Special Issue "Advances in Architectural Acoustics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nikolaos M. Papadakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technical University of Crete, Institute of Computational Mechanics and Optimization (Co.Mec.O), GR-73100 Chania, Greece
Interests: Architectural Acoustics, Computational Acoustics, Psychoacoustics, Environmental Acoustics
Prof. Dr. Massimo Garai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna, Italy
Interests: environmental acoustics; architectural acoustics; building acoustics; noise control
Prof. Dr. Stavroulakis Georgios
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Chania, Greece
Interests: computational mechanics and optimization; structural control and identification
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Satisfactory acoustics is crucial for the ability of spaces such as auditoriums and lecture rooms to perform their primary function. The acoustics of dwellings and offices greatly affects the quality of our life, since we are all consciously or subconsciously aware of the sounds to which we are daily subjected. Architectural acoustics, which encompasses room and building acoustics, is the scientific field that deals with these topics and can be defined as the study of generation, propagation, and effects of sound in enclosures. Modeling techniques, as well as related acoustic theories for accurately calculating the sound field, have been the center of many major new developments. In addition, the image conveyed by a purely physical description of sound would be incomplete without regarding human perception; hence, the interrelation between objective stimuli and subjective sensations is a field of important investigations.

 

A holistic approach in terms of research and practice is the optimum way for solving the perplexing problems which arise in the design or refurbishment of spaces, since current trends in contemporary architecture, such as transparency, openness, and preference for bare sound-reflecting surfaces are continuing pushing the very limits of functional acoustics. The aim of this Special Issue is to gather advances in architectural acoustics, which we hope could inspire researchers and acousticians to explore new directions in this age of scientific convergence. In the Special Issue, we welcome both original research papers and review articles based on diverse topics, with architectural acoustics as a reference point, such as:

  • Computational acoustics;
  • Auralization;
  • Acoustic measurements;
  • Sound sources;
  • Sound absorbers and diffusers;
  • Acoustic comfort, annoyance;
  • Intelligibility of speech in rooms;
  • Design of concert or conference halls;
  • Historical halls acoustics;
  • Worship spaces acoustics.

Scientists working in this broad field are invited to present their work.

Dr. Nikolaos M. Papadakis
Prof. Dr. Massimo Garai
Prof. Dr. Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Trial Acoustic Improvement in a Lecture Hall with MPP Sound Absorbers and FDTD Acoustic Simulations
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062445 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Sound absorbing micro-perforated panels (MPPs) are being increasingly used because of their high quality in terms of hygiene, sustainability and durability. The present work investigates the feasibility and the performance of MPPs when used as an acoustic treatment in lecture rooms. With this [...] Read more.
Sound absorbing micro-perforated panels (MPPs) are being increasingly used because of their high quality in terms of hygiene, sustainability and durability. The present work investigates the feasibility and the performance of MPPs when used as an acoustic treatment in lecture rooms. With this purpose, three different micro-perforated steel specimens were first designed following existing predictive models and then physically manufactured through 3D additive metal printing. The specimens’ acoustic behavior was analyzed with experimental measurements in single-layer and double-layer configurations. Then, the investigation was focused on the application of double-layer MPPs to the ceiling of an existing university lecture hall to enhance speech intelligibility. Numerical simulations were carried out using a full-spectrum wave-based method: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code was chosen to better handle time-dependent signals as the verbal communication. The present work proposes a workflow to explore the suitability of a specific material to speech requirements. The measured specific impedance complex values allowed to derive the input data referred to MPPs in FDTD simulations. The outcomes of the process show the influence of the acoustic treatment in terms of reverberation time (T30) and sound clarity (C50). A systematic comparison with a standard geometrical acoustic (GA) technique is reported as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Historically Based Room Acoustic Analysis and Auralization of a Church in the 1470s
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041586 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Worship space acoustics have been established as an important part of a nation’s cultural heritage and area of acoustic research, but more research is needed regarding the region of northern Europe. This paper describes the historical acoustics of an important abbey church in [...] Read more.
Worship space acoustics have been established as an important part of a nation’s cultural heritage and area of acoustic research, but more research is needed regarding the region of northern Europe. This paper describes the historical acoustics of an important abbey church in Sweden in the 1470s. A digital historical reconstruction is developed. Liturgical material specific to this location is recorded and auralized within the digital reconstruction, and a room acoustic analysis is performed. The analysis is guided by liturgical practices in the church and the monastic order connected to it. It is found that the historical sound field in the church is characterized by the existence of two distinct acoustical subspaces within it, each corresponding to a location dedicated to the daily services of the monastical congregations. The subspaces show significantly better acoustic conditions for liturgical activities compared to the nave, which is very reverberant under the conditions of daily services. Acoustic transmission from the two subspaces is limited, indicating that the monastic congregations were visually and acoustically separated from the visitors in the nave and each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evolutionary Analysis of the Acoustics of the Baroque Church of San Luis de los Franceses (Seville)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041402 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
In the 16th century the Society of Jesus built a large number of churches following the Tridentine model of a Latin cross and a single nave. However, the shift towards this model did not entail the abandonment of the central floor plan, especially [...] Read more.
In the 16th century the Society of Jesus built a large number of churches following the Tridentine model of a Latin cross and a single nave. However, the shift towards this model did not entail the abandonment of the central floor plan, especially in the 17th century. The acoustics of these spaces can present phenomena linked to focalizations which increase the sound pressure level. The church of San Luis de los Franceses, built by the Jesuits for their novitiate in Seville (Spain), is an example of a Baroque church with a central floor plan. Although the church has hosted different congregations since its inauguration it is currently desacralized and used for theatres and concerts. The acoustics of this church were studied by the authors through in situ measurements and virtual models. The main objective was to analyse the evolution and perception of its sound field from the 18th to 21st centuries, considering the different audience distributions and sound sources and the modifications in furniture and coatings. Analysis of the evolution of its sound field shows that the characteristics have remained stable, with a notable influence of the dome on the results for the different configurations studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Machine Learning Based Prediction Model for the Sound Absorption Coefficient of Micro-Expanded Metal Mesh (MEMM)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217612 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 582
Abstract
Recently, micro-perforated panels (MPP) have become a popular sound absorbing material in the field of architectural acoustics. However, the cost of MPP is still high for the commercial market in Taiwan, and MPP is still not very popular compared to other sound absorbing [...] Read more.
Recently, micro-perforated panels (MPP) have become a popular sound absorbing material in the field of architectural acoustics. However, the cost of MPP is still high for the commercial market in Taiwan, and MPP is still not very popular compared to other sound absorbing materials and devices. The objective of this study is to develop a prediction model for MEMM via a machine learning approach. An experiment including 14 types of MEMM was first carried out in a reverberation room based on ISO 354. To predict the sound absorption coefficient of the MEMM, the capability of three conventional models and three machine learning (ML) models of the supervised learning method were studied for the development of the prediction model. The results showed that in most conventional models, the sound absorption coefficient of using an equivalent perimeter had the best agreement compared with other parameters, and the root mean square error (RMSE) between prediction models and experimental data were around 0.2~0.3. However, the RMSE of all ML models was less than 0.1, and the RMSE of the gradient boost model was 0.033 in the training sets and 0.062 in the testing sets, which showed the best agreement with the experiment data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Measurements of Acoustical Parameters in the Ancient Open-Air Theatre of Tyndaris (Sicily, Italy)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5680; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165680 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
The emerging field of archaeoacoustics is attracting increasing research attention from scholars of different disciplines: the investigation of the acoustic features of ancient open-air theatres is possibly one of its main themes. In this paper, the outcomes of a measurement campaign of acoustical [...] Read more.
The emerging field of archaeoacoustics is attracting increasing research attention from scholars of different disciplines: the investigation of the acoustic features of ancient open-air theatres is possibly one of its main themes. In this paper, the outcomes of a measurement campaign of acoustical parameters in accordance with ISO 3382-1 in the ancient theatre of Tyndaris (Sicily) are presented and compared with datasets from other sites. Two sound sources were used (firecrackers and dodecahedron) and their differences were analysed. A very good reproducibility has been shown between the two measurement chains, with differences on average of 0.01 s for reverberation time T20, and less than 0.3 dB for Clarity C50 and C80 and for sound strength. In general, results show that the reverberation time and strength of sound values are relatively low when compared with other theatres because of the lack of the original architectural element of the scaenae frons. When combining this effect with the obvious condition of an unroofed space, issues emerge in terms of applicability of the protocols recommended in the ISO standard. This raises the question of whether different room acoustics parameters should be used to characterise open-air ancient theatres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Listeners Sensitivity to Different Locations of Diffusive Surfaces in Performance Spaces: The Case of a Shoebox Concert Hall
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4370; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124370 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 527
Abstract
Diffusive surfaces are considered as one of the most challenging aspects to deal with in the acoustic design of concert halls. However, the acoustic effects that these surface locations have on the objective acoustic parameters and on sound perception have not yet been [...] Read more.
Diffusive surfaces are considered as one of the most challenging aspects to deal with in the acoustic design of concert halls. However, the acoustic effects that these surface locations have on the objective acoustic parameters and on sound perception have not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the effects of these surfaces on the acoustic design parameters have been investigated in a real shoebox concert hall with variable acoustics (Espace de Projection, IRCAM, Paris, France). Acoustic measurements have been carried out in six hall configurations by varying the location of the diffusive surfaces over the front, mid, and rear part of the lateral walls, while the other surfaces have been maintained absorptive or reflective. Moreover, two reference conditions, that is, fully absorptive and reflective boundaries of the hall have been tested. Measurements have been carried out at different positions in the hall, using an artificial head and an array of omnidirectional microphones. Conventional ISO 3382 objective acoustic parameters have been evaluated in all conditions. The results showed that the values of these parameters do not vary significantly with the diffusive surface location. Moreover, a subjective investigation performed by using the ABX method with auralizations at two listening positions revealed that listeners are not sensitive to the diffusive surface location variations even when front-rear asymmetric conditions are compared. However, some of them reported perceived differences relying on reverberance, coloration, and spaciousness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Time Domain Room Acoustic Solver with Fourth-Order Explicit FEM Using Modified Time Integration
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3750; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113750 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
This paper presents a proposal of a time domain room acoustic solver using novel fourth-order accurate explicit time domain finite element method (TD-FEM), with demonstration of its applicability for practical room acoustic problems. Although time domain wave acoustic methods have been extremely attractive [...] Read more.
This paper presents a proposal of a time domain room acoustic solver using novel fourth-order accurate explicit time domain finite element method (TD-FEM), with demonstration of its applicability for practical room acoustic problems. Although time domain wave acoustic methods have been extremely attractive in recent years as room acoustic design tools, a computationally efficient solver is demanded to reduce their overly large computational costs for practical applications. Earlier, the authors proposed an efficient room acoustic solver using explicit TD-FEM having fourth-order accuracy in both space and time using low-order discretization techniques. Nevertheless, this conventional method only achieves fourth-order accuracy in time when using only square or cubic elements. That achievement markedly impairs the benefits of FEM with geometrical flexibility. As described herein, that difficulty is solved by construction of a specially designed time-integration method for time discretization. The proposed method can use irregularly shaped elements while maintaining fourth-order accuracy in time without additional computational complexity compared to the conventional method. The dispersion and dissipation characteristics of the proposed method are examined respectively both theoretically and numerically. Moreover, the practicality of the method for solving room acoustic problems at kilohertz frequencies is presented via two numerical examples of acoustic simulations in a rectangular sound field including complex sound diffusers and in a complexly shaped concert hall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Potential of Room Acoustic Solver with Plane-Wave Enriched Finite Element Method
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061969 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Predicting room acoustics using wave-based numerical methods has attracted great attention in recent years. Nevertheless, wave-based predictions are generally computationally expensive for room acoustics simulations because of the large dimensions of architectural spaces, the wide audible frequency ranges, the complex boundary conditions, and [...] Read more.
Predicting room acoustics using wave-based numerical methods has attracted great attention in recent years. Nevertheless, wave-based predictions are generally computationally expensive for room acoustics simulations because of the large dimensions of architectural spaces, the wide audible frequency ranges, the complex boundary conditions, and inherent error properties of numerical methods. Therefore, development of an efficient wave-based room acoustic solver with smaller computational resources is extremely important for practical applications. This paper describes a preliminary study aimed at that development. We discuss the potential of the Partition of Unity Finite Element Method (PUFEM) as a room acoustic solver through the examination with 2D real-scale room acoustic problems. Low-order finite elements enriched by plane waves propagating in various directions are used herein. We examine the PUFEM performance against a standard FEM via two-room acoustic problems in a single room and a coupled room, respectively, including frequency-dependent complex impedance boundaries of Helmholtz resonator type sound absorbers and porous sound absorbers. Results demonstrated that the PUFEM can predict wideband frequency responses accurately under a single coarse mesh with much fewer degrees of freedom than the standard FEM. The reduction reaches O ( 10 2 ) at least, suggesting great potential of PUFEM for use as an efficient room acoustic solver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Parametric Study of the Acoustic Performance of Resonant Absorbers Made of Micro-perforated Membranes and Perforated Panels
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051581 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Sound absorbing surfaces are being increasingly requested for the acoustical treatment of spaces, like offices and restaurants, where high aesthetic standards are requested. In these cases, perforated and micro-perforated panels may represent the ideal solution in terms of low maintenance, durability, and mechanical [...] Read more.
Sound absorbing surfaces are being increasingly requested for the acoustical treatment of spaces, like offices and restaurants, where high aesthetic standards are requested. In these cases, perforated and micro-perforated panels may represent the ideal solution in terms of low maintenance, durability, and mechanical resistance. In addition, such a solution might be conveniently realized while using optically transparent panels, which might offer extra value, as they could ensure visual contact, while remaining neutral in terms of design. The paper first investigates the reliability of prediction models by comparison with measured data. Subsequently, while taking advantage of a parametric optimization algorithm, it is shown how to design an absorber covering three octave bands, from 500 Hz to 2 kHz, with an average sound absorption coefficient of about 0.8. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Italian-Style Opera Houses: A Historical Review
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4613; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134613 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
Attending an opera involves a multi-sensory evaluation (acoustical, visual, and more), cultural background and other emotional parameters. The present work aims to investigate the historical development of Italian-style opera houses, from the 16th century until today. Called “Italian” due to their origin, they [...] Read more.
Attending an opera involves a multi-sensory evaluation (acoustical, visual, and more), cultural background and other emotional parameters. The present work aims to investigate the historical development of Italian-style opera houses, from the 16th century until today. Called “Italian” due to their origin, they developed thanks to the mutual influence of the genre and the building characteristics. Furthermore, the acoustics of historical opera houses is now considered as intangible cultural heritage, so it should be known and preserved. The paper addressed the state-of-the-art literature—most of which was proposed in Italian—which can be driven easily by the sharing of historical and contemporary knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Review of Acoustic Sources Alternatives to a Dodecahedron Speaker
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3705; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183705 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
An omnidirectional source is required in many acoustic measurements. Commonly a dodecahedron speaker is used but due to various factors (e.g., high cost, transportation difficulties) other acoustic sources are sometimes preferred. In this review, fifteen acoustic source alternatives to a dodecahedron speaker are [...] Read more.
An omnidirectional source is required in many acoustic measurements. Commonly a dodecahedron speaker is used but due to various factors (e.g., high cost, transportation difficulties) other acoustic sources are sometimes preferred. In this review, fifteen acoustic source alternatives to a dodecahedron speaker are presented while emphasis is placed on features such as omnidirectionality, repeatability, adequate sound pressure levels, even frequency response, accuracy in measurement of acoustic parameters and fulfillment of ISO 3382-1 source requirements. Some of the alternative acoustic sources have the appropriate features to provide usable results for acoustic measurements, some have acoustic characteristics better than a dodecahedron speaker (e.g., omnidirectionality in the high-frequency range), while some can potentially fulfill the ISO 3382-1 source requirements. Collected data from this review can be used in many areas (e.g., ISO measurements, head-related transfer functions measurements) for the appropriate selection of an acoustic source according to the expected use. Finally, suggestions for uses and future work are given aimed at achieving further advances in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Architectural Acoustics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Planned papers - verified (to be submitted in the following weeks)

Title: Prediction of Decay Parameters from the Room Impulse Response in Noisy Conditions
Authors: Min Chen and Chang–Myung Lee

Title: Acoustics in central spaces in the Baroque. Evolutionary analysis of the church of San Luis de los Franceses (Seville)
Authors: Enedina Alberdi, Miguel Galindo and Ángel L. León-Rodríguez

Title: Historically Based Room Acoustic Analysis and Auralization of a Church in the 1470s
Authors: Hanna Autio, Mathias Barbagallo, Carolina Ask, Delphine Bard Hagberg, Eva Lindqvist Sandgren and Karin Strinnholm Lagergren

Title: A Review on Sound Flanking Transmission in Residential Building
Authors: Xianfeng Huang

Paper from Professor Massimo Garai

Planned papers More authors (16 so far) have expressed their intent to publish in the Special Issue. Papers will be announced in the web site of the Special Issue as soon as they are published.

Back to TopTop