Recent Advances in Vehicle-Track-Ground Coupling Dynamics and Railway-Induced Ground Vibration

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 6823

Special Issue Editor

Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin, Germany
Interests: vehicle dynamics; track dynamics; soil dynamics; building dynamics; theory and measurements

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When train vibrations or train-induced vibrations are of interest, in many cases, single components cannot be analysed seperately. Therefore, the coupling of the subsystems is of great importance. The following interactions are topics covered in this Special Issue:

  • Vehicle-track interactions (urban, intercity, high-speed, and freight trains with specific axle sequences and suspensions);
  • Track–soil interactions (surface, tunnel, viaduct line or single bridge);
  • Train-induced ground vibration.
The influence of the coupling/interaction on the vibration of the vehicle, track or environment will be analysed. A special focus will be put on the forces between vehicle and track and between track and soil. The effects happen in both directions, towards the vehicle or towards the track and environment:
  • The annoyance of passengers or inhabitants;
  • Safety and stability of the train or settlement/detoriation and damage of the track, including the fatigue of components.

The following problems are also proposed:

  • Excitation mechanisms, such as irregularities (geometry and stiffness, continuous or singular, crosses and switches, transition zones), dynamic loads and static loads;
  • Prediction of ground vibration;
  • Mitigation measures (stiffening, elastic elements);
  • Damage development and damage identification.
The manuscript should include:
  • Measurements and measurement methods (on-board, weigh-in-motion, fault detection, specific energy harvesting);
  • Theoretical analyses;
  • Methods such as time and frequency domain, substructure, approximating (Winkler soil), coupling (Hertz contact spring) and multiscale methods;
  • Numerical analyses.

It is the aim of this Special Issue to bring together mechanical and civil engineers and vehicle, track and ground vibration specialists. At least two components should be analysed in interaction; all three components in coupled dynamics would be perfect.

Dr. Lutz Auersch
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • vehicle-track interaction
  • track-soil interaction
  • train-induced ground vibration
  • irregularities
  • dynamic loads
  • static loads
  • prediction
  • mitigation
  • damage
  • safety and stability

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 40798 KiB  
Article
The Dynamic Characteristics of Railway Portal Frame Bridges: A Comparison between Measurements and Calculations
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041493 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Railway bridges are subjected to significant dynamic loads. A numerical model of the bridge structure that captures its dynamic characteristics as accurately as possible is essential for the simulation of train crossings. However, most existing Calculation Models either do not consider the [...] Read more.
Railway bridges are subjected to significant dynamic loads. A numerical model of the bridge structure that captures its dynamic characteristics as accurately as possible is essential for the simulation of train crossings. However, most existing Calculation Models either do not consider the dynamic interaction between the structure and the soil, known as the soil–structure interaction (SSI), or give it only secondary importance. As a result, the accuracy of the predicted dynamic characteristics is affected. This paper illustrates how the dynamic interactions of abutments impact the portal frame bridge’s SSI. This influence prompts the question of incorporating the frequency-dependent influence of the structure–soil–structure interaction (SSSI) into the modelling process. We propose a conservative estimation of the frequency range influenced by the shear wave interference of the SSSI and recommend using it as an application limit in the development of computational models. Based on this estimation, a Calculation Model is presented. In this approach, the SSI is considered using the well-known quasi-static spring–damper method from foundation vibration analysis, adhering to limitations based on the SSSI. For the application of the presented Calculation Model, four concrete portal frame bridges with spans between 9 m and 17 m along the high-speed line from Nuremberg to Munich, Germany, are investigated by analyzing the dynamic characteristics and comparing them with the prediction of the proposed numerical Calculation Model. The presented method shows good calculation accuracy. Full article
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16 pages, 7118 KiB  
Article
Research on Environmental Vibration Induced by High-Speed Maglev Transportation
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010413 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
As a novel form of railway transportation, maglev transportation has the advantages of a better curve negotiation ability and grade ability and lower noise and vibration than traditional urban wheel–rail transportation. Thus, it is suitable for use in urban public transportation. However, the [...] Read more.
As a novel form of railway transportation, maglev transportation has the advantages of a better curve negotiation ability and grade ability and lower noise and vibration than traditional urban wheel–rail transportation. Thus, it is suitable for use in urban public transportation. However, the levitation of the widely utilized electromagnet suspension (EMS) system relies on continuously active suspension force adjustment, which gives it vehicle–track-coupled vibration characteristics different to those of the traditional wheel–track transportation system. Despite many research studies focusing on maglev vehicle–track coupling vibration, the environmental vibration influences associated with the running of maglev trains are still unclear. When the vibration propagates to the surroundings beyond certain thresholds, it may lead to various vibration serviceability problems. Practical test results on the environmental vibration induced by maglev transportation are still not enough to generate convincing vibration propagation and attenuation laws. In this research, a series of in situ tests were carried out around the Shanghai maglev line; the results show that the viaduct bridge is helpful in reducing environmental vibration, and an empirical formula was proposed to predict the effect of viaduct column height. Due to the ground wave superposition, a vibration-amplifying zone was also found about 10 m away from the maglev line, in which the vibration magnitude was strong enough to be perceived by the surrounding occupants. Full article
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20 pages, 8520 KiB  
Article
Method for Controlling Full-Frequency Band Environment Vibration by Coordinating Metro Vibration Sources and Propagation Paths
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 12979; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132412979 - 05 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 519
Abstract
Floating slab tracks (FSTs) are used to reduce the impact of vibration on precision instruments and historical relics along metro lines; however, ground vibration is universally amplified at the natural frequency of the tracks. In this study, a full-frequency control method that considers [...] Read more.
Floating slab tracks (FSTs) are used to reduce the impact of vibration on precision instruments and historical relics along metro lines; however, ground vibration is universally amplified at the natural frequency of the tracks. In this study, a full-frequency control method that considers frequency matching for environmental vibrations, in combination with metro vibration sources and propagation paths, was developed based on the bandgap theory of the periodic structure. The effectiveness of this method was analysed by establishing a three-dimensional metro train–FST coupled model and a finite element analysis model of track bed–tunnel–soil–row piles. The results show that ground vibration can be reduced by approximately 3–5 dB at the natural frequency of the FST by adjusting the bandgap range of the periodic piles to 7–9 Hz, eliminating the adverse effect of vibration amplification at the natural frequency of the FSTs. The proposed control method shows good vibration control effects and can effectively minimise ground vibration in the full-frequency range. Full article
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23 pages, 10042 KiB  
Article
The Dynamic Train–Track Interaction on a Bridge and in a Tunnel Compared with the Simultaneous Vehicle, Track and Ground Vibration Measurements on a Surface Line
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10992; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910992 - 05 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
The vehicle–track interaction generates forces and consequently vibrations in the environment. The interaction has been analysed by the simultaneous measurements of vehicle, track and ground vibrations during test runs with varied train speeds. The special effects of the passage over a bridge and [...] Read more.
The vehicle–track interaction generates forces and consequently vibrations in the environment. The interaction has been analysed by the simultaneous measurements of vehicle, track and ground vibrations during test runs with varied train speeds. The special effects of the passage over a bridge and through a tunnel are studied and compared with the measurements on a conventional ballasted surface line. The maximum amplitudes, narrow band and one-third octave band spectra are presented for the axle-box accelerations and for the track, bridge and ground vibrations. The different frequencies and frequency bands are related to wheel out-of-roundness, track alignment errors, the sleeper passage and the wheelset–track resonance. An axle impulse component has been observed at the track, at the near-field soil and as a scattered version in the far field. Specific results can be found for the bridge track, where clearly speed-dependent bridge resonances occur due to the axle sequence of the train, and for the tunnel track where soft rail pads are responsible for a strong amplification around the wheelset–track resonance. On the other hand, the axle impulses are strongly reduced by the tunnel track, and the scattered axle impulse component is not as relevant as for the surface track. As a consequence, a strong mid-frequency amplitude reduction of the tunnel compared to the surface line has been measured for low and high train speeds by the Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing (BAM) and by other institutes. Full article
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23 pages, 8993 KiB  
Article
Application of Vehicle-Based Indirect Structural Health Monitoring Method to Railway Bridges—Simulation and In Situ Test
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 10928; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131910928 - 02 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
In recent years, the vehicle-based indirect Structural Health Monitoring (iSHM) method has been increasingly used to identify the dynamic characteristics of railway bridges during train crossings, and it has been shown that this method has several advantages compared to traditional SHM methods. A [...] Read more.
In recent years, the vehicle-based indirect Structural Health Monitoring (iSHM) method has been increasingly used to identify the dynamic characteristics of railway bridges during train crossings, and it has been shown that this method has several advantages compared to traditional SHM methods. A major advantage is that sensors are just mounted on the vehicle, and no sensors or data acquisition systems need to be installed on the railway bridge. In this paper, the application of the vehicle-based iSHM method is demonstrated numerically and experimentally for determining the natural frequencies of railway steel bridges during train crossing. The coupled linear equations of motion of the train-bridge multi-body system are derived, and train crossing simulations are conducted numerically, considering different train speeds. Three different railway bridges are considered, and the train-induced vibration responses are calculated for both the train multi-body system and the railway bridge models. Different representative evaluation points are chosen for the wheelsets, bogies, and car bodies of the considered vehicle. To calibrate the numerical model, the resonance frequencies of an existing single-span steel bridge are measured in situ by the application of forced vibration tests. Besides the executed in situ measurements of the bridge, the considered crossing vehicle is also instrumented with several accelerometers at the wheelsets, bogies, and car bodies, and the vibration responses of both the bridge and the crossing vehicle are measured simultaneously during the duration of several train crossings with different train speeds. The recorded vibration responses are analyzed in the frequency domain and compared with numerical simulation results. It is shown that the first bending frequency of the considered railway bridge can be clearly identified from the computed frequency response spectra and that the vehicle-based iSHM method provides a promising tool for identifying the dynamic characteristics of railway bridges. Full article
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45 pages, 19755 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on the Influence of Coupling Beam Modeling on Structural Accelerations during High-Speed Train Crossings
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8746; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158746 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
The applied mechanical modeling of train and bridge structures is essential in accurately predicting structural vibrations caused by high-speed trains, particularly for the often design-relevant structural accelerations. Considering the interaction effects between the train, the superstructure, and the supporting structure yields more realistic [...] Read more.
The applied mechanical modeling of train and bridge structures is essential in accurately predicting structural vibrations caused by high-speed trains, particularly for the often design-relevant structural accelerations. Considering the interaction effects between the train, the superstructure, and the supporting structure yields more realistic and lower acceleration results compared to simplistic reference models disregarding interaction dynamics. The research presented in this article focuses on modeling single-span girder bridges with a ballasted superstructure as coupling beams. In this approach, the bridge is represented as two vertically coupled beams, with one representing the track (rails and sleepers) and the other representing the supporting structure. Their connection incorporates the stiffness and damping properties of the ballasted superstructure, reproducing its load distribution capacity. A numerical study encompassing a wide range of bridge parameters is conducted, focusing on the calculation of maximum structural accelerations. The results from modeling the bridge as a coupling beam model are compared to those from a simply supported Bernoulli–Euler beam. The excitation is applied as either a moving load or a multi-body model of an Austrian Railjet to evaluate the interdependencies of interaction effects between the vehicle and track and between the track and bridge structure. The comprehensive analysis considers varying bridge span, fundamental bending frequency, mass distribution, structural damping, and coupling stiffness and damping properties to identify correlations with the achievable acceleration reduction using the coupling beam model. Compared to the reference model, the coupling beam model can significantly reduce structural acceleration by up to 80%. Reduction levels primarily depend on the coupling stiffness and critical train speed relative to the bridge’s fundamental frequency, with higher fundamental frequency bridges benefiting the most. These findings provide valuable insights for future structure-specific recommendations for adopting the coupling beam and multi-body train models. Full article
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19 pages, 6599 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Train-Induced Vibrations—Calculations of Different Railway Lines and Mitigation Measures in the Transmission Path
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6706; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116706 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
The reduction of train-induced ground vibrations by different railway lines and by mitigation measures in the propagation path is analysed in a unified approach by two-dimensional finite element calculations where the reduction is expressed as the amplitude ratio between a specific and the [...] Read more.
The reduction of train-induced ground vibrations by different railway lines and by mitigation measures in the propagation path is analysed in a unified approach by two-dimensional finite element calculations where the reduction is expressed as the amplitude ratio between a specific and the reference situation (the surface track without a mitigation measure). In general, there is no reduction at low frequencies, and the reduction becomes stronger with increasing frequency. A maximum reduction ratio of 0.1 at high frequencies is established with an open trench. Reduction ratios between 0.7 and 0.2 have been found for the other situations, filled trenches, walls, plates, and blocks, as well as for railway lines on embankment, in cuts and in a tunnel. Bridges can produce amplifications due to their resonance frequencies, but also strong reductions due to the massive bridge piers. The influence of some parameters has been analysed, the length of the bridge span, the inclination of the embankment and the cut, and the stiffness of the soil and of the tunnel structure. The dynamic track stiffnesses of a surface, bridge and tunnel track have been calculated by the 3D finite-element boundary-element method for comparison with corresponding measurements. Full article
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15 pages, 11067 KiB  
Article
Railcar Dynamic Response during Braking Maneuvers Based on Frequency Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074132 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 773
Abstract
The dynamic response of a vehicle during braking is influenced by the tangential forces developed at the wheel-rail’s contact surface. The friction coefficient affects the load transfer from the wheel’s tread to the vehicle. In this work, the vibrations of a scale-down railway [...] Read more.
The dynamic response of a vehicle during braking is influenced by the tangential forces developed at the wheel-rail’s contact surface. The friction coefficient affects the load transfer from the wheel’s tread to the vehicle. In this work, the vibrations of a scale-down railway vehicle are monitored during braking and their relationship with the friction coefficient between wheel and rail is found out. The vehicle is instrumented with encoders, accelerometers, and is controlled via Bluetooth. The tests are carried out with clean and friction-modified rails. The tangential forces transmitted from the wheel to the railcar’s body are visualized in time and frequency using a proposed correlation algorithm based on the outputs of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The results demonstrate that tangential forces have a significant impact on railway vehicles under conditions of high friction coefficients and large creep values. Full article
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15 pages, 2378 KiB  
Article
Probabilistic Seismic Safety Assessment of Railway Embankments
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010598 - 01 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to study the seismic performance of railway embankments through a probabilistic approach. Nonlinear response history analyses were conducted utilizing PLAXIS software. Three categories of railway embankments were selected and more than 2400 embankment-earthquake case studies were performed. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to study the seismic performance of railway embankments through a probabilistic approach. Nonlinear response history analyses were conducted utilizing PLAXIS software. Three categories of railway embankments were selected and more than 2400 embankment-earthquake case studies were performed. Sensitivity analyses were implemented to obtain the most important variables in the seismic performance of railway embankments. Finally, analytical fragility curves were generated in terms of the mechanical properties of railway embankments (e.g., soil cohesion and friction angle). Fragility functions were developed, employing an incremental dynamic analysis approach using a set of ground motions, including near- and far-field earthquakes. The maximum vertical displacement of the embankment was chosen as a damage index parameter. Fragility curves were derived for three damage states, including slight, moderate and extensive damage, with respect to threshold values proposed in the literature. The results of this study revealed that the mechanical properties of embankments could be considered one of the crucial uncertainty factors in seismic fragility analysis of railway embankments. Full article
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