Special Issue "Sustainability in Maritime Transport: Advances, Solutions and Pending Tasks"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. José A. Orosa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ETSNyM. Department of Navigation Science and Marine Engineering, University of A Coruña. Paseo de Ronda 51. 15011 A Coruña, Spain
Interests: marine engineering; energy; thermodynamics; naval architecture; sustainability
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Special Issue Information

In accordance with the European Commission indications, based on the third IMO Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Study 2015, maritime transport is responsible for about 13% of global GHG emissions, with a clear increasing trend if no control actions are implemented. Furthermore, the IMO GHG study showed that shipping emissions could increase between 50% and 250% by 2050, in clear disagreement with the Paris Agreement.

At the same time, there is a certain delay in the response from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which can be considered the appropriate organization to fight against this threat, and the European Commission has had to take action on the matter. To organize the necessary research activities, the European Commission has defined 3 steps toward reducing GHG emissions from the shipping industry:

  • Monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions from large ships that use EU ports
  • Greenhouse gas reduction targets 
  • Further measures

After an initial sampling step, an initial goal was defined in accordance with the Paris Agreement to reduce GHG emissions from shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 levels. While this is a promising step, it is just a proposal, and the related research activities remain to be developed. To materialize solutions for this problematic situation, some amendments from the European Union are centered into supporting IMO energy efficiency projects and the implementation of standards such as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP).

Nowadays, the tendency in research activities is to fall short of complete development due to the lack of original ideas—these must be proposed and demonstrated by the scientific community as the first step towards an international solution. This is the aim of this Special Issue: to demonstrate new technical solutions to this global problem as a useful tool for international organizations in the near future, toward developing support processes and establishing standardization.

Finally, like in previous issues, the collaboration between companies and research centers may be the optimal tool to help this kind of organization with technical solutions derived from their related knowledge areas, which can be among the topics to be explored this issue:

  • Slow steaming (Marine Engineering),
  • Weather routing (Navigation Science),
  • Ship designs (Naval Architecture)
  • Ports design (Civil Engineering)

Dr. José A. Orosa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sustainability
  • green maritime transport
  • ship
  • maritime
  • GHG
  • energy
  • navigation
  • ports
  • ship design

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
A New Understanding and Modelling of TSP and BP Indices Compared to Safety IMO Ship Requirements
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7142; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157142 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Due to the lack of information about the concept of Tons of Steering Pull (TSP) of many escort tugs, and the lack of research works relating the TSP demanded by a tethered vessel with respect to the TSP provided by tugs, the present [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of information about the concept of Tons of Steering Pull (TSP) of many escort tugs, and the lack of research works relating the TSP demanded by a tethered vessel with respect to the TSP provided by tugs, the present paper shows an original study with mathematical models on how to solve these problems. What is more, an important percentage of the towing sector always employs Bollard Pull (BP), which is considered the only parameter capable of defining performance, so this paper aims to relate BP with TSP. The present research was carried out based on more than 25 escort tugs of different towing companies. Furthermore, a real case study of different tanker vessels was used for modelling purposes of tethered vessels’ TSP. Finally, once the proposed models were obtained, they were compared with International Maritime Organization (IMO) guidelines. The results showed charts with the main independent variables of tugs and vessels in order to be as useful and practical as possible to the shipping industry, mainly to ship owners and tug operators, from a safety point of view. Full article
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Article
Resilience Assessment for the Northern Sea Route Based on a Fuzzy Bayesian Network
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083619 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The safety level of the northern sea route (NSR) is a common concern for the related stakeholders. To address the risks triggered by disruptions initiating from the harsh environment and human factors, a comprehensive framework is proposed based on the perspective of resilience. [...] Read more.
The safety level of the northern sea route (NSR) is a common concern for the related stakeholders. To address the risks triggered by disruptions initiating from the harsh environment and human factors, a comprehensive framework is proposed based on the perspective of resilience. Notably, the resilience of NSR is decomposed into three capacities, namely, the absorptive capacity, adaptive capacity, and restorative capacity. Moreover, the disruptions to the resilience are identified. Then, a Bayesian network (BN) model is established to quantify resilience, and the prior probabilities of parent nodes and conditional probability table for the network are obtained by fuzzy theory and expert elicitation. Finally, the developed Bayesian networkBN model is simulated to analyze the resilience level of the NSR by back propagation, sensitivity analysis, and information entropy analysis. The general interpretation of these analyses indicates that the emergency response, ice-breaking capacity, and rescue and anti-pollution facilities are the critical factors that contribute to the resilience of the NSR. Good knowledge of the absorptive capacity is the most effective way to reduce the uncertainty of NSR resilience. The present study provides a resilience perspective to understand the safety issues associated with the NSR, which can be seen as the main innovation of this work. Full article
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Communication
Toward More Sustainable River Transportation in Remote Regions of the Amazon, Brazil
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052077 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
This paper explores means of achieving more efficient and sustainable river transport in remote regions by making relatively simple, practical modifications to boats or implementing new technologies for propulsion and energy generation. The research focuses on the case of the simple boats used [...] Read more.
This paper explores means of achieving more efficient and sustainable river transport in remote regions by making relatively simple, practical modifications to boats or implementing new technologies for propulsion and energy generation. The research focuses on the case of the simple boats used to transport children to school in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon. A range of options to improve the efficiency of existing boats is described. Under normal operational conditions, small improvements to these boats may have long-term environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Implementing changes such as those suggested, it may also be possible to boost sources of employment in these regions and elsewhere, where industrial and technological limitations are significant. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Cold Ironing and LNG as Mitigation Tools of Short Sea Shipping Emissions in Port: A Spanish Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052050 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
By the end of 2025 European ports are required to provide (Directive 2014/94/EU) facilities to ensure the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) use and on-shore electricity supply for vessels (Cold Ironing—CI). Even though this involves considerable port investment, many uncertainties about CI and LNG [...] Read more.
By the end of 2025 European ports are required to provide (Directive 2014/94/EU) facilities to ensure the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) use and on-shore electricity supply for vessels (Cold Ironing—CI). Even though this involves considerable port investment, many uncertainties about CI and LNG performance exist because their application depends on vessel operators’ willingness. Additionally, lag times for CI connection/disconnection along with methane emissions from LNG undermine their feasibility for Short Sea Shipping (SSS). Since, among the SSS aims are the reduction in berthing times and its effectiveness for-inter-islands’ traffic where, land electricity grids are frequently dependent on the fuel burning generation by penalizing the CI performance. This paper introduces a calculation method to evaluate the pollution savings in monetary terms by CI and LNG use in SSS. The method is applied to three European routes by testing the environmental performance of two fleets: feeder and Ro-Pax vessels. The results show that feeders reach higher environmental improvements by using port mitigation than Ro-Pax vessels. Additionally, the need for ensuring the sustainability of on-shore grids before the CI implementation was evinced, especially in insularity frameworks, where the environmental benefits from LNG use proved to be more effective. Full article
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Article
Truck Appointment System for Cooperation between the Transport Companies and the Terminal Operator at Container Terminals
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010168 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Despite the number of sailings canceled in the past few months, as demand has increased, the utilization of ships has become very high, resulting in sudden peaks of activity at the import container terminals. Ship-to-ship operations and yard activity at the container terminals [...] Read more.
Despite the number of sailings canceled in the past few months, as demand has increased, the utilization of ships has become very high, resulting in sudden peaks of activity at the import container terminals. Ship-to-ship operations and yard activity at the container terminals are at their peak and starting to affect land operations on truck arrivals and departures. In response, a Truck Appointment System (TAS) has been developed to mitigate truck congestion that occurs between the gate and the yard of the container terminal. The vehicle booking system is developed and operated in-house at large-scale container terminals, but efficiency is low due to frequent truck schedule changes by the transport companies (forwarders). In this paper, we propose a new form of TAS in which the transport companies and the terminal operator cooperate. Numerical experiments show that the efficiency of the cooperation model is better by comparing the case where the transport company (forwarder) and the terminal operator make their own decision and the case where they cooperate. The cooperation model shows higher efficiency as there are more competing transport companies (forwarders) and more segmented tasks a truck can reserve. Full article
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