Special Issue "Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: metallic alloys; composite materials; nanomaterials; biomaterials; thin films; nanoporous materials; surface treatments; mechanical performance; magnetism
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jordina Fornell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: metallic alloys; composite materials; biomaterials; thin films; surface treatments; anodization; electrodeposition; mechanical performance; corrosion resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are launching a Special Issue on “Permanent and Long-Term  Biodegradable Biomaterials” in Applied Sciences (IF = 1.679). The aim of  this Special Issue is to publish experimental papers and up-to-date  review articles on recent advances in the development of permanent  biomaterials or durable biodegradable biomaterials. This Special Issue  welcomes articles based on theory, design, fabrication,  characterization, and clinical performance of permanent or long-term  biodegradable biomaterials from a multidisciplinary point of view  (chemistry, physics, materials science and biology).

Nowadays, some permanent biomaterials used in the market do not fulfill  the actual biomaterials’ requirements. For this reason, novel,  optimized, non-toxic, biocompatible compositions are needed to increase  the longevity of the implants and to improve the patients' comfort. It  is, therefore, the aim of this Special Issue to provide novel approaches  (i.e., fabrication procedures, surface engineering methods) to obtain  the aforementioned biomaterials with better performance mainly in terms  of mechanical and corrosion resistance.

Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort
Dr. Jordina Fornell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • permanent biomaterials

  • long-term biodegradable biomaterials

  • Ti-based alloys

  • Fe-based alloys

  • polymeric materials

  • orthopaedic implants

  • biomechanical compatibility

  • cytotoxicity of biomaterials

  • surface treated biomaterials

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Influence of Apigenin K and Melatonin in Socket Preservation as Bone Stimulators: An Experimental Study in Beagle Dogs
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093006 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 930 | Retraction
Abstract
The aim is to evaluate whether apigenin K and melatonin M5250 were able to stimulate bone formation after tooth extraction at one, two, and three months follow-up. Six male beagle dogs were used. Apigenin K and melatonin M5250 immersed in hemostatic collagen sponges [...] Read more.
The aim is to evaluate whether apigenin K and melatonin M5250 were able to stimulate bone formation after tooth extraction at one, two, and three months follow-up. Six male beagle dogs were used. Apigenin K and melatonin M5250 immersed in hemostatic collagen sponges were placed in the third and fourth premolar and the first molar extracted sockets; the second premolar was used as control. At one, two, and three months, bone core biopsies were performed, and picrosirius–hematoxylin was used for the staining process. In the first month, a higher amount of calcified bone tissue was observed in the melatonin (77.87% ± 1.2%) and apigenin K (69.81% ± 1.8%) groups than the control group (57.27% ± 0.54%), with apparent discrepancies in values between the three groups (p < 0.04). In the second month, there was a considerable improvement in the results in the areas with melatonin (79.81% ± 0.11%) than in those of apigenin K (71.65% ± 0.52%) and control (64.77% ± 0.44%) (p < 0.04). In the third month, the number of mature bone was similar to all the groups. The creation of new bone was significant in the melatonin group (82.78% ± 0.87%), followed by the apigenin K group (78.76% ± 0.43%) and the control group (57.27% ± 0.11%). From this experimental study in dogs, it can be concluded that melatonin and apigenin K can accelerate the process of mineralization of the bone matrix, and thus the creation of laminae in the early stages of healing (1 month). Less reabsorption of the post-extraction sockets can be expected with the topical application of melatonin and apigenin K. It seems that the stimulatory effects of bone healing induced by the topical application of melatonin and apigenin K are defect-size-dependent, being more evident in small defects compared to larger defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Chitosan-Rue (Ruta graveolens L.) Essential Oil-Based Coatings on Refrigerated Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Quality
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2684; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082684 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is one of the main exotic fruits in demand throughout the world market. However, this fruit has problems with physical and microbial decay causing losses up to thirty percent during post-harvest stage and market storage. As an [...] Read more.
Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is one of the main exotic fruits in demand throughout the world market. However, this fruit has problems with physical and microbial decay causing losses up to thirty percent during post-harvest stage and market storage. As an alternative for conservation, technologies based on edible coatings of biopolymers incorporating essential oils have been developed. In this paper we studied the effect of edible coatings based on chitosan (CS) and Ruta graveolens L. essential oil (RGEO) at different concentrations applied on the surface gooseberries at 18 ± 2 °C. The emulsions exhibited a reduction in the viscosity and the particle size with the increasing in the RGEO amount (from 124.7 cP to 26.0 cP for CS + RGEO 0.5% and CS + RGEO 1.5%, respectively). A lower weight loss was obtained for fruits coated with CS + RGEO 0.5% (12.7%) as compared to the uncoated (15%), while the maturity index increased in a lower amount for CS + RGEO coated than the uncoated fruits. The mesophyll growth was delayed three days after the coating applications for CS + RGEO 1.0% and 1.5%. At day twelve of the coating process, fruits with CS + RGEO 1.5% presented only 3.1 Log UFC/g of aerobic mesophylls and 2.9 Log UFC/g of molds and yeasts, while the uncoated fruits presented 4.2 Log UFC/g of aerobic mesophylls and 4.0 Log UFC/g of molds and yeasts, demonstrating a microbial barrier of the coatings incorporating RGEO in a concentration dependent manner. The CS + RGEO coating also preserve the antioxidant property of case gooseberries after twelve days of treatment under storage according to the 2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) results. It was demonstrated by the ABTS method that T5 antioxidant capacity from day one to day twelve only decreases from 55% to 44%, while in the uncoated fruits (T1) the antioxidant capacity decreased from 65% to 18%. On the other hand, using the DPPH method the reduction was from 73% to 24% for the uncoated samples and 55% to 43% for T5. From the sensorial analysis, we recommend the use of CS + RGEO 0.5% that was still accepted by the panelists after the sixth day of application. These results show the potential application of these coatings as postharvest treatment under storage and low temperature conditions during twelve days of treatment for cape gooseberry fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial and Osteoconductive Effects of Chitosan/Polyethylene Oxide (PEO)/Bioactive Glass Nanofibers for Orthopedic Applications
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072360 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
This study investigated the efficiency of chitosan/polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanofibers with incorporated bioactive glass particles as a coating for titanium alloy, in order to improve the bacteriostatic behavior and, concurrently, promote the production of mineralized tissue. Nanofibers with and without bioglass powder were [...] Read more.
This study investigated the efficiency of chitosan/polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanofibers with incorporated bioactive glass particles as a coating for titanium alloy, in order to improve the bacteriostatic behavior and, concurrently, promote the production of mineralized tissue. Nanofibers with and without bioglass powder were fabricated by electrospinning technique and characterized using several microscopic and spectroscopic techniques in order to study their morphological and physiochemical properties. Subsequently, the substrates were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus epidermidis and SaOS-2 human osteosarcoma cell line. After in vitro testing, viability and CFU counting assays combined with fluorescence microscopy showed a clear decrease in bacterial growth on all substrates with increasing time. However, this trend was stronger for substrates coated with nanofibers. Formation of mineralized matrix upon exposure to osteoblasts was confirmed by means of SEM/EDX and the content/distribution of osteocalcin and osteopontin estimated by fluorescence microscopy. Incorporation of bioglass promoted biomineralization and stimulated osteoblasts to produce a higher amount of bone extracellular matrix. The present results suggest that a chitosan/PEO/bioactive glass nanofiber composite applied as coating on titanium alloys could concurrently improve antibacterial and osteoconductive properties and could be a potential candidate for dental and orthopedic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Combination of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (Maxresorb®) and Hyaluronic Acid Gel (Hyadent®) for Repairing Osseous Defects in a Rat Model
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051651 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of biphasic calcium phosphate (Maxresorb®, BCP) used in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyadent®, HyA) gel for regeneration of osseous defects in a rat model. Bilateral femoral condylar [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of biphasic calcium phosphate (Maxresorb®, BCP) used in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyadent®, HyA) gel for regeneration of osseous defects in a rat model. Bilateral femoral condylar bone defects (3 mm diameter and 3 mm depth) were created in 40 male Wistar rats. The defects were grafted as group I (BCP only), group II (BCP + HyA), group III (HyA only), and group IV (empty control). At four weeks and 10 weeks, the bone specimens were evaluated using histological and histomorphometrical analyses to identify the newly formed bone area (NF-BA (%)), as well as the remaining BCP particles (R-BCP (%)). Light microscopic examination indicated the absence of an inflammatory reaction within the bone defects after four weeks or 10 weeks of implantation. Significant new bone regeneration was present in the bone defects grafted with BCP or BCP + HyA biomaterials, as early as four weeks, compared to control groups. The addition of HyA to BCP did not significantly improve bone regeneration at four weeks or 10 weeks. Nevertheless, its role in bone healing and regeneration warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fused Deposition Modeling of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Walnut Shell Biocomposite Filaments—Surface Treatment and Properties
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4892; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224892 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
This paper presents the study of the properties of objects that were fabricated with fused deposition modeling technology while using Poly (lactic acid)/Walnut shell powder (PLA/WSP) biocomposite filaments. The WSP was treated while using NaOH followed by silane. The infrared spectrum of treated [...] Read more.
This paper presents the study of the properties of objects that were fabricated with fused deposition modeling technology while using Poly (lactic acid)/Walnut shell powder (PLA/WSP) biocomposite filaments. The WSP was treated while using NaOH followed by silane. The infrared spectrum of treated and untreated WSP was characterized. The result was that thermal and mechanical properties could be improved by adjusting the concentration of silane. The experimental results showed: the surface compatibility between WSP and PLA was dramatically improved through treatment with KH550. The crystalline, thermal gravity, and thermal degradation temperatures of biocomposite with untreated WSP were improved from 1.46%, 60.3 °C, and 239.87 °C to 2.84%, 61.3 °C, and 276.37 °C for the biocomposites with treated WSP, respectively. The tensile, flexural, and compressive strengths of biocomposites were raised each by 8.07%, 14.66%, and 23.32%. With the determined silane concentration, PLA/10–15 wt.% treated WSP biocomposites were processed and tested. The results showed that the tensile strength was improved to 56.2 MPa, which is very near to that of pure PLA. Finally, the porous scaffolds with controllable porosity and pore size were manufactured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering Biomimetic Gelatin Based Nanostructures as Synthetic Substrates for Cell Culture
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081583 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
There is a need for synthetic substrates that replicate the natural environment for in vitro intestinal models. Electrospinning is one of the most versatile and cost-effective techniques to produce nanofibrous scaffolds mimicking the basement membrane topography. In this study, three different novel electrospun [...] Read more.
There is a need for synthetic substrates that replicate the natural environment for in vitro intestinal models. Electrospinning is one of the most versatile and cost-effective techniques to produce nanofibrous scaffolds mimicking the basement membrane topography. In this study, three different novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds made of a polycaprolactone (PCL), gelatin, and poloxamer 188 (P188) blend were produced and compared with PCL and PCL/gelatin fibers produced using the same solvent system and electrospinning parameters. Each polymer solution used in this experiment was electrospun at four different voltages to study its influence on fiber diameter. The morphology and physical characteristics of the fibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The average fiber diameter of all scaffolds was within 200–600 nm and no significant decrease in diameter with an increase in voltage was observed. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical characteristics of the nanofibrous scaffold. The conductivity of the polymer solutions was also analyzed. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was determined by a cell proliferation study performed using colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. PCL/gelatin/P188 scaffolds exhibited higher cell proliferation compared to PCL, PCL/gelatin scaffolds, and the control (tissue culture multi-well plate) with PCL/gelatin/P188 80:10:10 sample showing the highest cell proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Functionally-Graded Calcium Titanate Film, Prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, on Titanium Implant
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010172 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Calcium Titanate (CaTiO3) has been introduced as an attractive biomaterial for the enhancement of calcium phosphate deposition in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that CaTiO3 directly coated on titanium (Ti) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) could be a [...] Read more.
Calcium Titanate (CaTiO3) has been introduced as an attractive biomaterial for the enhancement of calcium phosphate deposition in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that CaTiO3 directly coated on titanium (Ti) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) could be a suitable candidate for biocompatible coatings for medical devices, particularly dental implants. To prove this hypothesis, surface characterization, cell culture, and animal study were completed in this study. The result of this study showed that CTO 800, a CaTiO3 film prepared by heating at 800 °C, had a high hydrophilic surface. Mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells cultured on substrates and CTO 800 exhibited cell differentiation, represented by alkaline phosphatase activity, compared with cells cultured on non-coated Ti and CTO 700 (a CaTiO3 film prepared by heating at 700 °C). The push-in test value of CTO 800, a parameter that indicates the degree of osseointegration, was significantly higher than that of Ti. Calcium titanate coated on Ti by MOCVD has the potential to accelerate the process of osseointegration; thus, our results support the use of CaTiO3 coating for biocompatible biomaterial for medical applications, particularly dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Mechanical Performance of Bioresorbable Magnesium Alloy Coronary Artery Stents through Stent Pattern Redesign
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122461 - 02 Dec 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Optimized stent pattern design can effectively enhance the mechanical performance of magnesium alloy stents by adjusting strain distribution and evolution during stent deformation, thereby overcoming the limitations imposed by the intrinsic mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. In the present study, a new stent [...] Read more.
Optimized stent pattern design can effectively enhance the mechanical performance of magnesium alloy stents by adjusting strain distribution and evolution during stent deformation, thereby overcoming the limitations imposed by the intrinsic mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. In the present study, a new stent design pattern for magnesium alloys was proposed and compared to two existing stent design patterns. Measures of the mechanical performance of these three stents, including crimping and expanding deformability, radial scaffolding capacity, radial recoil and bending flexibility, were determined. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models were built to predict the mechanical performance of the stents with the three design patterns and to assist in understanding the experimental results. The results showed that, overall, the stent with the new design pattern was superior to the stents based on the existing designs, though the expanding capacity of the newly designed stent still needed to be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Degradation Rates of Pure Zinc, Magnesium, and Magnesium Alloys Measured by Volume Loss, Mass Loss, and Hydrogen Evolution
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091459 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Degradation rate is an important property to evaluate bioabsorbable metallic material; however, values vary depending on the method of measurement. In this study, three different methods of measuring corrosion rate are compared. The degradable samples to analyze corrosion rates include pure magnesium (Mg), [...] Read more.
Degradation rate is an important property to evaluate bioabsorbable metallic material; however, values vary depending on the method of measurement. In this study, three different methods of measuring corrosion rate are compared. The degradable samples to analyze corrosion rates include pure magnesium (Mg), lab produced Mg–Zn–Ca alloy (47-7-2), Mg–Zn–Zr–RE (rare earth) alloys (60-13, 60-14), Mg–Zn–Ca–RE alloy (59B), and pure zinc (Zn). A eudiometer was used to measure hydrogen evolution from the reaction of degradable alloys in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS). Corrosion rates based on volume loss of tested alloys in 30 days were calculated using Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Final mass change due to corrosion and corrosion removal was measured with a scale. We observed that the corrosion rates indicated by hydrogen evolution were high initially, and slowed down sharply in the following measurements. The corrosion rates of tested alloys calculated by volume loss and mass loss from high to low are: 60–13 ≈ 60–14 ≈ 47–7–2 > 59B > Mg > Zn (p < 0.05). The results provide instruction to experimental methodology to measure corrosion rates of degradable alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Determining the Effects of Eugenol on the Bond Strength of Resin-Based Restorative Materials to Dentin: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031070 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 736
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether the residual presence of eugenol in coronal dentin may compromise the bond strength of resin-based restorative materials. A search was performed on MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, and by hand search for relevant papers. No restriction was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the residual presence of eugenol in coronal dentin may compromise the bond strength of resin-based restorative materials. A search was performed on MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, and by hand search for relevant papers. No restriction was applied for language and publication date. The studies selected for analysis tested specimens with reduced size (micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) and micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS)) of adhesive systems and resin-based restorative materials applied to coronary dentin “contaminated” with eugenol-based materials. The search provided 335 articles, but only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled global analysis showed a significant influence of eugenol, as it negatively influenced the bond strength of resin-based restorations (5.79 (3.31–8.28) MPa, p < 0.00001). The subgroup analyses for conventional etch-and-rinse (p = 0.003) and self-etch (p < 0.0004) adhesive systems, as well as for µSBS (p = 0.01) and µTBS (p < 0.0001), showed a negative influence of eugenol on the bond strength. Data were statistically heterogeneous. However, it was possible to observe that eugenol could negatively affect the bonding of resin-based restorative materials to dentin. Further evidence is necessary in order to acquire more accurate information about this issue and confirm that the residual presence of eugenol in dentin compromises the bond strength of resin-based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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