Special Issue "Nano- and Biomagnetism"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Costica Caizer
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, West University of Timisoara, 300223 Timisoara, Romania
Interests: magnetism; nanomagnetism; superparamagnetism; magnetic relaxation; magnetic nanomaterials (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanofluids, nanopowders); advanced magnetic nanostructures;
biomagnetism; magnetic bio-nanomaterials; hybrid magnetic bio-nanomaterials in medicine; magnetic biofields of human body; magnetic hyperthermia in cancer therapy;
electricity and magnetism; experimental physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomagnetism and bionanomagnetism are fascinating domains at the nano level, through the special magnetic and biomagnetic aspects obtained compared to the bulk material, resulting mainly from the small size (1-100 nm) of physical nanostructures and bionanostructures. These fields are of great scientific interest today, both theoretically and in application, and have been developing explosively in recent years. The fundamental aspects in the fields of both theoretical and experimental nanomagnetism and bio-nanomagnetism, together with the methods and techniques of preparation and experimental investigation and applications in nanotechnology and bionanotechnology will be addressed in this special volume through a collection of papers on specific topics.

We are seeking research on the magnetism of magnetic nanostructures/nanomaterials and bio-nanostructures/nanomaterials. In particular, papers which will be accepted will deal with the following: Nanomagnetism and Bionanomagnetism (theory, experiment and computer simulation), Superparamagnetism, Magnetic properties of nanodimensional magnetic structures and biostructures, Magnetic behavior in static and dynamic fields (radio- and high frequency), Magnetic anisotropy, Magnetic relaxation, Superparamagnetic relaxation, Nanosize effects, Shape, surface, interactions, anisotropy and quantum effects, Advanced experimental methods, Magnetic nanostructures/ nanomaterials and bionanostructures/ bionanomaterials (magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), magnetic nanocomposites, magnetic nanofluids, magnetic nanopowders, magnetic nanotubes, magnetic nanoclusters, magnetic nanowires, magnetic nanoemulsions, hybrid bionanomaterials (organic-inorganic), assembled magnetic bio-nanostructures, bioencapsulated, biosurfacted, covered with different organic agents/ biopolymers, decorated on surface, bioconjugated, biofunctionalized magnetic nanostructures, etc.), Characterization method of nanomaterials and bio-nanomaterials (IR-FTIR, DTA-TG, XPS, XRD, SEM, TEM and HR-TEM, AFM, ED, EDAX, DC magnetization curves, AC susceptibility, magnetometry, dc-SQUID magnetometer, magnetic resonance, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc.), Design, synthesis and preparation methods, Nano-bioengineering of magnetic nanostructures, Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity, Nanotechnology and Bio-nanotechnology, Technical applications, Medical applications, inclusive in alternative cancer therapy (magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nanotheranostic etc.).

This Special Issue aims to make known the newest state-of-the-art results recently obtained in the fields of nanomagnetism and bionanomagnetism, and advanced applications in nano- and bionanotechnology.

Dr. Costica Caizer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomagnetism
  • static magnetization
  • dynamic magnetization
  • magnetic relaxation
  • superparamagnetism
  • superparamagnetic relaxation
  • computer simulation
  • magnetic nanostructures
  • magnetic nanomaterials
  • advanced magnetic nanomaterials
  • preparation methods
  • characterization techniques
  • nanotechnology
  • technical application
  • nano-biomagnetism
  • magnetic bio-fields
  • magnetic bio-nanomaterials
  • nano-biomaterials synthesis
  • nano-biomaterial characterization
  • bionanotechnology
  • biomedical applications
  • magnetic imaging
  • magnetic hyperthermia (MHT)
  • magnetic drug delivery
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • magnetic diagnosis
  • nanotheranostic
  • magnetic therapy
  • alternative cancer therapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Biocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Laccase Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8216; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178216 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Free laccase has limitations for its use in industrial applications that require laccase immobilization on proper support, to improve its catalytic activity. Herein, the nanoparticles of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) were [...] Read more.
Free laccase has limitations for its use in industrial applications that require laccase immobilization on proper support, to improve its catalytic activity. Herein, the nanoparticles of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) were successfully used as support for the immobilization of free laccase, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The immobilization conditions of laccase on the surface of nanoparticles were optimized to reach the maximum activity of the immobilized enzyme. The synthesized free nanoparticles and the nanoparticle-immobilized laccase were characterized using different techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, as support, enhanced laccase activity compared to free laccase and Fe3O4 nanoparticle-immobilized laccase that appeared during the study of pH, temperature, and storage stability on free and immobilized laccase. The CuFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticle-immobilized laccase showed superior activity in a wide pH range, temperature range, and storage period, up to 20 days at 4.0 °C, when compared to free laccase. Additionally, the synthesized nanobiocatalysts were examined and optimized for the biodegradation of the anionic dye Direct Red 23 (DR23). HPLC analysis was used to confirm the dye degradation. The reusability of immobilized laccases for the biodegradation of DR23 dye was investigated for up to six successive cycles, with a decolorization efficiency over 70.0%, which indicated good reusability and excellent stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Biomagnetism)
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Article
Polyethylenimine-Modified Magnetic Chitosan for the Uptake of Arsenic from Water
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5630; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125630 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 442
Abstract
The removal of heavy metals from water has become a global environmental problem. Various materials have been applied as adsorbent to remove metals from water. In this field, nanomaterials have been gaining increasing interest due to their exceptional properties. In this work, we [...] Read more.
The removal of heavy metals from water has become a global environmental problem. Various materials have been applied as adsorbent to remove metals from water. In this field, nanomaterials have been gaining increasing interest due to their exceptional properties. In this work, we discuss the synthesis of a core-shell structure nanocomposite by the modification of magnetic chitosan (CS) (Fe3O4/CS) with polyethylenimine (PEI) to produce Fe3O4/CS/PEI composite for the adsorption of arsenic ions (As(V) and As(III)) from aqueous solution. The synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results indicated the successful combination of three components of the nanocomposite. The adsorption conditions were optimized by studying the effect of different parameters included pH, contact time, initial concentration, and adsorbent dosage. The optimum adsorption pH was found to be 6.7 while the optimum adsorbent dosage was found to be 2.0 and 1.5 g/L for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The removal efficiency for the uptake of As(III) and As(V) ions over Fe3O4/CS/PEI nanocomposite at optimum conditions was found to be 99.5 and 99.7%, respectively. The experimental results were fitted using Freundlich’s and Langmuir’s isotherms. The data were more fitted to Langmuir isotherm providing a suggestion of monolayer adsorption with maximum adsorption capacity equal to 77.61 and 86.50 mg/g for the removal of As(III) and As(V), respectively. Moreover, linear regression coefficient (R2) indicated that the adsorption of arsenic ions over the synthesized magnetic nanocomposite obeyed pseudo 2nd order suggesting the chemisorption process. The reusability of the nanosorbent for arsenic uptake using sodium hydroxide as eluent was also assessed up to five cycles. Interestingly, Fe3O4/CS/PEI nanocomposite can be considered as a promising adsorbent for As ions’ removal from water and should be tested for the removal of other pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Biomagnetism)
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Article
Theoretical Study on Specific Loss Power and Heating Temperature in CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Possible Candidate for Alternative Cancer Therapy by Superparamagnetic Hyperthemia
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5505; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125505 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the maximum specific loss power in the admissible biological limit (PsM)l for CoFe2O4 ferrimagnetic nanoparticles, as a possible candidate in alternative and non-invasive cancer therapy by superparamagnetic hyperthermia. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the maximum specific loss power in the admissible biological limit (PsM)l for CoFe2O4 ferrimagnetic nanoparticles, as a possible candidate in alternative and non-invasive cancer therapy by superparamagnetic hyperthermia. The heating time of the nanoparticles (Δto) at the optimum temperature of approx. 43 °C for the efficient destruction of tumor cells in a short period of time, was also studied. We found the maximum specific loss power PsM (as a result of superparamegnetic relaxation in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles) for very small diameters of the nanoparticles (Do), situated in the range of 5.88–6.67 nm, and with the limit frequencies (fl) in the very wide range of values of 83–1000 kHz, respectively. Additionally, the optimal heating temperature (To) of 43 °C was obtained for a very wide range of values of the magnetic field H, of 5–60 kA/m, and the corresponding optimal heating times (Δto) were found in very short time intervals in the range of ~0.3–44 s, depending on the volume packing fraction (ε) of the nanoparticles. The obtained results, as well as the very wide range of values for the amplitude H and the frequency f of the external alternating magnetic field for which superparamagnetic hyperthermia can be obtained, which are great practical benefits in the case of hyperthermia, demonstrate that CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can be successfully used in the therapy of cancer by superaparamagnetic hyperthermia. In addition, the very small size of magnetic nanoparticles (only a few nm) will lead to two major benefits in cancer therapy via superparamagnetic hyperthermia, namely: (i) the possibility of intracellular therapy which is much more effective due to the ability to destroy tumor cells from within and (ii) the reduced cell toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Biomagnetism)
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Review

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Review
New Materials and Effects in Molecular Nanomagnets
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7510; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167510 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Molecular magnets are a relatively new class of purely organic or metallo-organic materials, showing magnetism even without an external magnetic field. This interdisciplinary field between chemistry and physics has been gaining increased interest since the 1990s. While bulk molecular magnets are usually hard [...] Read more.
Molecular magnets are a relatively new class of purely organic or metallo-organic materials, showing magnetism even without an external magnetic field. This interdisciplinary field between chemistry and physics has been gaining increased interest since the 1990s. While bulk molecular magnets are usually hard to build because of their molecular structures, low-dimensional molecular magnets are often easier to construct, down to dot-like (zero-dimensional) structures, which are investigated by different scanning probe technologies. On these scales, new effects such as superparamagnetic behavior or coherent switching during magnetization reversal can be recognized. Here, we give an overview of the recent advances in molecular nanomagnets, starting with single-molecule magnets (0D), typically based on Mn12, Fe8, or Mn4, going further to single-chain magnets (1D) and finally higher-dimensional molecular nanomagnets. This review does not aim to give a comprehensive overview of all research fields dealing with molecular nanomagnets, but instead aims at pointing out diverse possible materials and effects in order to stimulate new research in this broad field of nanomagnetism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Biomagnetism)
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Review
Unexpected Ferromagnetism—A Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6707; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156707 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The study of magnetism in materials without partially filled d or f bands has gained much attention in the past years. Even though it has challenged the understanding of traditional magnetism, there is a wide range of studies debating the nature of magnetism [...] Read more.
The study of magnetism in materials without partially filled d or f bands has gained much attention in the past years. Even though it has challenged the understanding of traditional magnetism, there is a wide range of studies debating the nature of magnetism in such materials. Theories on whether the exhibited ferromagnetic behavior is due to sample impurities or intrinsic structural defects have been published throughout the years. Materials such as hexaborides, non-magnetic oxides, and carbon nanostructures have been of great interest due to their potential applications. For a better understanding, herein, we present a literature review combining past and up-to-date studies on these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Biomagnetism)
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