Special Issue "Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2022.
Related Special Issue: Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Gasparetto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
Interests: robotics; modeling and control of mechatronic systems; mechanical vibrations
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Stefano Seriani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, 34139 Trieste, Italy
Interests: space robotics; rovers; mobile robotics; autonomous systems; modular systems; industrial robotics; cable robots
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Lorenzo Scalera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
Interests: robotics; mechatronics; mechanical vibrations; dynamic modelling of automatic machines and robots; cable-driven robots; collaborative robotics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The modeling and control of mechatronic and robotic systems is an open and challenging field of investigation in both industry and academia. The modeling of a mechanical system is fundamental in the development of experimental prototypes. The kinematic model of a mechatronic or robotic system is essential for the proper definition of the path that the system has to follow during its operation. Dynamic modeling makes it possible to simulate and predict scenarios and working conditions, and to evaluate the system’s time-dependent evolution and response under different input conditions. Indeed, a proper model can be used to improve the design and performance with different objectives: vibration reduction, energy consumption minimization, path and trajectory planning optimization, as well as improvement of control and tracking performance. Within this framework, the proper control of an automatic system is essential for successfully completing a predefined task, even in the presence of external disturbances. Finally, the design of proper controllers for robots and automatic machines is crucial when dealing with flexible systems in which mechanical vibration and noise have to be taken into account.

This Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences encompasses the modeling, analysis, design, and control of mechatronic and robotic systems, with the aim of improving the performance and design of such systems.

We invite contributions to this Special Issue on topics including but not limited to the following:

  • Modelling of mechatronic and robotic systems:
    • Kinematic modeling;
    • Dynamic modeling;
  • Path and trajectory planning:
    • Navigation;
    • Obstacle avoidance;
    • Motion planning;
  • Control systems;
  • Optimization of mechatronic and robotic systems with respect to:
    • Mechanical vibration and noise;
    • Energy consumption;
    • Kinematic and dynamic behavior;
    • Tracking performance;
  • Applications including, but not limited to:
    • Robotics;
    • Collaborative robots;
    • Mechatronics;
    • Flexible and compliant multibody systems;
    • Manufacturing systems.

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Gasparetto
Dr. Stefano Seriani
Dr. Lorenzo Scalera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • robotics
  • mechatronics
  • control
  • dynamics
  • trajectory planning
  • mobile robotics

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Article
Behavior-Based Control Architecture for Legged-and-Climber Robots
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9547; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209547 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 244
Abstract
In this paper, we present a fully original control architecture for legged-and-climber robots that is level-based, hierarchical, and centralized. The architecture gives the robots the ability to perform self-reconfiguration after unforeseen leg failures, because it can control this kind of robot with different [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a fully original control architecture for legged-and-climber robots that is level-based, hierarchical, and centralized. The architecture gives the robots the ability to perform self-reconfiguration after unforeseen leg failures, because it can control this kind of robot with different numbers of legs. The results show the capability of performing movements in any direction and inclination planes. The components and functionalities of the developed control architecture for these robots are described, and, the architecture’s performance is tested on the ROMHEX robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Design of a Planar Cable-Driven Parallel Robot for Non-Contact Tasks
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9491; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209491 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Cable-driven parallel robots offer significant advantages in terms of workspace dimensions and payload capability. Their mechanical structure and transmission system consist of light and extendable cables that can withstand high tensile loads. Cables are wound and unwound by a set of motorized winches, [...] Read more.
Cable-driven parallel robots offer significant advantages in terms of workspace dimensions and payload capability. Their mechanical structure and transmission system consist of light and extendable cables that can withstand high tensile loads. Cables are wound and unwound by a set of motorized winches, so that the robot workspace dimensions mainly depend on the amount of cable that each drum can store. For this reason, these manipulators are attractive for many industrial tasks to be performed on a large scale, such as handling, pick-and-place, and manufacturing, without a substantial increase in costs and mechanical complexity with respect to a small-scale application. This paper presents the design of a planar overconstrained cable-driven parallel robot for quasi-static non-contact operations on planar vertical surfaces, such as laser engraving, inspection and thermal treatment. The overall mechanical structure of the robot is shown, by focusing on the actuation and guidance systems. A novel concept of the cable guidance system is outlined, which allows for a simple kinematic model to control the manipulator. As an application example, a laser diode is mounted onto the end-effector of a prototype to perform laser engraving on a paper sheet. Observations on the experiments are reported and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Design and Implementation of Inverse Kinematics and Motion Monitoring System for 6DoF Platform
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9330; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199330 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Six-axis motion platforms have a low contraction height and a high degree of freedom. First of all, the designed six-axis crank arm platform, including the motor, reducer, crank arm, link, platform support arm, and upper and lower platforms, can be designed for different [...] Read more.
Six-axis motion platforms have a low contraction height and a high degree of freedom. First of all, the designed six-axis crank arm platform, including the motor, reducer, crank arm, link, platform support arm, and upper and lower platforms, can be designed for different bearing requirements. Secondly, it uses a coordinate transform and kinematics theory to derive each motor rotor angle. A set of platform data acquisition (DAQ) monitoring modules was established, and the LabVIEW programming language was used to write measurement software. The monitoring items include displacement, speed, and acceleration, which can be displayed on the screen and recorded by an industrial computer in real time and dynamically. Then, an RS-485 or RS-232 communication transmission interface was used to provide the control system with the related movement information. Finally, an industrial computer combined with a motion control card was used as a control kernel to realize the control algorithms, internet module function, I/O write and read signals, firmware integration, and human–machine interface message. The experimental results validate the appropriateness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Data-Driven Control Algorithm for Snake Manipulator
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8146; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178146 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
In some environments where manual work cannot be carried out, snake manipulators are instead used to improve the level of automatic work and ensure personal safety. However, the structure of the snake manipulator is diverse, which renders it difficult to establish an environmental [...] Read more.
In some environments where manual work cannot be carried out, snake manipulators are instead used to improve the level of automatic work and ensure personal safety. However, the structure of the snake manipulator is diverse, which renders it difficult to establish an environmental model of the control system. It is difficult to obtain an ideal control effect by using the traditional manipulator control method. In view of this, this paper proposes a data-driven snake manipulator control algorithm. After collecting data, the algorithm uses the strong learning and decision-making ability of the deep deterministic strategy gradient to learn these system data. A data-driven controller based on the deep deterministic policy gradient was trained in order to solve the manipulator system control problem when the control system environment model is uncertain or even unknown. The data of simulation experiments show that the control algorithm has good stability and accuracy in the case of model uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Online Foot Location Planning for Gait Transitioning Using Model Predictive Control
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7866; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177866 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
This paper proposes an online uniform foot location planning method (UPMPC) based on model predictive control (MPC) for solving the problem of large posture changes during gait transitioning. This method converts the foot location planning into a discrete-time MPC problem. The core part [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an online uniform foot location planning method (UPMPC) based on model predictive control (MPC) for solving the problem of large posture changes during gait transitioning. This method converts the foot location planning into a discrete-time MPC problem. The core part of the method is to complete the planning of the foot location based on the linear inverted pendulum (LIP) model and the simplified robot dynamics model. By unifying the input foot location at each time step, the solution time is shortened. The final simulation experiment compares the results of using the UPMPC and foot location planning method with heuristic function (HF) for gait transitioning, respectively. This result demonstrates that the UPMPC can complete the gait transitioning task and adapt to large changes in posture during gait transitioning. In addition, the results also show the good performance of UPMPC in fixed gait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Advanced Trajectory Control for Piezoelectric Actuators Based on Robust Control Combined with Artificial Neural Networks
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7390; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167390 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
In applications where high precision in micro- and nanopositioning is required, piezoelectric actuators (PEA) are an optimal micromechatronic choice. However, the accuracy of these devices is affected by a natural phenomenon called “hysteresis” that even increases the instability of the system. This anomaly [...] Read more.
In applications where high precision in micro- and nanopositioning is required, piezoelectric actuators (PEA) are an optimal micromechatronic choice. However, the accuracy of these devices is affected by a natural phenomenon called “hysteresis” that even increases the instability of the system. This anomaly can be counteracted through a material re-shape or by the design of a control strategy. Through this research, a novel control design has been developed; the structure contemplates an artificial neural network (ANN) feedforward to contract the non-linearities and a robust close-loop compensator to reduce the unmodelled dynamics, uncertainties and perturbations. The proposed scheme was embedded in a dSpace control platform with a Thorlabs PEA; the parameters were tuned online through specific metrics. The outcomes were compared with a conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller in terms of control signal and tracking performance. The experimental gathered results showed that the advanced proposed strategy had a superior accuracy and chattering reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Experimental Verification of Real-Time Flow-Rate Estimations in a Tilting-Ladle-Type Automatic Pouring Machine
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6701; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156701 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
This paper discusses a real-time flow-rate estimation method for a tilting-ladle-type automatic pouring machine used in the casting industry. In most pouring machines, molten metal is poured into a mold by tilting the ladle. Precise pouring is required to improve productivity and ensure [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a real-time flow-rate estimation method for a tilting-ladle-type automatic pouring machine used in the casting industry. In most pouring machines, molten metal is poured into a mold by tilting the ladle. Precise pouring is required to improve productivity and ensure a safe pouring process. To achieve precise pouring, it is important to control the flow rate of the liquid outflow from the ladle. However, due to the high temperature of molten metal, directly measuring the flow rate to devise flow-rate feedback control is difficult. To solve this problem, specific flow-rate estimation methods have been developed. In the previous study by present authors, a simplified flow-rate estimation method was proposed, in which Kalman filters were decentralized to motor systems and the pouring process for implementing into the industrial controller of an automatic pouring machine used a complicatedly shaped ladle. The effectiveness of this flow rate estimation was verified in the experiment with the ideal condition. In the present study, the appropriateness of the real-time flow-rate estimation by decentralization of Kalman filters is verified by comparing it with two other types of existing real-time flow-rate estimations, i.e., time derivatives of the weight of the outflow liquid measured by the load cell and the liquid volume in the ladle measured by a visible camera. We especially confirmed the estimation errors of the candidate real-time flow-rate estimations in the experiments with the uncertainty of the model parameters. These flow-rate estimation methods were applied to a laboratory-type automatic pouring machine to verify their performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Omnidirectional Robotic Platform for Surveillance of Particle Accelerator Environments with Limited Space Areas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146631 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 517
Abstract
Intelligent robotic systems are becoming essential for inspections and measurements in harsh environments. This article presents the design of an omnidirectional robotic platform for tunnel inspection with spatial limitations. This robot was born from the need to automate the surveillance process of the [...] Read more.
Intelligent robotic systems are becoming essential for inspections and measurements in harsh environments. This article presents the design of an omnidirectional robotic platform for tunnel inspection with spatial limitations. This robot was born from the need to automate the surveillance process of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where there is remaining radiation. The accelerator is located within a tunnel that is divided by small doors of 400 × 200 mm dimensions, through which the robot has to cross. The designed robot brings a robotic arm, and the needed devices to carry out the inspection. Thanks to this design, the robot application may vary by replacing certain devices and tools. In addition, this paper presents the kinematic and dynamic control models for the robotic platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Design of JET Humanoid Robot with Compliant Modular Actuators for Industrial and Service Applications
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6152; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136152 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
This paper presents the development of the JET humanoid robot, which is based on the existing THORMANG platform developed in 2015. Application in the industrial and service fields was targeted, and three design concepts were determined for the humanoid robot. First, low stiffness [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of the JET humanoid robot, which is based on the existing THORMANG platform developed in 2015. Application in the industrial and service fields was targeted, and three design concepts were determined for the humanoid robot. First, low stiffness of the actuator modules was utilized for compliance with external environments. Second, to maximize the robot whole-body motion capability, the overall height was increased. However, the weight was reduced to satisfy power requirements. The workspace was also increased to enable various postures, by increasing the range of motion of each joint and extending the links. Compared to the original THORMANG platform, the lower limb length increased by approximately 20%, and the hip range of motion increased by 39.3%. Third, the maintenance process was simplified through modularization of the electronics and frame design for improved accessibility. Several experiments, including stair climbing and egress from a car, were performed to verify that the JET humanoid robot performance enhancements reflected the design concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Design and Simulation of a Vision-Based Automatic Trout Fish-Processing Robot
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5602; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125602 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Today, industrial automation is being applied in a wide range of fields. The initial modeling of robots and mechanical systems together with simulation results in optimal systems. In this study, the designed system is simulated to obtain the required velocities, accelerations and torques [...] Read more.
Today, industrial automation is being applied in a wide range of fields. The initial modeling of robots and mechanical systems together with simulation results in optimal systems. In this study, the designed system is simulated to obtain the required velocities, accelerations and torques of the actuating arms in a vision-based automatic system. Due to the slippery skin of fish and the low friction coefficient, it is not easy to design an optimal tool to handle fish. Since the fish-processing operation is undertaken step by step and provides fish stability, it is essential that the gripper enables different processing operations along the system. The proposed system performs belly-cutting, beheading, gutting, and cleaning stages for different fish sizes, based on the extracted dimensions of the vision system. In the head-cutting section, the average speed of the actuator jack was considered as 500 mm s−1. Under these conditions, the maximum required force to provide this speed was 332.45 N. In the belly-cutting subsystem, the required torque for the stepper motor resulted in 1.79–2.15 N m. Finally, the maximum required torque for the gutting stepper motor was calculated as 0.69 N m in the tested processing capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
State Machine-Based Hybrid Position/Force Control Architecture for a Waste Management Mobile Robot with 5DOF Manipulator
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4222; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094222 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
When robots are built with state-driven motors, task-planning increases in complexity and difficulty. This type of actuator is difficult to control, because each type of control position/force requires different motor parameters. To solve this problem, we propose a state machine-driven hybrid position/force control [...] Read more.
When robots are built with state-driven motors, task-planning increases in complexity and difficulty. This type of actuator is difficult to control, because each type of control position/force requires different motor parameters. To solve this problem, we propose a state machine-driven hybrid position/force control architecture (SmHPFC). To achieve this, we take the classic hybrid position/force control method, while using only PID regulators, and add a state machine on top of it. In this way, the regulators will not help the control architecture, but the architecture will help the entire control system. The architecture acts both as a parameter update process and as a switching mechanism for the joints’ decision S-matrix. The obtained control architecture was then applied to a 5DOF serial manipulator built with Festo motors. Using SmHPFC, the robot was then able to operate with position or force control depending on its designated task. Without the proposed architecture, the robot joint parameters would have to be updated using a more rigid approach; each time a new task begins with new parameters, the control type would have to be changed. Using the SmHPFC, the robot reference generation and task complexity is reduced to a much simpler one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Development and Evaluation of the Traction Characteristics of a Crawler EOD Robot
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3757; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093757 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Today, terrestrial robots are used in a multitude of fields and for performing multiple missions. This paper introduces the novel development of a family of crawling terrestrial robots capable of changing very quickly depending on the missions they have to perform. The principle [...] Read more.
Today, terrestrial robots are used in a multitude of fields and for performing multiple missions. This paper introduces the novel development of a family of crawling terrestrial robots capable of changing very quickly depending on the missions they have to perform. The principle of novelty is the use of a load-bearing platform consisting of two independent propulsion systems. The operational platform, which handles the actual mission, is attached (plug and play) between the two crawler propulsion systems. The source of inspiration is the fact that there are a multitude of intervention robots in emergency situations, each independent of the other. In addition to these costs, there are also problems with the specialization of a very large number of staff. The present study focused on the realization of a simplified, modular model of the kinematics and dynamics of the crawler robot, so that it can be easily integrated, by adding or removing the calculation modules, into the software used. The designed model was integrated on a company controller, which allowed us to compare the results obtained by simulation with those obtained experimentally. We appreciate that the analyzed Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot solution represents a premise for the development of a family of EOD robots that use the same carrier platform and to which a multitude of operational platforms should be attached, depending on the missions to be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
Design and Modelling of an Amphibious Spherical Robot Attached with Assistant Fins
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3739; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093739 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Mobile robots that can survive in unstructured wildernesses is essential in many applications such as environment detecting and security surveillance. In many of these applications, it is highly desirable that the robot can adapt robustly to both terrestrial environment and aquatic environment, and [...] Read more.
Mobile robots that can survive in unstructured wildernesses is essential in many applications such as environment detecting and security surveillance. In many of these applications, it is highly desirable that the robot can adapt robustly to both terrestrial environment and aquatic environment, and translocate swiftly between various environments. A novel concept of amphibious spherical robot with fins is proposed in this paper, capable of both terrestrial locomotion and aquatic locomotion. Unlike the traditional amphibious robots, whose motions are commonly induced by propellers, legs or snake-like tandem joints, the proposed amphibious spherical robot utilizes the rolling motion of a spherical shell as the principal locomotion mode in the aquatic environment. Moreover, spinning motion of the spherical shell is used to steer the spherical robot efficiently and agilely; several fins are attached to the outer spherical shell as an assistance to the rolling motion. These two motion modes, rolling and spinning, can be used unchangeably in the terrestrial environment, leading to a compact and highly adaptive design of the robot. The work introduced in this paper brings in an innovative solution for the design of an amphibious robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
A Workspace-Analysis-Based Genetic Algorithm for Solving Inverse Kinematics of a Multi-Fingered Anthropomorphic Hand
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062668 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Although the solution of inverse kinematics for a serial redundant manipulator has been widely researched, many algorithms still seem limited in dealing with complex geometries, including multi-finger anthropomorphic hands. In this paper, the inverse kinematic problems of multiple fingers are an aggregate problem [...] Read more.
Although the solution of inverse kinematics for a serial redundant manipulator has been widely researched, many algorithms still seem limited in dealing with complex geometries, including multi-finger anthropomorphic hands. In this paper, the inverse kinematic problems of multiple fingers are an aggregate problem when the target points of fingers are given. The fingers are concatenated to the same wrist and the objective is to find a solution for the wrist and two fingers simultaneously. To achieve this goal, a modified immigration genetic algorithm based on workspace analysis is developed and validated. To reduce unnecessary computation of the immigration genetic algorithm, which arises from an inappropriate inverse kinematic request, a database of the two fingers’ workspace is generated using the Monte Carlo method to examine the feasibility of inverse kinematic request. Furthermore, the estimation algorithm provides an optimal set of wrist angles for the immigration genetic algorithm to complete the remaining computation. The results reveal that the algorithm can be terminated immediately even when the inverse kinematic request is out of the workspace. In addition, a distribution of population in each generation illustrates that the optimized wrist angles provide a better initial condition, which significantly improves the convergence of the immigration genetic algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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Article
A Theoretical Method for Designing Thin Wobble Motor Using an Electromagnetic Force and an Electropermanent Magnet for Application in Portable Electric Equipment
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020881 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
The thin wobble motors that are required to hold rating shafts employ an electropermanent magnet. This turns the holding force on and off by applying a momentary electrical pulse. To design the magnet devices without the need for finite element analyses, a theoretical [...] Read more.
The thin wobble motors that are required to hold rating shafts employ an electropermanent magnet. This turns the holding force on and off by applying a momentary electrical pulse. To design the magnet devices without the need for finite element analyses, a theoretical force model is necessary for predicting the attractive force. In this paper, first, a force model is derived by estimating the permeance around the air gap. A magnetic circuit is constructed, employing a relatively simple method to build the model in clouding leakage flux. Thus, the basic structure and driving principle are also presented. Next, an analytical force model is constructed on the basis of distribution parameter analysis between the stator and the rotating shaft. The design of the electromagnet core and the control method are presented. Finally, a prototype model of the motor that is 30 mm in diameter and 7 mm in thick is fabricated. The two models are verified by comparing the results of FEM with the results of the experiments. They can properly predict the attractive force, so the thin wobble motor with holding force can be applied in portable electric equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Control of Mechatronic and Robotic Systems, Volume II)
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