Special Issue "Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Peter F. Surai
Website
Guest Editor
Vitagene and Health Research Centre 53 Dongola Road, Ayr, KA7 3BN, Scotland, UK
Interests: vitamin E; Se; carotenoids; carnitine; betaine; vitagenes; stress adaptaion
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Poultry production is associated with a range of stresses, including nutritional, environmental, technological and biological/internal stress. Evidence is actively accumulating to prove that at the molecular level most of these stresses are associated with redox disbalance and oxidative stress, causing a decrease in productive and reproductive performance and compromising animal/poultry health. During evolution, antioxidant defence networks called “antioxidant systems” developed and are responsible for maintenance or redox balance of the cell/body and the prevention of damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. It is a difficult job for a poultry nutritionist to decide when the internal antioxidant system needs external help in the form of natural antioxidant dietary supplementation. Indeed, vitamin E and Se are essential parts of commercial vitamin–mineral premixes and are compulsorily added to poultry diets. Scientific evidence is actively accumulating to prove that carotenoid dietary supplementation could have positive effect on egg quality and poultry reproduction. Furthermore, carnitine and taurine are considered to be new entrants into the antioxidant family. They have been shown to regulate mitochondria function and integrity, and to be responsible for the maintenance of free radical production under physiological control. Carnitine and taurine are partly synthesised in poultry and the rest comes from the diet, mainly from animal-derived feed ingredients. However, in modern poultry production, the use of animal-derived feed ingredients has substantially decreased or often completely absent, making carnitine and taurine conditionally essential for poultry. The understanding of the molecular interactions between various antioxidants in poultry and their role in maintaining the redox balance and adaptation to stress in conjunction with transcription factors and vitagene activation is becoming a new direction in poultry nutrition.

This Special Issue will publish original research papers and reviews on aspects of natural antioxidants that relate to the following topics: the function and regulation of antioxidants in poultry; understanding the pathways of redox homeostasis in poultry; the relationship between various antioxidants and poultry reproduction and health; role of natural antioxidants in fighting commercially-relevant stresses (heat stress, mycotoxin stress, etc.), the role of natural antioxidants in maintaining meat and egg quality, etc.

Prof. Dr. Peter F. Surai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural antioxidants
  • Poultry
  • Nutrition
  • Vitamin E
  • Selenium
  • Carotenoids
  • Taurine
  • Carnitine
  • Reproduction
  • Egg
  • Meat

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction: An Update
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020105 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
For the last three decades poultry production worldwide has made tremendous progress in terms of quantity and quality of meat and egg production, including improvement of growth rate and feed conversion rate [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Benefits of Magnesium Supplementation to Broiler Subjected to Dietary and Heat Stress: Improved Redox Status, Breast Quality and Decreased Myopathy Incidence
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100456 - 07 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Poultry is highly sensitive to oxidative reactions. Oxidative reactions have attracted considerable attention from animal and food scientists because of the adverse effects of these reactions on animal welfare, performance and food quality. Despite its implication in multiple biological functions magnesium (Mg) supplementation [...] Read more.
Poultry is highly sensitive to oxidative reactions. Oxidative reactions have attracted considerable attention from animal and food scientists because of the adverse effects of these reactions on animal welfare, performance and food quality. Despite its implication in multiple biological functions magnesium (Mg) supplementation is typically overlooked in broiler diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mg supplementation (0.3%) using a commercial product (Optibreast®) on production parameters, the redox status and meat quality in broilers challenged with dietary (oxidized oil) and heat stress. The incidence of myopathies, namely, wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) was also assessed. Mg supplementation had a clear interaction with the absorption/accumulation of Ca in blood and breast muscle but this effect had no negative influence on any of the production parameters under study. Mg supplementation had positive effects on particular meat quality traits such as water holding capacity (WHC) and color. WHC may have other positive effects in turn on relevant sensory traits such as juiciness. Mg supplementation protected against protein oxidation in liver and plasma of broilers. This effect may be related to the increased activity of catalase in such tissues. Mg supplementation reduced the incidence of WS and WB myopathies to almost half the occurrence of such defects in animals fed a control diet. Further studies with a larger number of animals and the application of advanced proteomic/metabolomic tools are required to (1) corroborate the positive influence of Mg on myopathy incidence and (2) identify the underlying molecular basis of the proposed mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with dl-Methionine and dl-Methionyl-dl-Methionine in Breeding Pigeons on the Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Squabs
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100435 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with dl-methionine (dl-Met) and dl-methionyl-dl-methionine (dl-Met-Met) in breeding pigeons on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant activity of squabs. A total of 324 pairs [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with dl-methionine (dl-Met) and dl-methionyl-dl-methionine (dl-Met-Met) in breeding pigeons on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant activity of squabs. A total of 324 pairs of breeding pigeons were selected and allotted to 9 treatments in a completely randomized design, and the birds were fed dietary treatments for 45 d, including a Met-deficient basal diet (BD, crude protein = 15%, Met = 0.25%) and BD + 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, or 0.60% dl-Met or dl-Met-Met diets. Compared with the diet fed to the BD group, dietary dl-Met or dl-Met-Met supplementation effectively increased the carcass yield, semieviscerated yield, eviscerated yield, breast muscle yield, thigh muscle yield, a* value, catalase activity, total superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase activity, but decreased the L* value, malonaldehyde concentration, drip loss and cooking loss of squabs (p < 0.05). The relative bioavailability values of dl-Met-Met relative to those of dl-Met were 467% and 376% based on carcass yield and breast muscle yield, respectively (p < 0.001). Moreover, dl-Met-Met was more effective than dl-Met in decreasing the drip loss and improving the antioxidant activity of the breast and thigh muscles of squabs (p < 0.05). As a source of Met, dl-Met-Met, rather than dl-Met, was more beneficial to squabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth Performance and Characterization of Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Betaine and Antioxidants under Cyclic Heat Stress
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090336 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative stress, which compromises broiler performance and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary antioxidants could be used as an amelioration strategy. Seventy-two day-old-male Ross-308 chicks were exposed to either thermoneutral or cyclical heat [...] Read more.
Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative stress, which compromises broiler performance and meat quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary antioxidants could be used as an amelioration strategy. Seventy-two day-old-male Ross-308 chicks were exposed to either thermoneutral or cyclical heat stress conditions. Diets were either control commercial diet (CON), CON plus betaine (BET), or with a combination of betaine, selenized yeast, and vitamin E (BET + AOX). Heat stress increased the rectal temperature (p < 0.001), respiration rate (p < 0.001), decreased blood pCO2 (p = 0.002), and increased blood pH (p = 0.02), which indicated the HS broilers had respiratory alkalosis. Final body weight was decreased by HS (p < 0.001), whereas it was improved with BET (p = 0.05). Heat stress reduced cooking loss (p = 0.007) and no effect on drip loss, while BET decreased the drip loss (p = 0.01). Heat stress reduced the myofibril fragmentation index (p < 0.001) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.001), while these were improved with the combination of BET + AOX (p = 0.003). In conclusion, BET overall improved growth rates and product quality in this small university study, whereas some additional benefits were provided by AOX on product quality in both TN and HS broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Effects of Ochratoxin A on the Glutathione Redox System and Its Regulation in Chicken
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060178 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-weeks ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure on some lipid peroxidation parameters, reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione-peroxidase activity, as well as expression of oxidative stress response-related (KEAP1, NRF2) and glutathione system ( [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-weeks ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure on some lipid peroxidation parameters, reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione-peroxidase activity, as well as expression of oxidative stress response-related (KEAP1, NRF2) and glutathione system (GPX3, GPX4, GSS, GSR) genes in chickens. Three levels of exposure (106, 654 and 1126 μg/kg feed) were applied. The results showed that OTA initiated free radical formation, which was suggested by the increase in the malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidney, which was more marked in the liver, depending on the length of exposure and dose. Reduced glutathione concentration increased as an effect of the highest OTA dose in blood plasma and in liver, but not in red blood cell hemolysates and the kidney. Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change in the blood and showed increasing tendency in the liver, and significant increase in the kidney. Expression of KEAP1 gene showed up-regulation in the liver, and down-regulation in the kidney, but overexpression of NRF2 gene was found in the liver and kidney at the highest dose. However, down-regulation of Nrf2 dependent genes, GPX3, GPX4, GSS and GSR, suggested an improper antioxidant response at the protein level, thus oxidative stress occurred, even at the dose of the EU regulatory limit for poultry diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
Open AccessArticle
Liver Antioxidants in Relation to Beak Morphology, Gizzard Size and Diet in the Common Eider Somateria mollissima
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8020031 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Antioxidants in the liver are particularly abundant in capital breeders that rely on stored resources for egg production. Capital breeders like eider (hereafter common eider) Somateria mollissima have disproportionately large livers with low levels of coenzyme Q10 when compared to other bird [...] Read more.
Antioxidants in the liver are particularly abundant in capital breeders that rely on stored resources for egg production. Capital breeders like eider (hereafter common eider) Somateria mollissima have disproportionately large livers with low levels of coenzyme Q10 when compared to other bird species. Concentrations of total carotenoids and vitamin E in the livers of eiders were smaller than predicted for similarly sized bird species. Eiders with high body condition estimated as body mass relative to skeletal body size had high levels of total carotenoids and low levels of coenzyme Q10. The concentration of total carotenoids per gram of liver increased with age, and vitamin E and total carotenoids accumulated during the winter onwards from February to peak at the start of incubation in April. Total vitamin E, total carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10 per gram of liver decreased with increasing beak volume. The size of the empty gizzard increased with increasing liver mass but decreased with total carotenoids and coenzyme Q10. The main components of the diet were blue mussels Mytilus edulis (40%), draft whelk Nassarius reticulatus (27%), and periwinkle Littorina littorea (10%). The concentration of vitamin E increased with the number of razor clams Ensis sp. and draft whelks in the gizzard and the concentration of total carotenoids increased with the number of beach crabs Carcinus maenas. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that eiders are limited in their levels of antioxidants through food limitation. Furthermore, they imply that diet and morphological characters involved in food acquisition and processing are important determinants of the level of antioxidants in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Defence Systems and Oxidative Stress in Poultry Biology: An Update
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070235 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 22
Abstract
Poultry in commercial settings are exposed to a range of stressors. A growing body of information clearly indicates that excess ROS/RNS production and oxidative stress are major detrimental consequences of the most common commercial stressors in poultry production. During evolution, antioxidant defence systems [...] Read more.
Poultry in commercial settings are exposed to a range of stressors. A growing body of information clearly indicates that excess ROS/RNS production and oxidative stress are major detrimental consequences of the most common commercial stressors in poultry production. During evolution, antioxidant defence systems were developed in poultry to survive in an oxygenated atmosphere. They include a complex network of internally synthesised (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, (glutathione) GSH, (coenzyme Q) CoQ) and externally supplied (vitamin E, carotenoids, etc.) antioxidants. In fact, all antioxidants in the body work cooperatively as a team to maintain optimal redox balance in the cell/body. This balance is a key element in providing the necessary conditions for cell signalling, a vital process for regulation of the expression of various genes, stress adaptation and homeostasis maintenance in the body. Since ROS/RNS are considered to be important signalling molecules, their concentration is strictly regulated by the antioxidant defence network in conjunction with various transcription factors and vitagenes. In fact, activation of vitagenes via such transcription factors as Nrf2 leads to an additional synthesis of an array of protective molecules which can deal with increased ROS/RNS production. Therefore, it is a challenging task to develop a system of optimal antioxidant supplementation to help growing/productive birds maintain effective antioxidant defences and redox balance in the body. On the one hand, antioxidants, such as vitamin E, or minerals (e.g., Se, Mn, Cu and Zn) are a compulsory part of the commercial pre-mixes for poultry, and, in most cases, are adequate to meet the physiological requirements in these elements. On the other hand, due to the aforementioned commercially relevant stressors, there is a need for additional support for the antioxidant system in poultry. This new direction in improving antioxidant defences for poultry in stress conditions is related to an opportunity to activate a range of vitagenes (via Nrf2-related mechanisms: superoxide dismutase, SOD; heme oxygenase-1, HO-1; GSH and thioredoxin, or other mechanisms: Heat shock protein (HSP)/heat shock factor (HSP), sirtuins, etc.) to maximise internal AO protection and redox balance maintenance. Therefore, the development of vitagene-regulating nutritional supplements is on the agenda of many commercial companies worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenols as Potential Attenuators of Heat Stress in Poultry Production
Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030067 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
Heat stress is a non-specific physiological response of the body when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which can break the balance of body redox and result in oxidative stress that affects growth performance as well as the health of poultry species. Polyphenols have [...] Read more.
Heat stress is a non-specific physiological response of the body when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which can break the balance of body redox and result in oxidative stress that affects growth performance as well as the health of poultry species. Polyphenols have attracted much attention in recent years due to their antioxidant ability and thus, can be an effective attenuator of heat stress. In this paper, the potential mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of polyphenols on heat stress in poultry has been reviewed to provide a reference and ideas for future studies related to polyphenols and poultry production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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