Special Issue "From the Southern Hemisphere: Research on Resistance, Antibiotics and Treatments"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mark Willcox

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: development of antimicrobial surfaces; new antimicrobials; bacterial resistance mechanisms; new treatments for infections
Guest Editor
Dr. Debarun Dutta

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: contact lens and anterior ocular surface; tear film and lipid layer; ocular infection; antibiotic resistance; novel antimicrobial agents to counter bacterial resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the rise in antimicrobial resistance worldwide, many of us have been investigating new ways of overcoming this problem and treating disease. These new technologies may take the form of repurposing antimicrobials, combining antimicrobials for synergy, synthesising new antimicrobials, using phages and parasitic bacteria, as well as understanding the spread of resistance. In this issue we want to highlight new research from the Southern Hemisphere in these, and related areas. Studies can be laboratory based, pre-clinical or clinical; human or animal based. Manuscripts are particularly welcomed in the following areas:

  1. New antimicrobials, including antibiotics, disinfectants, metals
  2. Synthesis of antimicrobials
  3. New methods of testing antimicrobial activity
  4. Phages and parasitic bacteria
  5. Synergism between different types of antimicrobials
  6. Design and testing of antimicrobial surfaces
  7. Epidemiology and spread of microbes and resistance traits

Dr. Mark Willcox
Dr. Debarun Dutta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Antimicrobial testing
  • Surface bound antimicrobials
  • Antimicrobial release
  • Antimicrobial synergy
  • Resistance genes

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Chemical Profile, Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Modulating Effect of the Hexanic Zea Mays L. Silk Extract (Poaceae)
Antibiotics 2019, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8010022
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the chemical profile and to evaluate the antibacterial activity and antibiotic-modulating action of the hexanic Zea mays silk extract in association with aminoglycosides. Standard Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the chemical profile and to evaluate the antibacterial activity and antibiotic-modulating action of the hexanic Zea mays silk extract in association with aminoglycosides. Standard Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strains, as well as multi-resistant Escherichia coli 27, Staphylococcus aureus 35, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31 strains, were used in this study. Phytochemical prospection revealed the presence of the following secondary metabolites: tannins, flavones, flavonoids, and xanthones, with the main chemical constituents being identified in plant extracts obtained with apolar organic solvents such as hexane. The extract presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥1024 μg/mL against all the tested strains. The association of the extract with aminoglycoside antibiotics showed significant synergistic effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, except for amikacin, which was antagonized by the extract against E. coli. These results indicate the Zea mays silk presents bioactive compounds with antibiotic-modulating properties. However, further research is required to characterize the effects of isolated compounds and determine their potential for drug development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Profluorescent Fluoroquinolone-Nitroxides for Investigating Antibiotic–Bacterial Interactions
Antibiotics 2019, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8010019
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Fluorescent probes are widely used for imaging and measuring dynamic processes in living cells. Fluorescent antibiotics are valuable tools for examining antibiotic–bacterial interactions, antimicrobial resistance and elucidating antibiotic modes of action. Profluorescent nitroxides are ‘switch on’ fluorescent probes used to visualize and monitor [...] Read more.
Fluorescent probes are widely used for imaging and measuring dynamic processes in living cells. Fluorescent antibiotics are valuable tools for examining antibiotic–bacterial interactions, antimicrobial resistance and elucidating antibiotic modes of action. Profluorescent nitroxides are ‘switch on’ fluorescent probes used to visualize and monitor intracellular free radical and redox processes in biological systems. Here, we have combined the inherent fluorescent and antimicrobial properties of the fluoroquinolone core structure with the fluorescence suppression capabilities of a nitroxide to produce the first example of a profluorescent fluoroquinolone-nitroxide probe. Fluoroquinolone-nitroxide (FN) 14 exhibited significant suppression of fluorescence (>36-fold), which could be restored via radical trapping (fluoroquinolone-methoxyamine 17) or reduction to the corresponding hydroxylamine 20. Importantly, FN 14 was able to enter both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells, emitted a measurable fluorescence signal upon cell entry (switch on), and retained antibacterial activity. In conclusion, profluorescent nitroxide antibiotics offer a new powerful tool for visualizing antibiotic–bacterial interactions and researching intracellular chemical processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of Disinfectant Resistance Genes in Ocular Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Antibiotics 2018, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7040088
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: The prevalence of disinfectant resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. P. aeruginosa is the most common bacteria isolated from cases of microbial keratitis. Many multi-purpose contact lens disinfectant solutions are available to decontaminate contact lenses before use and to help [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of disinfectant resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. P. aeruginosa is the most common bacteria isolated from cases of microbial keratitis. Many multi-purpose contact lens disinfectant solutions are available to decontaminate contact lenses before use and to help reduce the incidence of infections. However, with increasing disinfectant resistance, the effect of multi-purpose disinfectant solutions may diminish. The goal of this study was to examine genes associated with disinfectant resistance in ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa and understand the strain’s susceptibility to different multipurpose disinfectant solutions. Methods: Seven potential disinfectant resistance genes were used in BLASTn searches against the whole genomes of 13 eye isolates of P. aeruginosa. A microdilution broth method was used to examine susceptibility to four different multipurpose disinfectant solutions. Results: All strains possessed the sugE2, sugE3 and emrE (qacE) genes. The sugE1 and qacEdelta1 genes were present in 6/13 isolates. No strains contained the qacF or qacG genes. All tested disinfectant solutions had the ability to kill all test strains at 100% concentration, with some strains being susceptible at 1:8 dilutions of the disinfecting solutions. However, the presence of disinfectant resistance genes was not associated with susceptibility to multi-purpose disinfectants. Conclusion: All four tested contact lens disinfectant preparations are effective against P. aeruginosa isolates regardless of the presence of disinfectant resistance genes. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Use of Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes to Identify the Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Interactions with Lipid Bilayers
Antibiotics 2019, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8010012
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
This review identifies the ways in which tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) can be used for the identification of the actions of antimicrobials against lipid bilayers. Much of the new research in this area has originated, or included researchers from, the southern hemisphere, [...] Read more.
This review identifies the ways in which tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) can be used for the identification of the actions of antimicrobials against lipid bilayers. Much of the new research in this area has originated, or included researchers from, the southern hemisphere, Australia and New Zealand in particular. More and more, tBLMs are replacing liposome release assays, black lipid membranes and patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques because they use fewer reagents, are able to obtain results far more quickly and can provide a uniformity of responses with fewer artefacts. In this work, we describe how tBLM technology can and has been used to identify the actions of numerous antimicrobial agents. Full article
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