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New Materials and Effects in Molecular Nanomagnets

The Biocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Laccase Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles

Chemistry Department, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia
Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61411, Saudi Arabia
Research Laboratory of Energy and Environment, Department of Chemical Engineering, National School of Engineers, Gabes University, Gabes 6072, Tunisia
Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax (ISBS), Sfax University, P.O. Box 263, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Costica Caizer
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8216;
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 31 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 4 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano- and Biomagnetism)
Free laccase has limitations for its use in industrial applications that require laccase immobilization on proper support, to improve its catalytic activity. Herein, the nanoparticles of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) were successfully used as support for the immobilization of free laccase, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The immobilization conditions of laccase on the surface of nanoparticles were optimized to reach the maximum activity of the immobilized enzyme. The synthesized free nanoparticles and the nanoparticle-immobilized laccase were characterized using different techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, as support, enhanced laccase activity compared to free laccase and Fe3O4 nanoparticle-immobilized laccase that appeared during the study of pH, temperature, and storage stability on free and immobilized laccase. The CuFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticle-immobilized laccase showed superior activity in a wide pH range, temperature range, and storage period, up to 20 days at 4.0 °C, when compared to free laccase. Additionally, the synthesized nanobiocatalysts were examined and optimized for the biodegradation of the anionic dye Direct Red 23 (DR23). HPLC analysis was used to confirm the dye degradation. The reusability of immobilized laccases for the biodegradation of DR23 dye was investigated for up to six successive cycles, with a decolorization efficiency over 70.0%, which indicated good reusability and excellent stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: activity enhancement; immobilization; magnetic nanoparticles; laccase; biodegradation activity enhancement; immobilization; magnetic nanoparticles; laccase; biodegradation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alsaiari, N.S.; Amari, A.; Katubi, K.M.; Alzahrani, F.M.; Harharah, H.N.; Rebah, F.B.; Tahoon, M.A. The Biocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Laccase Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8216.

AMA Style

Alsaiari NS, Amari A, Katubi KM, Alzahrani FM, Harharah HN, Rebah FB, Tahoon MA. The Biocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Laccase Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(17):8216.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alsaiari, Norah S., Abdelfattah Amari, Khadijah M. Katubi, Fatimah M. Alzahrani, Hamed N. Harharah, Faouzi B. Rebah, and Mohamed A. Tahoon 2021. "The Biocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Laccase Immobilized Magnetic Nanoparticles" Applied Sciences 11, no. 17: 8216.

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