Special Issue "Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Tel. +34 93 581 2085; Fax: +34 93 581 2155
Interests: metallic alloys; composite materials; nanomaterials; biomaterials; thin films; nanoporous materials; surface treatments; mechanical performance; magnetism
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jordina Fornell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Tel. +34-935-811-401
Interests: metallic alloys; composite materials; biomaterials; thin films; surface treatments; anodization; electrodeposition; mechanical performance; corrosion resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are launching a Special Issue on “Permanent and Long-Term  Biodegradable Biomaterials” in Applied Sciences (IF = 1.679). The aim of  this Special Issue is to publish experimental papers and up-to-date  review articles on recent advances in the development of permanent  biomaterials or durable biodegradable biomaterials. This Special Issue  welcomes articles based on theory, design, fabrication,  characterization, and clinical performance of permanent or long-term  biodegradable biomaterials from a multidisciplinary point of view  (chemistry, physics, materials science and biology).

Nowadays, some permanent biomaterials used in the market do not fulfill  the actual biomaterials’ requirements. For this reason, novel,  optimized, non-toxic, biocompatible compositions are needed to increase  the longevity of the implants and to improve the patients' comfort. It  is, therefore, the aim of this Special Issue to provide novel approaches  (i.e., fabrication procedures, surface engineering methods) to obtain  the aforementioned biomaterials with better performance mainly in terms  of mechanical and corrosion resistance.

Prof. Dr. Jordi Sort
Dr. Jordina Fornell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • permanent biomaterials

  • long-term biodegradable biomaterials

  • Ti-based alloys

  • Fe-based alloys

  • polymeric materials

  • orthopaedic implants

  • biomechanical compatibility

  • cytotoxicity of biomaterials

  • surface treated biomaterials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fused Deposition Modeling of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Walnut Shell Biocomposite Filaments—Surface Treatment and Properties
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4892; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224892 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents the study of the properties of objects that were fabricated with fused deposition modeling technology while using Poly (lactic acid)/Walnut shell powder (PLA/WSP) biocomposite filaments. The WSP was treated while using NaOH followed by silane. The infrared spectrum of treated [...] Read more.
This paper presents the study of the properties of objects that were fabricated with fused deposition modeling technology while using Poly (lactic acid)/Walnut shell powder (PLA/WSP) biocomposite filaments. The WSP was treated while using NaOH followed by silane. The infrared spectrum of treated and untreated WSP was characterized. The result was that thermal and mechanical properties could be improved by adjusting the concentration of silane. The experimental results showed: the surface compatibility between WSP and PLA was dramatically improved through treatment with KH550. The crystalline, thermal gravity, and thermal degradation temperatures of biocomposite with untreated WSP were improved from 1.46%, 60.3 °C, and 239.87 °C to 2.84%, 61.3 °C, and 276.37 °C for the biocomposites with treated WSP, respectively. The tensile, flexural, and compressive strengths of biocomposites were raised each by 8.07%, 14.66%, and 23.32%. With the determined silane concentration, PLA/10–15 wt.% treated WSP biocomposites were processed and tested. The results showed that the tensile strength was improved to 56.2 MPa, which is very near to that of pure PLA. Finally, the porous scaffolds with controllable porosity and pore size were manufactured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering Biomimetic Gelatin Based Nanostructures as Synthetic Substrates for Cell Culture
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081583 - 17 Apr 2019
Abstract
There is a need for synthetic substrates that replicate the natural environment for in vitro intestinal models. Electrospinning is one of the most versatile and cost-effective techniques to produce nanofibrous scaffolds mimicking the basement membrane topography. In this study, three different novel electrospun [...] Read more.
There is a need for synthetic substrates that replicate the natural environment for in vitro intestinal models. Electrospinning is one of the most versatile and cost-effective techniques to produce nanofibrous scaffolds mimicking the basement membrane topography. In this study, three different novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds made of a polycaprolactone (PCL), gelatin, and poloxamer 188 (P188) blend were produced and compared with PCL and PCL/gelatin fibers produced using the same solvent system and electrospinning parameters. Each polymer solution used in this experiment was electrospun at four different voltages to study its influence on fiber diameter. The morphology and physical characteristics of the fibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The average fiber diameter of all scaffolds was within 200–600 nm and no significant decrease in diameter with an increase in voltage was observed. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical characteristics of the nanofibrous scaffold. The conductivity of the polymer solutions was also analyzed. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was determined by a cell proliferation study performed using colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. PCL/gelatin/P188 scaffolds exhibited higher cell proliferation compared to PCL, PCL/gelatin scaffolds, and the control (tissue culture multi-well plate) with PCL/gelatin/P188 80:10:10 sample showing the highest cell proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Functionally-Graded Calcium Titanate Film, Prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, on Titanium Implant
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010172 - 04 Jan 2019
Abstract
Calcium Titanate (CaTiO3) has been introduced as an attractive biomaterial for the enhancement of calcium phosphate deposition in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that CaTiO3 directly coated on titanium (Ti) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) could be a [...] Read more.
Calcium Titanate (CaTiO3) has been introduced as an attractive biomaterial for the enhancement of calcium phosphate deposition in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that CaTiO3 directly coated on titanium (Ti) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) could be a suitable candidate for biocompatible coatings for medical devices, particularly dental implants. To prove this hypothesis, surface characterization, cell culture, and animal study were completed in this study. The result of this study showed that CTO 800, a CaTiO3 film prepared by heating at 800 °C, had a high hydrophilic surface. Mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells cultured on substrates and CTO 800 exhibited cell differentiation, represented by alkaline phosphatase activity, compared with cells cultured on non-coated Ti and CTO 700 (a CaTiO3 film prepared by heating at 700 °C). The push-in test value of CTO 800, a parameter that indicates the degree of osseointegration, was significantly higher than that of Ti. Calcium titanate coated on Ti by MOCVD has the potential to accelerate the process of osseointegration; thus, our results support the use of CaTiO3 coating for biocompatible biomaterial for medical applications, particularly dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Mechanical Performance of Bioresorbable Magnesium Alloy Coronary Artery Stents through Stent Pattern Redesign
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122461 - 02 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Optimized stent pattern design can effectively enhance the mechanical performance of magnesium alloy stents by adjusting strain distribution and evolution during stent deformation, thereby overcoming the limitations imposed by the intrinsic mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. In the present study, a new stent [...] Read more.
Optimized stent pattern design can effectively enhance the mechanical performance of magnesium alloy stents by adjusting strain distribution and evolution during stent deformation, thereby overcoming the limitations imposed by the intrinsic mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. In the present study, a new stent design pattern for magnesium alloys was proposed and compared to two existing stent design patterns. Measures of the mechanical performance of these three stents, including crimping and expanding deformability, radial scaffolding capacity, radial recoil and bending flexibility, were determined. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models were built to predict the mechanical performance of the stents with the three design patterns and to assist in understanding the experimental results. The results showed that, overall, the stent with the new design pattern was superior to the stents based on the existing designs, though the expanding capacity of the newly designed stent still needed to be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Degradation Rates of Pure Zinc, Magnesium, and Magnesium Alloys Measured by Volume Loss, Mass Loss, and Hydrogen Evolution
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091459 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Degradation rate is an important property to evaluate bioabsorbable metallic material; however, values vary depending on the method of measurement. In this study, three different methods of measuring corrosion rate are compared. The degradable samples to analyze corrosion rates include pure magnesium (Mg), [...] Read more.
Degradation rate is an important property to evaluate bioabsorbable metallic material; however, values vary depending on the method of measurement. In this study, three different methods of measuring corrosion rate are compared. The degradable samples to analyze corrosion rates include pure magnesium (Mg), lab produced Mg–Zn–Ca alloy (47-7-2), Mg–Zn–Zr–RE (rare earth) alloys (60-13, 60-14), Mg–Zn–Ca–RE alloy (59B), and pure zinc (Zn). A eudiometer was used to measure hydrogen evolution from the reaction of degradable alloys in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS). Corrosion rates based on volume loss of tested alloys in 30 days were calculated using Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Final mass change due to corrosion and corrosion removal was measured with a scale. We observed that the corrosion rates indicated by hydrogen evolution were high initially, and slowed down sharply in the following measurements. The corrosion rates of tested alloys calculated by volume loss and mass loss from high to low are: 60–13 ≈ 60–14 ≈ 47–7–2 > 59B > Mg > Zn (p < 0.05). The results provide instruction to experimental methodology to measure corrosion rates of degradable alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Determining the Effects of Eugenol on the Bond Strength of Resin-Based Restorative Materials to Dentin: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031070 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether the residual presence of eugenol in coronal dentin may compromise the bond strength of resin-based restorative materials. A search was performed on MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, and by hand search for relevant papers. No restriction was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the residual presence of eugenol in coronal dentin may compromise the bond strength of resin-based restorative materials. A search was performed on MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, and by hand search for relevant papers. No restriction was applied for language and publication date. The studies selected for analysis tested specimens with reduced size (micro-shear bond strength (µSBS) and micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS)) of adhesive systems and resin-based restorative materials applied to coronary dentin “contaminated” with eugenol-based materials. The search provided 335 articles, but only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled global analysis showed a significant influence of eugenol, as it negatively influenced the bond strength of resin-based restorations (5.79 (3.31–8.28) MPa, p < 0.00001). The subgroup analyses for conventional etch-and-rinse (p = 0.003) and self-etch (p < 0.0004) adhesive systems, as well as for µSBS (p = 0.01) and µTBS (p < 0.0001), showed a negative influence of eugenol on the bond strength. Data were statistically heterogeneous. However, it was possible to observe that eugenol could negatively affect the bonding of resin-based restorative materials to dentin. Further evidence is necessary in order to acquire more accurate information about this issue and confirm that the residual presence of eugenol in dentin compromises the bond strength of resin-based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent and Long-Term Biodegradable Biomaterials)
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