Special Issue "GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mirko Reguzzoni
Website
Guest Editor
Geodesy and Geomatics Division, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy
Interests: Satellite and physical geodesy with geophysical and oceanographic applications; Earth’s gravity field modeling; local and regional geoid determination; inverse gravimetric problems; GPS/GNSS positioning, monitoring and navigation; digital photogrammetry; statistical and numerical data analysis
Dr. Carlo Iapige De Gaetani
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA), Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Interests: geomatics; building information modeling
Dr. Daniele Sampietro
Website
Guest Editor
Geomatics Research & Development s.r.l. (GReD), Italy
Interests: geodesy; geomatics; surveying; gravity; geostatistics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural hazards due to Earth surface deformations (such as subsidence and sinking phenomena, landslides) and failure of structures (such as dams, bridges, buildings) and infrastructures (such as roads, railways, channels) necessitate prompt and efficient risk monitoring to mitigate their associated implications, such as for life safety and economic protection. Precursory changes in geometry can often reveal such risks; thus, the continuous positional determination of points with respect to time is one of the possible approaches that can be effectively used to prevent damage. These time series can be used to implement an effective maintenance plan for land, and for structures and infrastructures, and to provide prompt alarms when necessary. In this respect, the use of geodetic techniques and, in particular, of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), as well as their integration with other types of sensors, is common practice. In recent years, the attention of the GNSS community has been drawn to the possible application of low-cost GNSS receivers which have proven to be capable of producing satisfactory results for monitoring purposes, overcoming previous limitations of this approach due to the cost of geodetic quality receivers. Furthermore, the availability of the new Galileo system has fostered even more research in this field.

The Special Issue “GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring” aims to present the most relevant methodological advancements in GNSS monitoring, as well as case study applications of this technology. Potential topics of the Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Natural hazard and structure/infrastructure monitoring;
  • Crustal deformation and land monitoring;
  • GNSS network design and implementation;
  • Time series analysis and alarm management;
  • Improvements by using GNSS multiconstellation monitoring systems;
  • Monitoring by integrating GNSS with other techniques and/or sensors;
  • Low-cost GNSS monitoring systems;
  • Experimental tests and instrumentation assessment/comparison;
  • Examples of technological transfer to real-world applications.

Dr. Mirko Reguzzoni
Dr. Carlo Iapige De Gaetani
Dr. Daniele Sampietro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • GNSS
  • monitoring
  • risk management
  • land
  • structures/infrastructures
  • displacements/deformations
  • time series analysis
  • low-cost instrumentation
  • multisensor systems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Performance Assessment of PPP Surveys with Open Source Software Using the GNSS GPS–GLONASS–Galileo Constellations
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5420; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165420 (registering DOI) - 05 Aug 2020
Abstract
In this work, the performance of the multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique, in static mode, is analyzed. Specifically, GPS (Global Positioning System), GLONASS, and Galileo systems are considered, and quantifying the Galileo contribution is one of the main [...] Read more.
In this work, the performance of the multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique, in static mode, is analyzed. Specifically, GPS (Global Positioning System), GLONASS, and Galileo systems are considered, and quantifying the Galileo contribution is one of the main objectives. The open source software RTKLib is adopted to process the data, with precise satellite orbits and clocks from CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) and CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellites) analysis centers for International GNSS Service (IGS). The Iono-free model is used to correct ionospheric errors, the GOT-4.7 model is used to correct tidal effects, and Differential Code Biases (DCB) are taken from the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftund Raumfahrt (DLR) center. Two different tropospheric models are tested: Saastamoinen and Estimate ZTD (Zenith Troposhperic Delay). For the proposed study, a dataset of 31 days from a permanent GNSS station, placed in Palermo (Italy), and a dataset of 10 days from a static geodetic receiver, placed nearby the station, have been collected and processed by the most used open source software in the geomatic community. The considered GNSS configurations are seven: GPS only, GLONASS only, Galileo only, GPS+GLONASS, GPS+Galileo, GLONASS+Galileo, and GPS+GLONASS+Galileo. The results show significant performance improvement of the GNSS combinations with respect to single GNSS cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Static Positioning Accuracy Using Low-Cost Smartphone GPS Devices for Geodetic Survey Points’ Determination and Monitoring
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5308; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155308 - 31 Jul 2020
Abstract
Recent developments enable to access raw Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements of mobile phones. Initially, researchers using signals gathered by mobile phones for high accuracy surveying were not successful in ambiguity fixing. Nowadays, GNSS chips, which are built in the latest smartphones, [...] Read more.
Recent developments enable to access raw Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements of mobile phones. Initially, researchers using signals gathered by mobile phones for high accuracy surveying were not successful in ambiguity fixing. Nowadays, GNSS chips, which are built in the latest smartphones, deliver code and primarily carrier phase observations available for detailed analysis in post-processing applications. Therefore, we decided to check the performance of carrier phase ambiguity fixing and positioning accuracy results of the latest Huawei P30 pro smartphone equipped with a dual-frequency GNSS receiver. We collected 3 h of raw static data in separate sessions at a known point location. For two sessions, the mobile phone was mounted vertically and for the third one—horizontally. At the same time, a high-class geodetic receiver was used for L1 and L5 signal comparison purposes. The carrier phase measurements were processed using commercial post-processing software with reference to the closest base station observations located 4 km away. Additionally, 1 h sessions were divided into 10, 15, 20 and 30 min separate sub-sessions to check the accuracy of the surveying results in fast static mode. According to the post-processing results, we were able to fix all L1 ambiguities based on Global Positioning System (GPS)-only satellite constellation. In comparison to the fixed reference point position, all three 1 h static session results were at centimeters level of accuracy (1–4 cm). For fast static surveying mode, the best results were obtained for 20 and 30 min sessions, where average accuracy was also at centimeters level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling of the Vertical Movements of the Earth’s Crust in Poland with the Co-Kriging Method Based on Various Sources of Data
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093004 - 25 Apr 2020
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the co-kriging method for modeling the vertical movements of the Earth’s crust based on data acquired with the use of precision leveling techniques and measurements conducted by permanent Global Navigation Satellite [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the co-kriging method for modeling the vertical movements of the Earth’s crust based on data acquired with the use of precision leveling techniques and measurements conducted by permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Data were processed with the use of empirical, theoretical, and directional variograms (semivariograms), as well as variogram maps. Large-scale spatial variability was determined using polynomial regression. The relationships between the length of the semi-major and semi-minor axes vs. the root mean square (RMS) and the standard error of the estimate were analyzed. The relationships between the anisotropic direction and the number of lags were determined, and other parameters were calculated. Preliminary data fitting produced non-stationary surfaces. The leveling data were anisotropic, and the GNSS data were isotropic. Nugget effects were observed in both datasets, in particular in the GNSS data. The size of the ellipse was strongly correlated with the RMS and σ (average standard deviation of prediction). The anisotropy angle was determined using the number of lags. Co-kriging was found to not be a suitable method for modeling the vertical movements of the Earth’s crust based on data from various sources. The final result was strongly influenced by the initial dataset. The obtained results show how the method of combining data sets (interpolation, network adjustment) affected the final cartographic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving GNSS Landslide Monitoring with the Use of Low-Cost MEMS Accelerometers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5075; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235075 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Observation and monitoring of landslides and infrastructure is a very important basis for land planning, human activities, and safety. Geomatic techniques for deformation monitoring have usually involved GNSS and total station measurements or, more generally, expensive geodetic instruments, but other techniques, such as [...] Read more.
Observation and monitoring of landslides and infrastructure is a very important basis for land planning, human activities, and safety. Geomatic techniques for deformation monitoring have usually involved GNSS and total station measurements or, more generally, expensive geodetic instruments, but other techniques, such as SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), can be efficiently applied. Using low-cost sensors could be an interesting alternative solution if the accuracy requirements can be satisfied. This paper shows the results obtained for tilt measurements using MEMS accelerometers, which were combined with mass-market GNSS sensors for monitoring five sites located on landslides. The use of a MEMS-like inclinometer requires an important calibration process to remove bias and improve the solution’s accuracy. In this paper, we explain the MEMS calibration procedure employed, with a simple and cheap solution. The results indicate that with a simple calibration, it is possible to improve measurement accuracy by one order of magnitude, reaching an angular accuracy of a few hundredths of a degree, verified by an independent technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining the Variability of the Territorial Sea Baseline on the Example of Waterbody Adjacent to the Municipal Beach in Gdynia
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3867; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183867 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of this publication is to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of the territorial sea baseline in sand bottom waterbodies, which were determined twice, in 2016 and 2018, by the Real Time Kinematic (RTK) method. This involves direct measurement of sea [...] Read more.
The purpose of this publication is to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of the territorial sea baseline in sand bottom waterbodies, which were determined twice, in 2016 and 2018, by the Real Time Kinematic (RTK) method. This involves direct measurement of sea bottom coordinates on planned hydrographic sounding profiles using a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver mounted on a pole. The data were the basis for creating Digital Terrain Models (DTM), which were then used to determine the baseline for both measurement campaigns. Subsequently, terrain surface models were compared to determine bathymetry changes in the area under analysis, and an assessment was made of the baseline spatial position change over the previous two years. The measurements have shown considerable spatial and temporal variability of the baseline course along a short section of sandy beach. The territorial sea baseline was very unstable; in some places, it moved by even 20–25 m, landwards and seawards. Therefore, one can suppose that these changes are periodic, and one can conclude that the reliability of the baseline measurements can decrease quite quickly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Techniques for Land and Structure Monitoring)
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