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Open AccessReview

A Review of the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 985870 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5870, USA
2
Eppley Institute for Cancer and Allied Diseases, 986805 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6805, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020025
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are necessary antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased levels of SODs or mutations that affect their catalytic activity have serious phenotypic consequences. SODs perform their bio-protective role by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by cyclic oxidation and reduction reactions with the active site metal. Mutations of SODs can cause cancer of the lung, colon, and lymphatic system, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While SODs have proven to be of significant biological importance since their discovery in 1968, the mechanistic nature of their catalytic function remains elusive. Extensive investigations with a multitude of approaches have tried to unveil the catalytic workings of SODs, but experimental limitations have impeded direct observations of the mechanism. Here, we focus on human MnSOD, the most significant enzyme in protecting against ROS in the human body. Human MnSOD resides in the mitochondrial matrix, the location of up to 90% of cellular ROS generation. We review the current knowledge of the MnSOD enzymatic mechanism and ongoing studies into solving the remaining mysteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: superoxide dismutase; human; mechanism; anti-oxidant; reactive oxygen species; mitochondria; manganese; catalysis superoxide dismutase; human; mechanism; anti-oxidant; reactive oxygen species; mitochondria; manganese; catalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azadmanesh, J.; Borgstahl, G.E.O. A Review of the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020025

AMA Style

Azadmanesh J, Borgstahl GEO. A Review of the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase. Antioxidants. 2018; 7(2):25. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azadmanesh, Jahaun; Borgstahl, Gloria E.O. 2018. "A Review of the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase" Antioxidants 7, no. 2: 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020025

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