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New Trends in Biosciences II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 17615
Related Special Issue: New Trends in Biosciences

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: translational research; biomedicine; stem cells; clinical biochemistry and clinical molecular biology; clinical microbiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Specialties, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Napoli, Italy
Interests: dentistry; oral medicine; oral pathology; oral immunology; imaging in oral diseases, intraoral ultrasonography, image analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Meccanica, Matematica e Management (DMMM), Campus "Ernesto Quagliariello", Politecnico di Bari, Via Edoardo Orabona, 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy
Interests: bioengineering; morphological optimization of biomaterials; modeling and simulation of biomedical devices and mechanobiological processes; optical techniques for reverse engineering; characterization of biomedical materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Specialties, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
Interests: oral microbiome; oral microbiota; disbiosis; oral pathology and medicine; pediatric dentistry; dentistry; oral cancer; oral infections; oral mycology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue “New Trends in Biosciences II” invites worldwide investigators as well as clinicians who are confident in applied biosciences research to submit their most interesting overviews, reviews, and original articles that may provide novel insights regarding multidisciplinary research in the field of biomedicine and biological engineering applications.

Potential topics include but are not limited to translational research, bioengineering types, clinical engineering, system modeling, biosignal processing, stem cells, bioscaffolds, biomedical devices, clinical biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiota and clinical microbiology, bioinformatics, biotechnology, biomechanics, computational mechanobiology, and the role of oral health and disease in contributing to general health and systemic conditions. The main focus is on novel developments and applications in biomedical relevant themes. 

New methodological paradigms that challenge current thinking in biomedical research, in vitro, in silico or in vivo models, clinical and “proof-of concept” studies to the extant body of literature addressing the roles of biosciences and bioengineering in translational research, good manufacturing practice protocols/conditions as an essential step toward clinical applications, and other similar studies are warmly welcome topics. Review studies, including those that use conceptual frameworks for any of the aforementioned topics, will also be welcomed.

Dr. Andrea Ballini
Prof. Dr. Dario Di Stasio
Prof. Dr. Antonio Boccaccio
Dr. Maria Contaldo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • translational research
  • stem cells
  • biomedicine
  • bioengineering
  • bioscaffolds
  • diseases
  • clinical microbiology
  • quality of life
  • microbiota
  • oral diseases
  • periodontal diseases
  • oral health
  • oral cancer
  • clinical biochemistry and clinical molecular biology
  • geometry optimization of biomaterials
  • microstructured surfaces
  • cell adhesion
  • computational mechanobiology
  • additively manufactured materials

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
New Trends in Biosciences II
by Andrea Ballini, Dario Di Stasio, Antonio Boccaccio and Maria Contaldo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 5011; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13085011 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Biosciences encompass an area of international scientific research that focuses on the mechanisms underpinning and regulating biological processes in organisms across all branches of life [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)

Research

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13 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Trait Energy and Fatigue Modify Acute Ingestion of an Adaptogenic-Rich Beverage on Neurocognitive Performance
by Ali Boolani, Daniel Fuller, Sumona Mondal and Eric Gumpricht
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4466; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094466 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Background: Psychological research considers traits as a long-standing pre-disposition to an individual’s mood, whereas short-term feelings are categorized as states. We previously reported similar overall acute mental performance benefits between an adaptogen-rich, caffeine-containing energy shot (e+Energy Shot–e+Shot; Isagenix International, LLC) and a caffeine-matched [...] Read more.
Background: Psychological research considers traits as a long-standing pre-disposition to an individual’s mood, whereas short-term feelings are categorized as states. We previously reported similar overall acute mental performance benefits between an adaptogen-rich, caffeine-containing energy shot (e+Energy Shot–e+Shot; Isagenix International, LLC) and a caffeine-matched placebo Since the publication of that study, multiple studies have reported that trait mental and physical energy (TME/TPE), and trait mental and physical fatigue (TMF/TPF) status modify the effect of various interventions on neurocognitive performance. Therefore, we reevaluated our previously published work and accounted for the four traits. Methods: Participants (n = 30) completed a series of questionnaires to determine baseline trait energy and fatigue measures. Then, participants performed a 27 min battery of neurocognitive tasks before and three times after consuming the study beverages with 10 min breaks between each post-consumption battery of tests. Data from the previous study were re-analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results: We now report that the adaptogen product significantly improved mood and cognitive test responses in individuals stratified by initial TME, TPE, TMF, and TPF status. Moreover, this reevaluation also indicated that the caffeine placebo significantly increased heart rate and blood pressure in those subjects initially characterized by low physical and mental energy. Conclusions: In summary, a post-hoc re-analysis of our initial study suggests that consumption of the adaptogen-rich, caffeine-containing product preferentially benefited individuals with initial low TME/TPE and high TMF status when compared to caffeine alone. These findings also support our previous study suggesting that adaptogens may promote mental and physical performance benefits while modulating potentially negatively associated responses to caffeine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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39 pages, 7063 KiB  
Article
Rapid Detection of Direct Compound Toxicity and Trailing Detection of Indirect Cell Metabolite Toxicity in a 96-Well Fluidic Culture Device for Cell-Based Screening Environments: Tactics in Six Sigma Quality Control Charts
by Bob Lubamba, Timothy Jensen and Randall McClelland
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062786 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2830
Abstract
Microfluidic screening tools, in vitro, evolve amid varied scientific disciplines. One emergent technique, simultaneously assessing cell toxicity from a primary compound and ensuing cell-generated metabolites (dual-toxicity screening), entails in-line systems having sequentially aligned culture chambers. To explore dual-tox screens, we probe the [...] Read more.
Microfluidic screening tools, in vitro, evolve amid varied scientific disciplines. One emergent technique, simultaneously assessing cell toxicity from a primary compound and ensuing cell-generated metabolites (dual-toxicity screening), entails in-line systems having sequentially aligned culture chambers. To explore dual-tox screens, we probe the dissemination of nutrients involving 1-way transport with upstream compound dosing, midstream cascading flows, and downstream cessation. Distribution of flow gives rise to broad concentration ranges of dosing compound (0→ICcompound100) and wide-ranging concentration ranges of generated cell metabolites (0→ICmetabolites100). Innately, single-pass unidirectional flow retains 1st pass informative traits across the network, composed of nine interconnected culture wells, preserving both compound and cell-secreted byproducts as data indicators in each adjacent culture chamber. Thereafter, to assess effective compound hepatotoxicity (0→ECcompound100) and simultaneously classify for cell-metabolite toxicity (0→ECmetabolite100), we reveal utility by analyzing culture viability against ramping exposures of acetaminophen (APAP) and nefazodone (NEF), compounds of hepatic significance. We then discern metabolite generation with an emphasis on amplification across µchannel multiwell sites. Lastly, using conventional cell functions as indicator tools to assess dual toxicity, we investigate a non-drug induced liver injury (non-DILI) compound and DILI compound. The technology is for predictive evaluations of new compound formulations, new chemical entities (NCE), or drugs that have previously failed testing for unresolved reasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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12 pages, 2884 KiB  
Article
γ-Cyclodextrin Inclusion of Phloroglucinol: Solid State Studies and Antioxidant Activity throughout the Digestive Tract
by Marcelo D. Catarino, Beatriz S. Baía Costa, Ana Rita Circuncisão, Artur M. S. Silva, Susana M. Cardoso and Susana Santos Braga
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052340 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Phloroglucinol is a powerful antioxidant compound and an active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the management of intestinal spasms. In this report, we describe the interaction of γ-cyclodextrin with phloroglucinol to readily form a solid inclusion compound with 1:1 by co-dissolution and freeze-drying. Solid-state [...] Read more.
Phloroglucinol is a powerful antioxidant compound and an active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the management of intestinal spasms. In this report, we describe the interaction of γ-cyclodextrin with phloroglucinol to readily form a solid inclusion compound with 1:1 by co-dissolution and freeze-drying. Solid-state characterisation using FT-IR, thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) and X-ray powder diffraction confirmed the formation of a true inclusion compound (γ-CD·PG) in which the molecules of γ-CD are stacked into channels. This spatial arrangement is typical of γ-CD inclusion compounds, and it allows for the guest molecules to be located inside these channels. The evaluation of the antiradical potential of γ-CD·PG (against O2− and NO) on different steps of the digestive process (mouth, gastric and intestinal phases) led us to conclude that the inclusion of phloroglucinol promoted better antioxidant activity at the end of the digestion when compared to the free phloroglucinol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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12 pages, 2239 KiB  
Article
A Portable Device for the Measurement of Venous Pulse Wave Velocity
by Agata Barbagini, Leonardo Ermini, Raffaele Pertusio, Carlo Ferraresi and Silvestro Roatta
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(4), 2173; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12042173 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Pulse wave velocity in veins (vPWV) has recently been reconsidered as a potential index of vascular filling, which may be valuable in the clinic for fluid therapy. The measurement requires that an exogenous pressure pulse is generated in the venous blood stream by [...] Read more.
Pulse wave velocity in veins (vPWV) has recently been reconsidered as a potential index of vascular filling, which may be valuable in the clinic for fluid therapy. The measurement requires that an exogenous pressure pulse is generated in the venous blood stream by external pneumatic compression. To obtain optimal measure repeatability, the compression is delivered synchronously with the heart and respiratory activity. We present a portable prototype for the assessment of vPWV based on the PC board Raspberry Pi and equipped with an A/D board. It acquires respiratory and ECG signals, and the Doppler shift from the ultrasound monitoring of blood velocity from the relevant vein, drives the pneumatic cuff inflation, and returns multiple measurements of vPWV. The device was tested on four healthy volunteers (2 males, 2 females, age 33±13 years), subjected to the passive leg raising (PLR) manoeuvre simulating a transient increase in blood volume. Measurement of vPWV in the basilic vein exhibited a low coefficient of variation (3.6±1.1%), a significant increase during PLR in all subjects, which is consistent with previous findings. This device allows for carrying out investigations in hospital wards on different patient populations as necessary to assess the actual clinical potential of vPWV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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16 pages, 3465 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Enzymatic Crosslink Degradation on the Mechanics of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Hybrid Multi-Domain Model
by Fadi Al Khatib, Afif Gouissem, Armin Eilaghi and Malek Adouni
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8580; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188580 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
The anterior cruciate ligament’s (ACL) mechanics is an important factor governing the ligament’s integrity and, hence, the knee joint’s response. Despite many investigations in this area, the cause and effect of injuries remain unclear or unknown. This may be due to the complexity [...] Read more.
The anterior cruciate ligament’s (ACL) mechanics is an important factor governing the ligament’s integrity and, hence, the knee joint’s response. Despite many investigations in this area, the cause and effect of injuries remain unclear or unknown. This may be due to the complexity of the direct link between macro- and micro-scale damage mechanisms. In the first part of this investigation, a three-dimensional coarse-grained model of collagen fibril (type I) was developed using a bottom-up approach to investigate deformation mechanisms under tensile testing. The output of this molecular level was used later to calibrate the parameters of a hierarchical multi-scale fibril-reinforced hyper-elastoplastic model of the ACL. Our model enabled us to determine the mechanical behavior of the ACL as a function of the basic response of the collagen molecules. Modeled elastic response and damage distribution were in good agreement with the reported measurements and computational investigations. Our results suggest that degradation of crosslink content dictates the loss of the stiffness of the fibrils and, hence, damage to the ACL. Therefore, the proposed computational frame is a promising tool that will allow new insights into the biomechanics of the ACL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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Review

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12 pages, 56982 KiB  
Review
Physical Ergonomics in Peripheral Nerve Block
by Shahridan Mohd Fathil, Muhamad Rasydan Abdul Ghani, Kung-Yen Chen, Pinhsin Lee, Jin-De Hou and Jui-An Lin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9736; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209736 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
The understanding of ergonomics is a vital competency for all peripheral nerve block operators. The essence of physical ergonomics for peripheral nerve block procedures can be summarised into three significant components: brain, musculoskeletal and needling. The first component includes strategies to optimise visuospatial [...] Read more.
The understanding of ergonomics is a vital competency for all peripheral nerve block operators. The essence of physical ergonomics for peripheral nerve block procedures can be summarised into three significant components: brain, musculoskeletal and needling. The first component includes strategies to optimise visuospatial neuroprocessing using equipment configuration. The second component reflects the careful planning of posture and position to improve procedural technique and reduce physical fatigue. The final component focuses on strategies to achieve needle beam alignment for optimal needle visualisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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Other

8 pages, 863 KiB  
Case Report
The Growth Factor Release from a Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Is Influenced by the Onset of Guttate Psoriasis: A Case Report
by Elisa Borsani, Barbara Buffoli, Francesca Bonomini and Rita Rezzani
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7250; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147250 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
The involvement of platelets in immune and inflammatory processes is generally recognized; nevertheless, in psoriasis, their role is not clearly understood. We studied the in vitro growth factor release from a platelet-rich plasma preparation, the concentrated growth factors (CGF), in a case of [...] Read more.
The involvement of platelets in immune and inflammatory processes is generally recognized; nevertheless, in psoriasis, their role is not clearly understood. We studied the in vitro growth factor release from a platelet-rich plasma preparation, the concentrated growth factors (CGF), in a case of a psoriasis subject three days before the onset of the papule. The CGF clots were incubated in a cell culture medium without growth supplements for 5 h and 1, 3, 6, 7, and 8 days, and the release kinetics of PDGF-AB, VEGF, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 were evaluated. The data, based on the results obtained during the case study, report a general increase in growth factor release in the psoriasis subject with respect to the healthy control, indicating an imbalance of growth factor production from blood cells. Although the results should be validated in the future, they show new aspects of this dermatological pathology, opening new possibilities both as the method of study, using CGF, and the involvement of platelets and growth factors in its development and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences II)
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