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Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Injury: An Insight into the Role of Extracellular Vesicles-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses

1
Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
2
Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Salaya 73170, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040075
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
The short- and long-term side effects of chemotherapy limit the maximum therapeutic dose and impair quality of life of survivors. Injury to normal tissues, especially chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, is an unintended outcome that presents devastating health impacts. Approximately half of the drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cancer treatment are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of them. Dox undergoes redox cycling by involving its quinone structure in the production of superoxide free radicals, which are thought to be instrumental to the role it plays in cardiomyopathy. Dox-induced protein oxidation changes protein function, translocation, and aggregation that are toxic to cells. To maintain cellular homeostasis, oxidized proteins can be degraded intracellularly by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or by autophagy, depending on the redox status of the cell. Alternatively, the cell can remove oxidized proteins by releasing extracellular vesicles (EVs), which can be transferred to neighboring or distant cells, thereby instigating an intercellular oxidative stress response. In this article, we discuss the role of EVs in oxidative stress response, the potential of EVs as sensitive biomarkers of oxidative stress, and the role of superoxide dismutase in attenuating EV-associated oxidative stress response resulting from chemotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemotherapy; oxidative stress; extracellular vesicles; superoxide dismutase chemotherapy; oxidative stress; extracellular vesicles; superoxide dismutase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yarana, C.; St. Clair, D.K. Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Injury: An Insight into the Role of Extracellular Vesicles-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 75.

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