Special Issue "Peroxiredoxin"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Ho Hee Jang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, 21999, Republic of Korea
Interests: 2-Cys peroxiredoxin; Prx-interacting partners; stress signaling; chaperone activity; post-translational modifications; redox regulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 1987, Kim and colleagues identified the first peroxiredoxin (Prx) protein, a thiol-specific antioxidant, in yeast [1,2]. Since then, researchers have identified six isoforms of Prx in mammalian cells alone. Prxs are key molecules in intracellular ROS homeostasis that play important biological roles in various cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, the immune response, and metabolism. In addition, Prxs have been found to play roles in a variety of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and glutathionylation.

The goal of this Special Issue is to bring together current views, new insights, and cutting-edge research on the biological roles of Prxs. These include Prxs sourced from all species, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, including those found in E. coli, plants, yeasts, and animals.

I look forward to your contribution.

References

  1. Kim, K., Kim, I.H., Lee, K.Y., Rhee, S.G., and Stadtman, E.R (1988). The isolation and purification of a specific “protector” protein which inhibits enzyme inactivation by a thiol/Fe(III)/O2 mixed-function oxidation system. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 4704-4711.
  2. Kim, I.H., Kim, K., and Rhee, S.G (1989). Induction of an antioxidant protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by O2, Fe3+, or 2-mercaptoethanol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 86, 6018-6022.

Prof. Ho Hee Jang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • peroxiredoxin
  • reactive oxygen species
  • stress response
  • redox signaling
  • peroxidase activity
  • chaperone activity
  • protein–protein interaction
  • post-translational modifications

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Upregulation of Peroxiredoxin-2 in Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Its Utility as a Biomarker for Predicting the Response to Everolimus
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111104 - 09 Nov 2020
Abstract
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) account for 2–3% of pancreatic malignancies. Peroxiredoxins (Prdxs), which are major cellular antioxidants, are involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. We investigated the role of peroxiredoxin-2 in QGP-1 human pNEN cell line and patient-derived pNEN tissue. To validate the [...] Read more.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) account for 2–3% of pancreatic malignancies. Peroxiredoxins (Prdxs), which are major cellular antioxidants, are involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. We investigated the role of peroxiredoxin-2 in QGP-1 human pNEN cell line and patient-derived pNEN tissue. To validate the cancer stem cell-like cell characteristics of QGP-1 cells in spheroid culture, in vitro analyses and xenografting were performed. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining was conducted to verify the overexpression of Prdx2 in pNEN tissue. Prdx2 expression was high at the mRNA and protein levels in QGP-1 cells. Prdx2 was also overexpressed in patient-derived pNEN tissue. Silencing of Prdx2 using siRNA induced overexpression and phosphorylation of ERK and AKT in QGP-1. Cell proliferation was increased by treating QGP-1 cells with siPrdx2, and the IC50 of everolimus increased suggesting resistance to everolimus. Interestingly, QGP-1 spheroid cells, which exhibited cancer stem cell-like features, exhibited lower expression of Prdx2 and mTOR. The results suggest that Prdx2 expression level and its activity may be a potential predictive biomarker for therapeutic response or resistance to everolimus in pNEN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
Sigma-1 Receptor Engages an Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Feedback Loop Mediated by Peroxiredoxin in Experimental Colitis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111081 - 04 Nov 2020
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Since the treatment of IBD is still an unresolved issue, we designed our study to investigate the effect of a novel therapeutic [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Since the treatment of IBD is still an unresolved issue, we designed our study to investigate the effect of a novel therapeutic target, sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), considering its ability to activate antioxidant molecules. As a model, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce colitis in Wistar–Harlan male rats. To test the beneficial effects of σ1R, animals were treated intracolonically (i.c.): (1) separately with an agonist (fluvoxamine (FLV)), (2) with an antagonist of the receptor (BD1063), or (3) as a co-treatment. Our results showed that FLV significantly decreased the severity of inflammation and increased the body weight of the animals. On the contrary, simultaneous treatment of FLV with BD1063 diminished the beneficial effects of FLV. Furthermore, FLV significantly enhanced the levels of glutathione (GSH) and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) and caused a significant reduction in 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, the effects of which were abolished by co-treatment with BD1063. Taken together, our results suggest that the activation of σ1R in TNBS-induced colitis through FLV may be a promising therapeutic strategy, and its protective effect seems to involve the antioxidant pathway system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Functional Relationship between y-Type Thioredoxins and 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111072 - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small, ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze disulphide–dithiol interchange in target enzymes. The large set of chloroplast Trxs, including f, m, x and y subtypes, use reducing equivalents fueled by photoreduced ferredoxin (Fdx) for fine-tuning photosynthetic performance and metabolism through [...] Read more.
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small, ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze disulphide–dithiol interchange in target enzymes. The large set of chloroplast Trxs, including f, m, x and y subtypes, use reducing equivalents fueled by photoreduced ferredoxin (Fdx) for fine-tuning photosynthetic performance and metabolism through the control of the activity of redox-sensitive proteins. Although biochemical analyses suggested functional diversity of chloroplast Trxs, genetic studies have established that deficiency in a particular Trx subtype has subtle phenotypic effects, leading to the proposal that the Trx isoforms are functionally redundant. In addition, chloroplasts contain an NADPH-dependent Trx reductase with a joint Trx domain, termed NTRC. Interestingly, Arabidopsis mutants combining the deficiencies of x- or f-type Trxs and NTRC display very severe growth inhibition phenotypes, which are partially rescued by decreased levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs). These findings indicate that the reducing capacity of Trxs f and x is modulated by the redox balance of 2-Cys Prxs, which is controlled by NTRC. In this study, we explored whether NTRC acts as a master regulator of the pool of chloroplast Trxs by analyzing its functional relationship with Trxs y. While Trx y interacts with 2-Cys Prxs in vitro and in planta, the analysis of Arabidopsis mutants devoid of NTRC and Trxs y suggests that Trxs y have only a minor effect, if any, on the redox state of 2-Cys Prxs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
Ablation of Peroxiredoxin V Exacerbates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Kidney Injury in Mice
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080769 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) and associated with increased mortality and progression to chronic kidney injury (CKI). Molecular mechanisms underlying I/R injury involve the production and excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Peroxiredoxin (Prx) [...] Read more.
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) and associated with increased mortality and progression to chronic kidney injury (CKI). Molecular mechanisms underlying I/R injury involve the production and excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Peroxiredoxin (Prx) V, a cysteine-dependent peroxidase, is located in the cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisome and has an intensive ROS scavenging activity. Therefore, we focused on the role of Prx V during I/R-induced AKI using Prx V knockout (KO) mice. Ablation of Prx V augmented tubular damage, apoptosis, and declined renal function. Prx V deletion also showed higher susceptibility to I/R injury with increased markers for oxidative stress, ER stress, and inflammation in the kidney. Overall, these results demonstrate that Prx V protects the kidneys against I/R-induced injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of Protective Action of Exogenous 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins (Prx1 and Prx2) Under Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080680 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
The pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries is based on oxidative stress caused by a sharp increase in the concentration of free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary products of free radical oxidation of biological macromolecules during reperfusion. Application of exogenous antioxidants lowers [...] Read more.
The pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries is based on oxidative stress caused by a sharp increase in the concentration of free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary products of free radical oxidation of biological macromolecules during reperfusion. Application of exogenous antioxidants lowers the level of ROS in the affected tissues, suppresses or adjusts the course of oxidative stress, thereby substantially reducing the severity of I/R injury. We believe that the use of antioxidant enzymes may be the most promising line of effort since they possess higher efficiency than low molecular weight antioxidants. Among antioxidant enzymes, of great interest are peroxiredoxins (Prx1–6) which reduce a wide range of organic and inorganic peroxide substrates. In an animal model of bilateral I/R injury of kidneys (using histological, biochemical, and molecular biological methods) it was shown that intravenous administration of recombinant typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prx1 and Prx2) effectively reduces the severity of I/R damage, contributing to the normalization of the structural and functional state of the kidneys and an almost 2-fold increase in the survival of experimental animals. The use of recombinant Prx1 or Prx2 can be an efficient approach for the prevention and treatment of renal I/R injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
Triple Combination of Ascorbate, Menadione and the Inhibition of Peroxiredoxin-1 Produces Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040320 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of mammary malignancy currently without satisfactory systemic treatment options. Agents generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate (Asc) and menadione (Men), especially applied in combination, have been proposed as an alternative anticancer modality. However, [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of mammary malignancy currently without satisfactory systemic treatment options. Agents generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate (Asc) and menadione (Men), especially applied in combination, have been proposed as an alternative anticancer modality. However, their effectiveness can be hampered by the cytoprotective effects of elevated antioxidant enzymes (e.g., peroxiredoxins, PRDX) in cancer. In this study, PRDX1 mRNA and protein expression were assessed in TNBC tissues by analysis of the online RNA-seq datasets and immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray, respectively. We demonstrated that PRDX1 mRNA expression was markedly elevated in primary TNBC tumors as compared to non-malignant controls, with PRDX1 protein staining intensity correlating with favorable survival parameters. Subsequently, PRDX1 functionality in TNBC cell lines or non-malignant mammary cells was targeted by genetic silencing or chemically by auranofin (AUR). The PRDX1-knockdown or AUR treatment resulted in inhibition of the growth of TNBC cells in vitro. These cytotoxic effects were further synergistically potentiated by the incubation with a combination of the prooxidant agents, Asc and Men. In conclusion, we report that the PRDX1-related antioxidant system is essential for maintaining redox homeostasis in TNBC cells and can be an attractive therapeutic target in combination with ROS-generating agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
The Peroxidatic Thiol of Peroxiredoxin 1 is Nitrosated by Nitrosoglutathione but Coordinates to the Dinitrosyl Iron Complex of Glutathione
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040276 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Protein S-nitrosation is an important consequence of NO·metabolism with implications in physiology and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for S-nitrosation in vivo remain debatable and kinetic data on protein S-nitrosation by different agents are limited. 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, in particular Prx1 and Prx2, [...] Read more.
Protein S-nitrosation is an important consequence of NO·metabolism with implications in physiology and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for S-nitrosation in vivo remain debatable and kinetic data on protein S-nitrosation by different agents are limited. 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, in particular Prx1 and Prx2, were detected as being S-nitrosated in multiple mammalian cells under a variety of conditions. Here, we investigated the kinetics of Prx1 S-nitrosation by nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a recognized biological nitrosating agent, and by the dinitrosyl-iron complex of glutathione (DNIC-GS; [Fe(NO)2(GS)2]), a hypothetical nitrosating agent. Kinetics studies following the intrinsic fluorescence of Prx1 and its mutants (C83SC173S and C52S) were complemented by product analysis; all experiments were performed at pH 7.4 and 25 ℃. The results show GSNO-mediated nitrosation of Prx1 peroxidatic residue ( k + N O C y s 52 = 15.4 ± 0.4 M−1. s−1) and of Prx1 Cys83 residue ( k + N O C y s 83 = 1.7 ± 0.4 M−1. s−1). The reaction of nitrosated Prx1 with GSH was also monitored and provided a second-order rate constant for Prx1Cys52NO denitrosation of k N O C y s 52 = 14.4 ± 0.3 M−1. s−1. In contrast, the reaction of DNIC-GS with Prx1 did not nitrosate the enzyme but formed DNIC-Prx1 complexes. The peroxidatic Prx1 Cys was identified as the residue that more rapidly replaces the GS ligand from DNIC-GS ( k D N I C C y s 52 = 7.0 ± 0.4 M−1. s−1) to produce DNIC-Prx1 ([Fe(NO)2(GS)(Cys52-Prx1)]). Altogether, the data showed that in addition to S-nitrosation, the Prx1 peroxidatic residue can replace the GS ligand from DNIC-GS, forming stable DNIC-Prx1, and both modifications disrupt important redox switches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessArticle
Peroxiredoxin 6 Down-Regulation Induces Metabolic Remodeling and Cell Cycle Arrest in HepG2 Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110505 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is the only member of 1-Cys subfamily of peroxiredoxins in human cells. It is the only Prdx acting on phospholipid hydroperoxides possessing two additional sites with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lysophosphatidylcholine-acyl transferase (LPCAT) activities. There are contrasting reports on the [...] Read more.
Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is the only member of 1-Cys subfamily of peroxiredoxins in human cells. It is the only Prdx acting on phospholipid hydroperoxides possessing two additional sites with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and lysophosphatidylcholine-acyl transferase (LPCAT) activities. There are contrasting reports on the roles and mechanisms of multifunctional Prdx6 in several pathologies and on its sensitivity to, and influence on, the redox environment. We have down-regulated Prdx6 with specific siRNA in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells to study its role in cell proliferation, redox homeostasis, and metabolic programming. Cell proliferation and cell number decreased while cell volume increased; import of glucose and nucleotide biosynthesis also diminished while polyamines, phospholipids, and most glycolipids increased. A proteomic quantitative analysis suggested changes in membrane arrangement and vesicle trafficking as well as redox changes in enzymes of carbon and glutathione metabolism, pentose-phosphate pathway, citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism, biosynthesis of aminoacids, and Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis. Specific redox changes in Hexokinase-2 (HK2), Prdx6, intracellular chloride ion channel-1 (CLIC1), PEP-carboxykinase-2 (PCK2), and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) are compatible with the metabolic remodeling toward a predominant gluconeogenic flow from aminoacids with diversion at 3-phospohglycerate toward serine and other biosynthetic pathways thereon and with cell cycle arrest at G1/S transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Hydrogen Peroxide and Peroxiredoxins throughout the Cell Cycle
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040280 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an oxidizing agent that induces cellular damage at inappropriate concentrations and gives rise to an arrest during cell cycle progression, causing cell death. Recent evidence indicates that H2O2 also acts as a [...] Read more.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an oxidizing agent that induces cellular damage at inappropriate concentrations and gives rise to an arrest during cell cycle progression, causing cell death. Recent evidence indicates that H2O2 also acts as a promoter for cell cycle progression by oxidizing specific thiol proteins. The intracellular concentration of H2O2 is regulated tightly, enabling its use as a cellular signaling molecule while minimizing its potential to cause cellular damage. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) have peroxidase activity toward H2O2, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite for protecting cells from oxidative stress. They are suggested to work as signaling mediators, allowing the local accumulation of H2O2 by inactivating their peroxidase activity uniquely compared with other antioxidant proteins such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Given that Prxs are highly sensitive to oxidation by H2O2, they act as sensors and transducers of H2O2 signaling via transferring their oxidation state to effector proteins. The concentrations of intracellular H2O2 increase as the cell cycle progresses from G1 to mitosis. Here, we summarize the roles of Prxs with regard to the regulation of cell cycle-dependent kinase activity and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome in terms of changes in H2O2 levels. Protection of the cell from unwanted progression of the cell cycle is suggested to be a role of Prx. We discuss the possible roles of Prxs to control H2O2 levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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Open AccessReview
Knockout Mouse Models for Peroxiredoxins
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020182 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are members of a highly conserved peroxidase family and maintain intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. The family members are expressed in most organisms and involved in various biological processes, such as cellular protection against ROS, inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, heart diseases, [...] Read more.
Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are members of a highly conserved peroxidase family and maintain intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. The family members are expressed in most organisms and involved in various biological processes, such as cellular protection against ROS, inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and metabolism. In mammals, six PRDX members have been identified and are subdivided into three subfamilies: typical 2-Cys (PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, and PRDX4), atypical 2-Cys (PRDX5), and 1-Cys (PRDX6) subfamilies. Knockout mouse models of PRDXs have been developed to investigate their in vivo roles. This review presents an overview of the knockout mouse models of PRDXs with emphases on the biological and physiological changes of these model mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peroxiredoxin)
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