devices, and some are produced commercially. The world biosensors market is expected to reach $22.68 billion by 2020, with an annual growth of 10% from 2014 to 2020. Cell-based biosensors consist of a transducer in conjunction with immobilized microbial cells, which are low-cost substitutes for enzymes.

Combining novel bio- and nanotechnologies is creating prospects for production of new materials for biosensors with advanced characteristics. Nanomaterials can be used as carriers for bioelements and as artificial enzymes (nanozymes).

In less than 60 years, biosensors have caused revolutionary changes in analytical chemistry, medicine, environmental studies, security, food industry including winemaking, by replacing complex and tedious traditional analyses with fast, selective, and accurate measurements of responses to specific analytes.

This Special Issue aims to represent up-to-date achievements in biosensing, including but not limited to the following topics:

  • Enzymatic biosensors;
  • Cell-based biosensors;
  • Immunosensors;
  • Optical biosensing (surface plasmon resonance, optical fibers, and piezoelectric biosensors);
  • Electrochemical biosensing (amperometric, potentiometric, impedance biosensors);
  • Nanomaterials for biosensing;
  • Magnetic sensors and biosensors;
  • Nanozymes-based sensors and biosensors;
  • Applications of biosensors.

Prof. Dr. Marina Nisnevitch
Dr. Galina Gayda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biosensing
  • biosensors as analytical tools
  • optical and electrochemical biosensing
  • biorecognition elements
  • analytical characteristics of biosensors
  • development and applications of biosensors

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Influence of Liquid Motion in a Flow-based System on an Enzyme Aggregation State with an Atomic Force Microscopy Sensor: The Effect of Water Flow
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4560; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134560 (registering DOI) - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
The influence of liquid motion in flow-based systems on the aggregation state of an enzyme and on its enzymatic activity was studied, with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an example. Our experiments were carried out in a setup modeling the flow section of the [...] Read more.
The influence of liquid motion in flow-based systems on the aggregation state of an enzyme and on its enzymatic activity was studied, with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as an example. Our experiments were carried out in a setup modeling the flow section of the biosensor communication with a measuring cell containing a protein solution. Studies were conducted for a biosensor measuring cell located along the axis of a spiral-moving liquid flow. The aggregation state of the protein was determined with an atomic force microscopy-based sensor (AFM sensor). It has been demonstrated that upon flowing of water through silicone biosensor communications, an increased aggregation of HRP protein was observed, but, at the same time, its enzymatic activity did not change. Our results obtained herein are useful in the development of models describing the influence of liquid flow in biosensor communications on the properties of enzymes and other proteins. This is particularly important for the development of serologic protein biosensors, which are beginning to be used for the early diagnosis of oncological diseases (such as brain cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer etc.). The results obtained herein should also be taken into account when considering possible changes in hemodynamics due to increased protein aggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue World of Biosensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Characterization of Plasmonic Sensors Based on Lab-Built Tapered Plastic Optical Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4389; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124389 - 26 Jun 2020
Abstract
In this work, we have compared several configurations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on D-shaped tapered plastic optical fibers (TPOFs). Particularly, the TPOFs used to obtain the SPR sensors are made by a lab-built system based on two motorized linear positioning [...] Read more.
In this work, we have compared several configurations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on D-shaped tapered plastic optical fibers (TPOFs). Particularly, the TPOFs used to obtain the SPR sensors are made by a lab-built system based on two motorized linear positioning stages and a heating plate. Preliminarily, a comparative analysis has been carried out between two different configurations, one with and one without a thin buffer layer deposited between the core of TPOFs and the gold film. After this preliminary step, we have used the simpler configuration, obtained without the buffer layer, to realize different SPR D-shaped TPOF sensors. This study could be of interest in SPR D-shaped multimode plastic optical fiber (POF) sensors because, without the tapers, the performances decrease when the POF’s diameter decreases, whereas the performances improve in SPR D-shaped tapered POF sensors, where the diameter decreases in the D-shaped sensing area. The performances of the SPR sensors based on different taper ratios have been analyzed and compared. The SPR-TPOF sensors have been tested using water–glycerin mixtures with refractive indices ranging from 1.332 to 1.381 RIU. According to the theory, the experimental results have demonstrated that, as the taper ratio increases, the sensitivity of the SPR sensor increases as well, while on the contrary the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue World of Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle
A Smart Terrain Identification Technique Based on Electromyography, Ground Reaction Force, and Machine Learning for Lower Limb Rehabilitation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082638 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Automatic terrain classification in lower limb rehabilitation systems has gained worldwide attention. In this field, a simple system architecture and high classification accuracy are two desired attributes. In this article, a smart neuromuscular–mechanical fusion and machine learning-based terrain classification technique utilizing only two [...] Read more.
Automatic terrain classification in lower limb rehabilitation systems has gained worldwide attention. In this field, a simple system architecture and high classification accuracy are two desired attributes. In this article, a smart neuromuscular–mechanical fusion and machine learning-based terrain classification technique utilizing only two electromyography (EMG) sensors and two ground reaction force (GRF) sensors is reported for classifying three different terrains (downhill, level, and uphill). The EMG and GRF signals from ten healthy subjects were collected, preprocessed and segmented to obtain the EMG and GRF profiles in each stride, based on which twenty-one statistical features, including 9 GRF features and 12 EMG features, were extracted. A support vector machine (SVM) machine learning model is established and trained by the extracted EMG features, GRF features and the fusion of them, respectively. Several methods or statistical metrics were used to evaluate the goodness of the proposed technique, including a paired-t-test and Kruskal–Wallis test for correlation analysis of the selected features and ten-fold cross-validation accuracy, confusion matrix, sensitivity and specificity for the performance of the SVM model. The results show that the extracted features are highly correlated with the terrain changes and the fusion of the EMG and GRF features produces the highest accuracy of 96.8%. The presented technique allows simple system construction to achieve the precise detection of outcomes, potentially advancing the development of terrain classification techniques for rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue World of Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrospinning-Derived PLA/Shellac/PLA Sandwich—Structural Membrane Sensor for Detection of Alcoholic Vapors with a Low Molecular Weight
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5419; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245419 - 11 Dec 2019
Abstract
The development of gas sensors for detecting alcoholic vapors with a low molecular weight is essential for environmental protection, industrial process control, and the monitoring of the living atmosphere in daily life to avoid health problems in human beings. Here, poly (lactic acid) [...] Read more.
The development of gas sensors for detecting alcoholic vapors with a low molecular weight is essential for environmental protection, industrial process control, and the monitoring of the living atmosphere in daily life to avoid health problems in human beings. Here, poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/shellac/PLA sandwich-structural membranes were fabricated via an electrospinning approach and the interaction with alcoholic vapors with a low molecular weight was investigated. It was found that the PLA/shellac/PLA sandwich-structural membrane exhibited fast response to the alcoholic vapors with low molecular weight, especially for methanol vapor. After being treated with alcohol vapor with a low molecular weight, the PLA/shellac/PLA sandwich-structural membrane could change its transmission in a short time (~5 s) and with a concentration of 10 wt% of methanol (ethanol) in water. In the meantime, the PLA/shellac/PLA sandwich-structural membrane can hopefully be potentially used again after evaporating the alcoholic vapor at an elevated temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue World of Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitive Detection of E. coli in Artificial Seawater by Aptamer-Coated Magnetic Beads and Direct PCR
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5392; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245392 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The ‘One Health’ approach recommended by WHO recognizes the inseparable link between human, animal and environmental health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue World of Biosensing)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Recent development of morphology controlled conducting polymer nanomaterial-based biosensor
Author: Prof. Dr. Junseop Lee; [email protected]
Abstract: Biosensors are being studied to detect certain biological target analyte at low concentrations. As a sensing transducer, conducting polymer nanomaterials are conducted owing to their inherent properties such as small dimensions, high surface to volume ratio, and amplified sensitivity. However, conventional conducting polymer nanomaterials have inhibitions that limit the amount and uniformity of the binding biomolecules into the structure. Herein, we illustrate a brief overview of the recent progress in the development of morphology controlled conducting polymer based biosensors. Particularly, we focus our discussions on various dimensional (0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D) hetero-nanostructure of conducting polymers to solve essential problems that are highly sensitive, fast charge transfer, working at low temperature, and cycle stability to target analyte.

Review paper:
Title: Recent advance in the fabrication of colorimetric biosensors for toxicity detection in environmental science
Author: Prof. Dr. Gang Wei; [email protected]
Abstract: Colorimetric biosensors exhibited great potential for the detection of metallic ions, organic dyes, drugs, pesticides and other toxic pollutants due to their easy fabrication, quick detection, high sensitivity, and naked-eye sensing. In this work, we present recent advance in the fabrication and environmental science application of biosensor platforms based on various functional nanomaterials including gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, graphene, MXenes, and others. The strategies for the constructing high-performance biosensing systems for toxicity detection are introduced and discussed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of the colorimetric biosensors are compared with other biosensor techniques. It is expected this work will be valuable for readers to understand the fabrication and sensing mechanisms of various colorimetric biosensors and promote their development in environmental science, food science, and bioanalysis.

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