Special Issue "Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2023 | Viewed by 3364

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tomislav Ivankovic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: microbiology; biofilm; wastewater treatment
Dr. Vanja Jurišić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Technology, Storage and Transport, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: renewable energy sources; agricultural biomass; biomass conversion processes; liquid, gaseous and solid biofuels; energy crops for biofuel production; miscanthus
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We produce huge amounts of waste throughout our lives, including municipal, medical, hazardous, and toxic waste; plastic; wastewater; wastewater sludge; agricultural waste; and many other types. The only way to live sustainable lives is to minimize waste production and manage the produced waste for the benefit of the environment and future generations.

Almost every type of waste can be specifically treated to minimize environmental impact. Most can be re-used to minimize hyper-production of new waste, and some can be used for resource utilization and nutrient recovery. Some technologies to achieve this, such as wastewater treatment, are well known, some can be significantly improved, and some are yet undiscovered.

In this context, this Special Issue aims at collecting significant and recent studies dealing with all aspects of waste treatment, resource utilization, and nutrient recovery. Original scientific papers, as well as reviews and short reviews, are welcomed. Ground-breaking research and new ideas are mostly encouraged, as well as novel experimental and technological solutions that could improve existing processes for waste treatment, such as bioremediation. Some of the topics are listed below, but other highly innovate papers dealing with those not listed are also most welcomed:

  • Advanced biofuel production;
  • Advanced bioremediation technologies;
  • Advanced treatment of waste and wastewater;
  • Agricultural biomass and energy crops for biofuel production;
  • Agricultural waste utilization;
  • Biomass conversion processes;
  • Energy conversion;
  • Heavy metals recovery;
  • Phosphorus recovery;
  • Recovered nutrients application;
  • Resource utilization of municipal solid waste and wastewater sludge incineration;
  • Waste reuse, recycling, and recovery;
  • Wastewater sludge management.

Dr. Tomislav Ivankovic
Dr. Vanja Jurišić
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effect of Hydrolysis on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Mill Waste
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12187; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312187 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
This study presents the effect of hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of olive mill waste. The olive pomace samples were collected at different stages of maturity and were investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Three different extraction procedures were employed, including [...] Read more.
This study presents the effect of hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of olive mill waste. The olive pomace samples were collected at different stages of maturity and were investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Three different extraction procedures were employed, including methanolic maceration extraction and two hydrolysed procedures using 6 M HCL for acid hydrolysis and 10 M NaOH for alkaline hydrolysis. The total phenolic, flavonoid and ortho-diphenolic content, metal ion reducing activity, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide scavenging activity assays were determined for the different extracts. In this study, cultivar and maturation of olives was one of the factors that affected the phenolic content in the olive pomace samples. Results show that alkaline hydrolysis had the highest antioxidant activity with respect to total phenolic content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, metal ion reducing activity and superoxide scavenging activity, whereas acid hydrolysis had the highest 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity. The correlation analysis carried out on the different phenolic classes revealed that the total phenolic, flavonoid and ortho-diphenolic content were correlated with metal ion reducing activity and Radical Scavenging activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization)
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Article
Preliminary Investigation of Geopolymer Foams as Coating Materials
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11205; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111205 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Various types of coatings are applied to the surface of an object or substrate to improve surface properties or extend service life, which in turn is associated with cost reductions. The main objective of this study was to develop a technique for the [...] Read more.
Various types of coatings are applied to the surface of an object or substrate to improve surface properties or extend service life, which in turn is associated with cost reductions. The main objective of this study was to develop a technique for the additive application of foamed geopolymers to existing structures and vertical surfaces. The base material was a fly ash-based geopolymer modified with sand. Hydrogen peroxide and aluminum powder were used as foaming agents. In this study, the feasibility of using an air gun with variable nozzles to apply the layers of foamed geopolymers was assessed, and the effects of nozzle diameter and the spray gun’s operating pressure were analyzed. The next stage of the study was a visual assessment of the layering of the foamed material. The foamed geopolymer layering tests verified the occurrence of the foaming process, and the applied geopolymer surface showed a reasonably good adhesive bond with the vertical wall. In addition, in this paper, we present the laser particle size results of the base materials and their oxide composition. In addition, thermal conductivity tests for the foamed geopolymer materials, compressive strength tests, and microstructure analysis via scanning electron microscopy were carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization)
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Article
Design and Experiment of Black Soldier Fly Frass Mixture Separation through a Cylinder Sieve with Different Rotation Speeds
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10597; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010597 - 20 Oct 2022
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Abstract
A differential separation trommel screener was developed to solve the problems of the impurity content in insects and the high rate of insect impurities in the separation of black soldier fly (BSF) sand mixture. Moreover, the mechanical and physical properties of the BSF [...] Read more.
A differential separation trommel screener was developed to solve the problems of the impurity content in insects and the high rate of insect impurities in the separation of black soldier fly (BSF) sand mixture. Moreover, the mechanical and physical properties of the BSF sand and its bonding contact model were examined. With the rotational speed of the trommel and the spikes and the inclination of the trommel as the experimental factors, their motion characteristics were analyzed and their value ranges were determined. In addition, the impurity content in the insects and the rate of insect impurities were selected as the test indicators. The Box–Behnken test was performed, the response surface regression model was built, and the parameters were optimized. The results indicated that the respective test factors, the impurity content and the insect rate, followed the following order of significance: the trommel rotation speed, spike teeth rotation speed, and trommel screener inclination. At the trommel rotation speed of 47.37 r/min, the speed of the spike teeth reached 24.16 r/min, the inclination angle of the trommel was 5°, the impurity content was 6.0%, and the insect rate reached 1.2%. The results of the bench test indicated that the average impurity content was 5.87% and the average insect rate was 1.20%. The results of this study provide a reference for the improvement and optimization of the separation structure of the BSF sand mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization)
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Article
Gases Emissions during Composting Process of Agri-Food Industry Waste
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9245; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189245 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
The vegetable production is an important part of agriculture sector in every country. In Poland, vegetables and fruits production covering the area of no more than 3% of agricultural land, is more than 36% of plant production and 14–15% of the whole agricultural [...] Read more.
The vegetable production is an important part of agriculture sector in every country. In Poland, vegetables and fruits production covering the area of no more than 3% of agricultural land, is more than 36% of plant production and 14–15% of the whole agricultural production. The study aim was to determine the management possibilities of the selected waste from vegetable production in composting process. Laboratory tests were carried out using the bioreactor set-up with capacity of 165 dm3, respectively, for each chamber. The composting process has been tested for the following mixtures: K1—cabbage leaves, tomato dry leaves + manure and slurry additive; K2—cabbage leaves, solid fraction from biogas plant + manure and straw additive; K3—cabbage leaves, onion husk + straw additive. In all three composts the thermophilic phase occurred which indicates that the process ran correctly. In each chamber, the temperature exceeded 70 °C and its maximum value during the experiment was 77.5 °C for K2 compost. The article discusses changes in O2, CO2, NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The carbon dioxide concentration in the exhausted gas from analyzed composts and the ratio with oxygen they testify to the decomposition of raw materials in the composting process. The results showed that the agri-food waste can be a proper substrate for composting production. Due to legal regulations and the increase in prices of mineral fertilizers, the development of the compost market should be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization)
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Article
Perlite as a Biocarrier for Augmentation of Biogas-Producing Reactors from Olive (Olea europaea) Waste
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8808; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178808 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Biogas is mainly produced by anaerobic digestion (AD), and in the EU, the widely used substrate for AD is maize silage. Due to a rise in silage prices, the intention is to gradually replace maize with lignocellulose biomass. In the Mediterranean area, the [...] Read more.
Biogas is mainly produced by anaerobic digestion (AD), and in the EU, the widely used substrate for AD is maize silage. Due to a rise in silage prices, the intention is to gradually replace maize with lignocellulose biomass. In the Mediterranean area, the olive industry produces large amounts of lignocellulose wastes, namely olive cake and pruned biomass. Still, due to its high lignin content, it is resistant to biodegradation. This issue could be resolved by adding targeted microorganisms that enhance the substrate’s primary degradation, and the cells’ attachment to suitable biocarriers could boost the augmentation process. A microbial consortium customized for biodegradation of olive cake and pruned biomass was isolated, propagated and immobilized onto the biocarrier, perlite, a naturally occurring aluminosilicate material. The perlite proved to be a suitable biocarrier with numbers of immobilized bacteria as high as 2.1 ± 0.9 × 1011 and 3.4 ± 0.6 × 1010 CFU g−1 when preparation was performed in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Bioaugmentation of AD reactors significantly increased the biogas yield, but only if olive cake, not the pruned biomass, was used as a substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization)
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Review

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Review
Advanced Strategies for Mitigating Particulate Matter Generations in Poultry Houses
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11323; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211323 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561
Abstract
Poultry farming plays a key role in agricultural air emissions. Particulate matter (PM) level tends to be high in broiler and cage-free layer houses, that may impair health and welfare of animals and their caretakers. To protect public health and welfare, the occupational [...] Read more.
Poultry farming plays a key role in agricultural air emissions. Particulate matter (PM) level tends to be high in broiler and cage-free layer houses, that may impair health and welfare of animals and their caretakers. To protect public health and welfare, the occupational exposure limit for PM10 and PM2.5 (i.e., PM diameters that are generally ≤10 and 2.5 μm, respectively) are suggested not to exceed 150 µg m−3 and 35 µg m−3, respectively, based on 24-h concentrations thresholds as suggested by US. EPA. However, the levels of PM10 and PM2.5 in poultry houses could be 100 times higher than that limit. For instance, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in cage-free henhouses are higher than 15,000 µg/m3 and 3500 µg/m3 in wintertime. Therefore, it is critical to identify the primary factors affecting PM generation in poultry houses and apply corresponding mitigation strategies. This review paper summarizes PM emission factors, mitigating strategies, and impacts on birds’ and caretakers’ health, and welfare. Generally, PM emissions are affected by various factors, including housing types, seasonal and diurnal variation, manure management, bedding materials, ventilation rates, and birds’ activities. High PM concentrations in poultry houses impair birds’ and caretakers’ liver, kidneys, and respiratory systems. Thus, different mitigating strategies are discussed in this study for addressing those issues. Effective mitigation strategies include frequent house cleaning, optimum light intensity, liquid spraying, bedding management, and air filtration systems. However, mitigation strategies can be cost-prohibitive and have side effects. Therefore, poultry farms should select mitigation strategies based on farm location, climate conditions, environmental policies, and available resources (government assistance programs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Waste Treatment and Resource Utilization)
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